20 Works

Data from: Tropical forest type influences community assembly processes in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

Camilla M.R. Pereira, Álvaro López-García, Danielle Karla Alves Da Silva, Leonor C. Maia, Tobias G. Frøslev, Rasmus Kjøller & Søren Rosendahl
Aim: Plant community assembly in tropical rainforest has been shown to be largely governed by stochastic processes, but as arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi display limited host preference, they may not follow the same stochastic assembly pattern. Here, we determined the relative importance of environmental and spatial drivers responsible for the community assembly process of AM fungi in two types of tropical rainforest (semideciduous rainforest and dense ombrophilous forests). Location: Atlantic rainforest in northeastern Brazil, South...

Data from: Geographic mosaic of plant evolution: extrafloral nectary variation mediated by ant and herbivore assemblages

Anselmo Nogueira, Pedro J. Rey, Julio M. Alcántara, Rodrigo M. Feitosa & Lúcia G. Lohmann
Herbivory is an ecological process that is known to generate different patterns of selection on defensive plant traits across populations. Studies on this topic could greatly benefit from the general framework of the Geographic Mosaic Theory of Coevolution (GMT). Here, we hypothesize that herbivory represents a strong pressure for extrafloral nectary (EFN) bearing plants, with differences in herbivore and ant visitor assemblages leading to different evolutionary pressures among localities and ultimately to differences in EFN...

Data from: Mediterranean and temperate treelines are controlled by different environmental drivers

Frida I. Piper, Benjamín Viñegla, Juan Carlos Linares, Jesús Julio Camarero, Lohengrin A. Cavieres & Alex Fajardo
The growth limitation hypothesis (GLH) is the most accepted explanation for treeline formation, but it has been scarcely examined in Mediterranean treelines, which are located at lower elevations than temperate treelines. The GLH states that low temperature is the ultimate environmental driver for treeline formation, constraining C-sinks (i.e. tissue formation) more than C-sources. The GLH predicts similar or increasing (but not decreasing) non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) concentrations with elevation throughout the course of the growing season....

Variation in the production of plant tissues bearing extrafloral nectaries explains temporal patterns of ant attendance in Amazonian understory plants

Anselmo Nogueira, Fabricio Baccaro, Laura Leal, Pedro Rey, Lúcia Lohmann & Judith Bronstein
1. Information on direct and indirect drivers of temporal variation in ant-plant interactions is scarce, compromising our ability to predict the functioning of these ecologically important interactions. 2. We investigated the roles of precipitation, ant activity, abundance of young plant tissues bearing extrafloral nectaries (EFNs), and EFN phenotypes in the establishment of EFN-mediated ant-plant interactions throughout the year in Amazonia, Brazil. We hypothesized that the frequency of ant-plant interactions follows a predictable seasonal pattern, being...

Aventar historias - An artistic action from the collective memory of a community engaging in an a/r/tographic perspective

María Martínez Morales

Data from: Evolution of extrafloral nectaries: adaptive process and selective regime changes from forest to savanna.

Anselmo Nogueira, Pedro J. Rey & Lúcia G. Lohmann
Much effort has been devoted to understanding the function of extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) for ant-plant-herbivore interactions. However, the pattern of evolution of such structures throughout the history of plant lineages remains unexplored. In this study, we used the hypothesis of plant defense mediated by ants as a theoretical framework to test more specific hypotheses about the adaptive role of EFNs during plant evolution. Emphasis was given to different processes (neutral or adaptive) and factors (habitat...

Plant structural measurements in North Wales and Northwest England 2013 and 2014

S. M. Smart, S. Reinsch, L. Mercado, M.C. Blanes, B.J. Cosby, H.C. Glanville, D.L. Jones, M.R. Marshall & B.A. Emmett
The data consists of plant structural plant community measurements from 15 sites located in the Conwy catchment (North Wales) and from 2 sites in North West England. Annual aboveground net primary productivity (NPP), canopy height (cht), bryophyte cover (Bcov), leaf dry matter content (LDMC), leaf mass area (LMA) and specific leaf area (SLA) were measured on the dominant plant species. Data were collected in 2013 and 2014. The sites were chosen to represent habitat types...

