67 Works

A new method for quantifying heterochrony in evolutionary lineages

James Lamsdell
The occupation of new environments by evolutionary lineages is frequently associated with morphological changes. This co-variation of ecotype and phenotype is expected due to the process of natural selection, whereby environmental pressures lead to the proliferation of morphological variants that are a better fit for the prevailing abiotic conditions. One primary mechanism by which phenotypic variants are known to arise is through changes in the timing or duration of organismal development resulting in alterations to...

Evolution and development at the origin of a phylum

Bradley Deline, Jeffery Thompson, Nicholas Smith, Samuel Zamora, Imran Rahman, Sarah Sheffield, William Ausich, Thomas Kammer & Colin Sumrall
Quantifying morphological evolution is key to determining the patterns and processes underlying the origin of phyla. We constructed a hierarchical morphological character matrix to characterize the radiation and establishment of echinoderm body plans during the early Paleozoic. This showed that subphylum-level clades diverged gradually through the Cambrian, and the distinctiveness of the resulting body plans was amplified by the extinction of transitional forms and obscured by convergent evolution during the Ordovician. Higher-order characters that define...

Data from: Early phylogeny of crinoids within the pelmatozoan clade

William I. Ausich, Thomas W. Kammer, Elizabeth C. Rhenberg & David F. Wright
Phylogenetic relationships among early crinoids are evaluated by maximizing parsimonious-informative characters that are unordered and unweighted. Primarily Tremadocian–Darriwilian (Early–Middle Ordovician) taxa are analysed. Stratigraphic congruence metrics support the best phylogenetic hypothesis derived using parsimony methods. This study confirms the traditionally recognized lineages of Palaeozoic crinoids and provides new information on the branching order of evolving lineages. Camerates are basal crinoids with progressively more tipward groups (from an Ordovician perspective) being protocrinoids, cladids (paraphyletic), hybocrinids and...

Data from: Human macular Müller cells rely more on serine biosynthesis to combat oxidative stress than those from the periphery

Ting Zhang, Ling Zhu, Michele Catherine Madigan, Wei Liu, Weiyong Shen, Svetlana Cherepanoff, Fanfan Zhou, Shaoxue Zeng, Jianhai Du & Mark Cedric Gillies
The human macula is more susceptible than the peripheral retina to developing blinding conditions such as age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy. A key difference between them may be the nature of their Müller cells. We found primary cultured Müller cells from macula and peripheral retina display significant morphological and transcriptomic differences. Macular Müller cells expressed more Phosphoglycerate Dehydrogenase (PHGDH, a rate-limiting enzyme in serine synthesis) than peripheral Müller cells. The serine synthesis, glycolytic and mitochondrial...

Bioaccumulation of the pesticide Imidacloprid in stream organisms and sublethal effects in salamanders in West Virginia

Sara Crayton, Petra Wood, Donald Brown, Alice Millikin, Terence McManus, Tyler Simpson, Kang-Mo Ku & Yong-Lak Park
Dataset for the article "Bioaccumulation of the Pesticide Imidacloprid in Stream Organisms and Sublethal Effects on Salamanders." Contains imidacloprid and metabolite concentrations for Desmognathus spp., benthic macroinvertebrates, and stream water. Also contains corticosterone concentration data for Desmognathus spp. and body condition indices for 5 species of stream salamander in relation to water imidacloprid concentrations.Dataset for the article "Bioaccumulation of the Pesticide Imidacloprid in Stream Organisms and Sublethal Effects on Salamanders." Contains imidacloprid and metabolite concentrations...

Data from: Altered spring phenology of North American freshwater turtles and the importance of representative populations

Fredric J. Janzen, Luke A. Hoekstra, Ronald J. Brooks, David M. Carroll, J. Whitfield Gibbons, Judith L. Greene, John B. Iverson, Jacqueline D. Litzgus, Edwin D. Michael, Steven G. Parren, Willem M. Roosenburg, Gabriel F. Strain, John K. Tucker & Gordon R. Ultsch
Globally, populations of diverse taxa have altered phenology in response to climate change. However, most research has focused on a single population of a given taxon, which may be unrepresentative for comparative analyses, and few long‐term studies of phenology in ectothermic amniotes have been published. We test for climate‐altered phenology using long‐term studies (10–36 years) of nesting behavior in 14 populations representing six genera of freshwater turtles (Chelydra, Chrysemys, Kinosternon, Malaclemys, Sternotherus, and Trachemys). Nesting...

