347 Works

Butterflies fly using efficient propulsive clap mechanism owing to flexible wings

Christoffer Johansson & Per Henningsson
Butterflies look like no other flying animal, with unusually short, broad and large wings relative to their body size. Previous studies have suggested butterflies use several unsteady aerodynamic mechanisms to boost force production with upstroke wing clap being a prominent feature. When the wings clap together at the end of upstroke the air between the wings is pressed out, creating a jet, pushing the animal in the opposite direction. Although viewed, for the last 50...

Data from: Evaluating predictive performance of statistical models explaining wild bee abundance in a mass-flowering crop

Maria Blasi Romero, Ignasi Bartomeus, Riccardo Bommarco, Vesna Gagic, Michael Garratt, Andrea Holzschuh, David Kleijn, Sandra A.M. Lindström, Peter Olsson, Chiara Polce, Simon G. Potts, , Jeroen Scheper, Henrik G. Smith, Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter & Yann Clough
Wild bee populations are threatened by current agricultural practices in many parts of the world, which may put pollination services and crop yields at risk. Loss of pollination services can potentially be predicted by models that link bee abundances with landscape-scale land-use, but there is little knowledge on the degree to which these statistical models are transferable across time and space. This study assesses the transferability of models for wild bee abundance in a mass-flowering...

Elevated temperature increases genome-wide selection on de novo mutations

David Berger, Josefine Stångberg, Julian Baur & Richard Walters
Adaptation in new environments depends on the amount of genetic variation available for evolution, and the efficacy by which natural selection discriminates among this variation. However, whether some ecological factors reveal more genetic variation, or impose stronger selection pressures than others, is typically not known. Here, we apply enzyme kinetic theory to show that rising global temperatures are predicted to intensify natural selection throughout the genome by increasing the effects of DNA sequence variation on...

Don’t judge a lizard by its colour: no evidence for differential socio-sexual behaviour and space use in the colour morphs of the European common wall lizard (Podarcis muralis)

Javier Abalos, Guillem Pérez I De Lanuza, Alicia Bartolomé, Océane Liehrmann, Hanna Laakkonen, Fabien Aubret, Tobias Uller, Pau Carazo & Enrique Font
Explaining the evolutionary origin and maintenance of colour polymorphisms is a major challenge in evolutionary biology. Such polymorphisms are commonly thought to reflect the existence of alternative behavioural or life-history strategies under negative frequency-dependent selection. The European common wall lizard Podarcis muralis exhibits a striking ventral colour polymorphism that has been intensely studied and is often assumed to reflect alternative reproductive strategies, similar to the iconic “rock-paper-scissors” system described in the North American lizard Uta...

Drought legacy affects microbial community trait distributions related to moisture along a savannah grassland precipitation gradient

Ainara Leizeaga, Lettice C. Hicks, Lokeshwaran Manoharan, Christine V. Hawkes & Johannes Rousk
Ecosystem models commonly use stable-state assumptions to predict responses of soil microbial functions to environmental change. However, past climatic conditions can shape microbial functional responses resulting in a “legacy effect”. For instance, exposure to drier conditions in the field may shape how soil microbial communities respond to subsequent drought and drying and rewetting events. We investigated microbial tolerance to low moisture levels (“resistance”) and ability to recover after a drying and rewetting (DRW) perturbation (“resilience”)...

Innate preference hierarchies coupled with adult experience, rather than larval imprinting or transgenerational acclimation, determine host plant use in Pieris rapae

Hampus Petrén, Gabriele Gloder, Diana Posledovich, Christer Wiklund & Magne Friberg
The evolution of host range drives diversification in phytophagous insects, and understanding the female oviposition choices is pivotal for understanding host specialization. One controversial mechanism for female host choice is Hopkins’ host selection principle, where females are predicted to increase their preference for the host species they were feeding upon as larvae. A recent hypothesis posits that such larval imprinting is especially adaptive in combination with anticipatory transgenerational acclimation, so that females both allocate and...

Coevolution, diversification, and alternative states in two-trophic communities

Tobin Northfield, Jörgen Ripa, Lucas Nell & Anthony Ives
Single-trait eco-evolutionary models of arms races between consumers and their resource species often show inhibition rather than promotion of community diversification. In contrast, modeling arms races involving multiple traits, we found that arms races can promote diversification when trade-off costs among traits make simultaneous investment in multiple traits either more beneficial or more costly. Coevolution between resource and consumer species generates an adaptive landscape for each, with the configuration giving predictable suites of consumer and...

The search for sexually antagonistic genes: practical insights from studies of local adaptation and statistical genomics

Filip Ruzicka, Ludovic Dutoit, Peter Czuppon, Crispin Y. Jordan, Xiang‐Yi Li, Colin Olito, Homa Papoli Yazdi, Tim Connallon, Erik Svensson & Anna Runemark
Sexually antagonistic (SA) genetic variation—in which alleles favored in one sex are disfavored in the other—is predicted to be common and has been documented in several animal and plant populations, yet we currently know little about its pervasiveness among species or its population genetic basis. Recent applications of genomics in studies of SA genetic variation have highlighted considerable methodological challenges to the identification and characterization of SA genes, raising questions about the feasibility of genomic...