Plant aboveground and belowground standing biomass measurements in the Conwy catchment in North Wales (2013 and 2014)

S.M. Smart., S. Reinsch, L. Mercado, M.C. Blanes, B.J. Cosby, H.C. Glanville, D.L. Jones, M.R. Marshall & B.A. Emmett
The data consists of, standing aboveground biomass, and belowground biomass measurements, from sites in the Conwy catchment. Standing aboveground biomass was measured at 7 sites and belowground biomass measurements were made at 8 sites. Data were collected in 2013 and 2014. The sites were chosen to represent habitat types and the terrestrial productivity gradient in Britain from intensive agriculturally managed lowland grasslands through to montane heath. Standing aboveground biomass (grams of dry mass per metre...

Agricultural intensification erodes taxonomic and functional diversity in Mediterranean olive groves by filtering out rare species

Rubén Tarifa, Carlos Martínez-Núñez, Francisco Valera, Juan P. González-Varo, Teresa Salido & Pedro J. Rey
1. Agri-Environmental Schemes (AES) have been proposed to mitigate the impact of agriculture on both taxonomic and functional biodiversity. However, a better knowledge of the mechanisms involved in the loss of agrobiodiversity is needed to implement efficient AES. An unbalanced effort on research towards arable lands compared to permanent crops, and on fauna relative to plants, is patent, which limits the generalization of AES effectiveness. 2. We evaluated the effects of agricultural management and landscape...

Data from: Shrub encroachment can reverse desertification in semi-arid Mediterranean grasslands

Fernando T. Maestre, Matthew A. Bowker, María D. Puche, M. Belén Hinojosa, Isabel Martínez, Pablo García-Palacios, Andrea P. Castillo, Santiago Soliveres, Arántzazu L. Luzuriaga, Ana M. Sánchez, José A. Carreira, Antonio Gallardo & Adrián Escudero
The worldwide phenomenon of shrub encroachment in grass-dominated dryland ecosystems is commonly associated with desertification. Studies of the purported desertification effects associated with shrub encroachment are often restricted to relatively few study areas, and document a narrow range of possible impacts upon biota and ecosystem processes. We conducted a study in degraded Mediterranean grasslands dominated by Stipa tenacissima to simultaneously evaluate the effects of shrub encroachment on the structure and composition of multiple biotic community...

Data from: Natural variation, differentiation and genetic tradeoffs of ecophysiological traits in response to water limitation in Brachypodium distachyon and its descendent allotetraploid B. hybridum (Poaceae)

Antonio J. Manzaneda, Pedro José Rey, Jill Theresa Anderson, Evan Raskin, Christopher Weiss-Lehman & Thomas Mitchell-Olds
Differences in tolerance to water stress may underlie ecological divergence of closely-related ploidy lineages. However, the mechanistic basis of physiological variation governing eco-geographical cytotype segregation is not well understood. Here, using Brachypodium distachyon and its derived allotetraploid B. hybridum as model, we test the hypothesis that, for heteroploid annuals, ecological divergence of polyploids in drier environments is based on trait differentiation enabling drought-escape. We demonstrate that under water limitation allotetraploids maintain higher photosynthesis and stomatal...

Hybrid networks reveal contrasting effects of agricultural intensification on antagonistic and mutualistic motifs

Carlos Martínez Núñez & Pedro Rey
1. Anthropogenic-driven perturbations such as agricultural intensification can affect simultaneously and distinctly several species groups and ecosystem functions. Unveiling these concurrent effects on interdependent species groups connected by different types of ecological interactions is a key challenge for ecologists. To this endeavor, hybrid ecological networks arise as a promising tool. 2. In this study, we used bee trap nests to sample hybrid networks that combined mutualistic and antagonistic interactions to explore agricultural intensification effects on...

Partitioning beta diversity to untangle mechanisms underlying the assembly of bird communities in Mediterranean olive groves

Vicente García-Navas, Carlos Martínez-Núñez, Rubén Tarifa, Antonio J. Manzaneda, Francisco Valera, Teresa Salido, Francisco M. Camacho & Pedro J. Rey
Aim: We investigated taxonomic and functional beta diversity of bird communities inhabiting Mediterranean olive groves subject to either intensive or extensive management of the ground cover and located in landscapes with different degrees of complexity. Location: Andalusia, southern Spain. Methods: We partitioned taxonomic and functional beta diversity into its two additive components, turnover and nestedness. We also explored the contributions of single sites to overall beta diversity (LCBD) and separated the effects of species replacement...