Data from: Sulfur resistance of Ce-Mn/TiO2 catalysts for low-temperature NH3–SCR

Quan Xu, Wenjing Yang, Shitong Cui, Jason Street & Yan Luo
Ce-Mn/TiO2 catalyst prepared using a simple impregnation method demonstrated a better low-temperature selective catalytic reduction of NO with NH3 (NH3-SCR) activity in comparison with the sol-gel method. The Ce-Mn/TiO2 catalyst loading with 20% Ce had the best low-temperature activity and achieved a NO conversion rate higher than 90% at 140-260°C with a 99.7% NO conversion rate at 180 °C. The Ce-Mn/TiO2 catalyst only had a 6% NO conversion rate decrease after 100 ppm of SO2...

Data from: Decay rates of leaf litters from arbuscular mycorrhizal trees are more sensitive to soil effects than litters from ectomycorrhizal trees

Meghan G. Midgley, Edward Brzostek & Richard P. Phillips
While it is well established that leaf litter decomposition is controlled by climate and substrate quality at broad spatial scales, conceptual frameworks that consider how local-scale factors affect litter decay in heterogeneous landscapes are generally lacking. A critical challenge in disentangling the relative impacts of and interactions among local-scale factors is that these factors frequently covary due to feedbacks between plant and soil communities. For example, forest plots dominated by trees that associate with ectomycorrhizal...

Review of: The Cancer Crisis in Appalachia: Kentucky Students Take Action

Stephenie Kennedy-Rea
The Journal of Appalachian Health is committed to reviewing published media that relates to contemporary concepts affecting the health of Appalachia. With cancer mortality rates higher in rural and Appalachian communities, a focus on how cancer impacts our families and communities is more important than ever. Dr. Stephenie Kennedy-Rea reviews the book The Cancer Crisis in Appalachia: Kentucky Students Take Action.

Addressing Diabetes Distress in Self-Management Programs

Ranjita Misra, Samantha Shawley-Brzoska, Raihan Khan, Brenna Kirk, Sijin Wen & Usha Sambamoorthi
Background: West Virginia ranks 1st nationally in the prevalence of hypertension (HTN; 43.8%) and diabetes (16.2%). Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are distressed over physical and psychological burden of disease self-management. Methods: This study investigated the effectiveness of an intervention to reduce diabetes distress and outcomes [glycemic control, blood pressure (BP)] among T2DM adults with comorbid HTN. Participants were randomized to a 12-week diabetes and hypertension self-management program versus a 3-month wait-listed control...

Data from: Dense infraspecific sampling reveals rapid and independent trajectories of plastome degradation in a heterotrophic orchid complex

Craig F. Barrett, Susann Wicke & Chodon Sass
Heterotrophic plants provide excellent opportunities to study the effects of altered selective regimes on genome evolution. Plastid genome (plastome) studies in heterotrophic plants are often based on one or a few highly divergent species or sequences as representatives of an entire lineage, thus missing important evolutionary-transitory events. Here we present the first infraspecific analysis of plastome evolution in any heterotrophic plant. By combining genome skimming and targeted sequence capture, we address hypotheses on the degree...

Data from: State-space modelling of the flight behaviour of a soaring bird provides new insights to migratory strategies

Enrico Pirotta, Todd Katzner, Tricia A. Miller, Adam E. Duerr, Melissa A. Braham & Leslie New
1. Characterizing the spatiotemporal variation of animal behaviour can elucidate the way individuals interact with their environment and allocate energy. Increasing sophistication of tracking technologies paired with novel analytical approaches allows the characterisation of movement dynamics even when an individual is not directly observable. 2. In this study, high-resolution movement data collected via global positioning system (GPS) tracking in three dimensions were paired with topographical information and used in a Bayesian state-space model to describe...

Data from: The Genome sequence of a widespread apex predator, the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos)

Jacqueline M. Doyle, Todd E. Katzner, Peter H. Bloom, Yanzhu Ji, Bhagya K. Wijayawardena & J. Andrew DeWoody
Biologists routinely use molecular markers to identify conservation units, to quantify genetic connectivity, to estimate population sizes, and to identify targets of selection. Many imperiled eagle populations require such efforts and would benefit from enhanced genomic resources. We sequenced, assembled, and annotated the first eagle genome using DNA from a male golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) captured in western North America. We constructed genomic libraries that were sequenced using Illumina technology and assembled the high-quality data...

Data from: Molecular evolution patterns reveal life history features of mycoplasma-related endobacteria associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

Kevin H. Toomer, Xiuhua Chen, Mizue Naito, Stephen J. Mondo, Henk C. Den Bakker, Nicholas W. VanKuren, Ylva Lekberg, Joseph B. Morton & Teresa E. Pawlowska
The mycoplasma-related endobacteria (MRE), representing a recently discovered lineage of Mollicutes, are widely distributed across arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF, Glomeromycota). AMF colonize roots of most terrestrial plants and improve plant mineral nutrient uptake in return for plant-assimilated carbon. The role of MRE in the biology of their fungal hosts is unknown. To start characterizing this association, we assessed partitioning of MRE genetic diversity within AMF individuals and across the AMF phylogeographic range. We further used...

Data from: A multispecies occupancy model for two or more interacting species

Christopher T. Rota, Marco A. R. Ferreira, Roland W. Kays, Tavis D. Forrester, Elizabeth L. Kalies, William J. McShea, Arielle W. Parsons & Joshua J. Millspaugh
Species occurrence is influenced by environmental conditions and the presence of other species. Current approaches for multispecies occupancy modelling are practically limited to two interacting species and often require the assumption of asymmetric interactions. We propose a multispecies occupancy model that can accommodate two or more interacting species. We generalize the single-species occupancy model to two or more interacting species by assuming the latent occupancy state is a multivariate Bernoulli random variable. We propose modelling...

Data from: Influence of climate change and post-delisting management on long-term population viability of the conservation-reliant Kirtland’s warbler

Donald Brown, Deahn Donner, Christine A. Ribic & Carol Bocetti
Rapid global climate change is resulting in novel abiotic and biotic conditions and interactions. Identifying management strategies that maximize probability of long-term persistence requires an understanding of the vulnerability of species to environmental changes. We sought to quantify the vulnerability of Kirtland’s Warbler (Setophaga kirtlandii), a rare Neotropical migratory songbird that breeds almost exclusively in the Lower Peninsula of Michigan and winters in the Bahamian Archipelago, to projected environmental changes on the breeding and wintering...

Convergence, parallelism, and function of extreme parietal callus in diverse groups of Cenozoic Gastropoda

Carlie Pietsch, Brendan Anderson, Lauren Maistros, Ethan Padalino & Warren Allmon
We use SEM imaging to examine the shell microstructure of fossil and living species in five families of caenogastropods (Strombidae, Volutidae, Olividae, Pseudolividae, and Ancillariidae) to determine whether parallel or convergent evolution is responsible for the development of a unique caenogastropod trait, the extreme parietal callus. The extreme parietal callus is defined as a substantial thickening of both the spire callus and the callus on the ventral shell surface such that it covers 50% or...

Data from: Quantitative acoustic differentiation of cryptic species illustrated with King and Clapper rails

Lydia L. Stiffler, Katie M. Schroeder, James T. Anderson, Susan B. McRae & Todd E. Katzner
Reliable species identification is vital for survey and monitoring programs. Recently, the development of digital technology for recording and analyzing vocalizations has assisted in acoustic surveying for cryptic, rare, or elusive species. However, the quantitative tools that exist for species differentiation are still being refined. Using vocalizations recorded in the course of ecological studies of a King Rail (Rallus elegans) and a Clapper Rail (R. crepitans) population, we assessed the accuracy and effectiveness of three...