Spatial phylogenetic and phenotypic patterns reveal ontogenetic shifts in ecological processes of plant community assembly

Antonio J. Perea, Thorsten Wiegand, José L. Garrido, Pedro J. Rey & Julio M. Alcantara
The analysis of spatial phylogenetic and phenotypic structure of plant communities provides insight into the underlying processes and interactions governing their assembly, and how these may change during plant ontogeny. We used point pattern analysis to find out if saplings and adult plants are surrounded by phylogenetically and phenotypically more similar or dissimilar neighbours than expected by chance, and whether these associations change from the sapling to the adult stage. To this end, we combined...

Soil respiration responses to carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous additions to topsoil and subsoil cores from the Conwy catchment in North Wales (2014)

S. Reinsch, M.C. Blanes & B.A. Emmett
The data consists of raw data on measured carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide concentration (N2O) concentrations from intact soil topsoil (0-15 cm) and subsoil cores (85-100 cm) to added carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus. Four land uses (Bog, acid grassland, improved grassland and arable field) in North Wales were selected for this study with three replicates each. Intact soil cores were taken in January and February in 2014. The data consists of three datasets. The...

Plant physiological measurements in North Wales and Northwest England (2013, 2014 and 2016)

M.C. Blanes, S. Reinsch, L. Mercado, H. Harmens, S. Smart, B.J. Cosby, H.C. Glanville, D.L. Jones, M.R. Marshall & B.A. Emmett
The data consists of plant physiological measurements from 15 sites located in the Conwy catchment (North Wales) and from 2 sites in North West England. Plant photosynthetic parameters for the maximum rate of carboxylation (Vcmax), the maximum rate of electron transport (Jmax) and the maximum light saturated photosynthesis (Asat) were measured on the dominant plant species as were foliar nitrogen (Foliar N) and phosphorus (Foliar P). Leaf mass area (LMA) and specific leaf area (SLA)...

Fruit abundance and trait matching determine diet type and body condition across frugivorous bird populations

Juan P. González-Varo, Alejandro Onrubia, Néstor Pérez-Méndez, Rubén Tarifa & Juan C. Illera
Research on seed-dispersal mutualisms has been highly unbalanced towards the plants, largely overlooking the fitness effects of fruit resources on frugivorous animals. Moreover, despite morphological mismatches like gape limitation may reduce the abundance of fruits that are actually accessible to a frugivore species, there is very little evidence on the trait-matching implications from a frugivore’s perspective. Here, we refine recent resource-provisioning models to comprehensively test the joint effects of fruit abundance and trait matching on...

Persistence of seed dispersal in agroecosystems: effects of landscape modification and intensive soil management practices in avian frugivores, frugivory and seed deposition in olive croplands

Pedro J. Rey, Francisco M. Camacho, Rubén Tarifa, Carlos Martínez-Núñez, Teresa Salido, Antonio J. Pérez & Daniel García
Farming impacts on animal-mediated seed dispersal through mechanisms operating at least at two spatial scales: first, at the landscape scale, through habitat loss and land conversion to agriculture/livestock grazing, and second, by local intensification (farm scale) of the agricultural practices. Nonetheless, these two scales of farming impact on the seed dispersal function have been rarely integrated. In particular, studies evaluating the effect of agriculture in the seed dispersal function of frugivorous birds in Mediterranean ecosystems...

Variability In The Accuracy Of Self-Assessments Among Low, Moderate, And High Performing Students in University Education

Samuel Parra León, Antonio Pantoja Vallejo & James Byron Nelson
The present work empirically examines the validity of Student Self-Assessment (SSA) as an educational assessment in higher education. We briefly review the principle methodological factors that could affect SSA validity, as well as the main findings identified in the literature. One empirical study is presented that compares student-self evaluations on a test with the evaluation made by the course instructor while controlling for students' experience with SSA, criteria, rubric, and scales used by the student...

Legacy effects of seed dispersal mechanisms shape the spatial interaction network of plant species in Mediterranean forests

Antonio Perea, Thorsten Wiegand, José Garrido, Pedro Rey & Julio M. Alcantara
1. Seed dispersal by frugivores plays a key role in structuring and maintaining tree diversity in forests. However, little is known about how the spatial legacy of seed dispersal and early recruitment shapes spatial patterns and the spatial interaction network of plant species in mature forest communities. 2. We analysed two fully mapped mixed Pine-Oak forest communities using spatial point pattern analysis to determine (i) the detailed structure of the intraspecific spatial patterns of saplings...

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