PERMANOVA results from Principal component analysis of avian hind limb and foot morphometrics and the relationship between ecology and phylogeny

Amanda Falk, James Lamsdell & Enpu Gong
Principal component analysis has been used to test for similarities in ecology and life habit between modern and fossil birds, however, the two main portions of the hindlimb—the foot and the long bone elements—have not been examined separately. We examine the potential links between morphology, ecology, and phylogeny through a synthesis of phylogenetic paleoecological methods and morphospace analysis. Both hindlimb morphologies and species’ ecologies exhibit extreme phylogenetic clumping, although these patterns are at least partially...

Data from: Functional diversity of decomposers modulates litter decomposition affected by plant invasion along a climate gradient

Junwei Luan, Shirong Liu, Siyu Li, Joann Whalen, Yi Wang, Jingxi Wang, Yanchun Liu, Wei Dong & Scott Chang
1. Litter decomposition is fundamental to carbon (C) and nutrient cycling in ecosystems, which could be altered by plant invasion. The impacts of plant invasion on litter decomposition are generally predicted by traits difference between leaf litters of invasive and non-invasive species. However, plant invasion not only changes litter composition, but might also increase the activity or change the functional diversity of decomposers to alter litter decomposition, which is barely studied, and the effect could...

Data from: Differences in distress: variance and production of American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) distress calls in Belize

James Anderson, Miriam Boucher & Marisa Tellez
Acoustic communication of American Crocodiles (Crocodylus acutus) is relatively understudied. Our overall aim was to determine the acoustic structure of wild American Crocodile distress calls, distinguish call differences among size classes (hatchling, juvenile, sub-adult, and adult), and investigate call production on a gradient of human disturbance. American Crocodile distress calls have strong frequency modulation and are comprised of multiple harmonics in a downsweeping pattern. Measured parameters (total duration, first quartile duration, maximal frequency, first quartile...

Data from: Can variation in seed removal patterns of Neotropical pioneer tree species be explained by local ant community composition?

Selina Ruzi, Paul-Camilo Zalamea, Daniel Roche, Rafael Achury, James Dalling & Andrew Suarez
Many plants depend on animals for seed dispersal, and ants commonly fill this role. We examined if heterogeneity in ant community composition among sites, between above- and below-ground foraging guilds, or between seasons predicts observed variation in seed removal rates for 12 nonmyrmecochorous Neotropical pioneer tree species on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. We also investigated if ants associated with removing seeds differed in specific morphological characters from the larger ant community. We observed ant-seed interactions...

Perceived Ability to Treat Opioid Use Disorder in West Virginia

Ashley Brianna Sheppard, Jonathan C. Young, Stephen Davis & Garrett E. Moran
Introduction: Medication-assisted treatment (MAT) is an evidence-based therapy for opioid use disorder (OUD) that has not been fully implemented in rural areas due to patient, provider, and logistical barriers. Limited information is available on provider perceptions of barriers to MAT in rural Central Appalachia which has very high rates of OUD compared to the rest the United States. Purpose: Determine perceived barriers for potential prescribers to using MAT, including buprenorphine, as part of treatment for...

Chemical analyses and insect interactions of an easO mutant of Metarhizium brunneum

Daniel Panaccione & Chey Steen
Several fungi, including the plant root symbiont and insect pathogen Metarhizium brunneum, produce lysergic acid amides via a branch of the ergot alkaloid pathway. Lysergic acid amides include important pharmaceuticals and pharmaceutical lead compounds and have potential ecological significance, making knowledge of their biosynthesis relevant. Many steps in the biosynthesis of lysergic acid amides have been determined, but terminal steps in the synthesis of lysergic acid α-hydroxyethylamide (LAH)––by far the most abundant lysergic acid amide...

Genetic, morphological, and niche variation in the widely hybridizing Rhus integrifolia-Rhus ovata species complex

Craig Barrett, Joshua Lambert, Mathilda Santee, Brandon Sinn, Samuel Skibicki, Heather Stephens & Hana Thixton
Hybridization and introgression are common processes among numerous plant species that present both challenges and opportunities for studies of species delimitation, phylogenetics, taxonomy, and adaptation. Rhus integrifolia and R. ovata are two ecologically important shrubs native to the southwestern USA and Mexico, and are known to hybridize frequently, but the morphological, genetic, and ecological implications of hybridization in these species are poorly studied on a broad geographic scale. Analyses were conducted using leaf morphology, genetic...

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