Effects of back‐mounted biologgers on condition, diving and flight performance in a breeding seabird

Tom J. Evans, Rebecca C. Young, Hannah Watson, Olof Olsson & Susanne Åkesson
Biologging devices are providing detailed insights into the behaviour and movement of animals in their natural environments. It is usually assumed that this method of gathering data does not impact on the behaviour observed. However, potential negative effects on birds have rarely been investigated before field‐based studies are initiated. Seabirds which both fly and use pursuit diving may be particularly sensitive to increases in drag and load resulting from carrying biologging devices. We studied chick‐rearing...

A study of tactical and sexual dimorphism in cognition with insights for sexual conflict

Hannah Griebling, Oscar Rios-Cardenas, Jessica Abbott & Molly Morris
The sexes may have different optima in cognitive traits due to differences in life history strategies and the expense of investing in metabolically costly brain tissue. However, given genetic correlations, each sex could be constrained from reaching its cognitive optimum due to intralocus sexual conflict. We compared learning performance of two male alternative reproductive tactics and females from known genotypes (both sire and dam) in the livebearing fish Xiphophorus multilineatus. We predicted that females’ learning...

Nocturnal bees feed on diurnal leftovers and pay the price of day–night lifestyle transition

Hema Somanathan, Shivani Krishna, Elsa Mini Jos, Vishwas Gowda, Almut Kelber & Renee Borges
Bees exemplify flights under bright sunlight. A few species across bee families have evolved nocturnality, displaying remarkable adaptations to overcome limitations of their daylight-suited apposition eyes. Phase inversion to nocturnality in a minority of bees that co-exist with diurnal bees provide a unique opportunity to study ecological benefits that mediate total temporal niche shifts. While floral traits and sensory modalities associated with the evolution of classical nocturnal pollination syndromes, e.g. by bats and moths, are...

Data from: Temperature drives pre-reproductive selection and shapes the biogeography of a female polymorphism

Erik I. Svensson, Beatriz Willink, M. Catherine Duryea & Lesley Lancaster
Conflicts of interests between males and females over reproduction is a universal feature of sexually reproducing organisms and has driven the evolution of intersexual mimicry, mating behaviors and reproductive polymorphisms. Here we show how temperature drives pre-reproductive selection in a female colour polymorphic insect that is subject to strong sexual conflict. This species has three female colour morphs, one of which is a male mimic. This polymorphism is maintained by frequency-dependent sexual conflict caused by...

Quantifying the effects of species traits on predation risk in nature: a comparative study of butterfly wing damage

Freerk Molleman, Juhan Javoiš, Robert Davis, Melissa Whitaker, Toomas Tammaru, Andreas Prinzing, Erki Õunap, Niklas Wahlberg, Ullasa Kodandaramaiah, Kwaku Aduse-Poku, Ants Kaasik & James Carey
1) Evading predators is a fundamental aspect of the ecology and evolution of all prey animals. In studying the influence of prey traits on predation risk, previous researchers have shown that crypsis reduces attack rates on resting prey, predation risk increases with increased prey activity, and rapid locomotion reduces attack rates and increases chances of surviving predator attacks. However, evidence for these conclusions is nearly always based on observations of selected species under artificial conditions....

Data from: Hybridization patterns between two marine snails, Littorina fabalis and L. obtusata

Diana Costa, Graciela Sotelo, Antigoni Kaliontzopoulou, João Carvalho, Roger Butlin, Johan Hollander & Rui Faria
Characterizing the patterns of hybridization between closely related species is crucial to understand the role of gene flow in speciation. In particular, systems comprising multiple contacts between sister species offer an outstanding opportunity to investigate how reproductive isolation varies with environmental conditions, demography and geographic contexts of divergence. The flat periwinkles, Littorina obtusata and L. fabalis (Gastropoda), are two intertidal sister species with marked ecological differences compatible with late stages of speciation. Although hybridization between...

Artificial light at night, in interaction with spring temperature, modulates timing of reproduction in a passerine bird

Davide M. Dominoni, Johan Kjellberg Jensen, Maaike De Jong, Marcel E. Visser & Kamiel Spoelstra
The ecological impact of artificial light at night (ALAN) on phenological events such as reproductive timing is increasingly recognized. In birds, previous experiments under controlled conditions showed that ALAN strongly advances gonadal growth, but effects on egg-laying date are less clear. In particular, effects of ALAN on timing of egg-laying are found to be year-dependent, suggesting an interaction with climatic conditions such as spring temperature, which is known have strong effects on the phenology of...

Data from: Importance of boreal rivers in providing iron to marine waters

Emma S. Kritzberg, Ana Bedmar Villanueva, Marco Jung & Heather E. Reader
This study reports increasing iron concentrations in rivers draining into the Baltic Sea. Given the decisive role of iron to the structure and biogeochemical function of aquatic ecosystems, this trend is likely one with far reaching consequences to the receiving system. What those consequences may be depends on the fate of the iron in estuarine mixing. We here assess the stability of riverine iron by mixing water from seven boreal rivers with artificial sea salts....

Data from: Ecological explanations to island gigantism: dietary niche divergence, predation and size in an endemic lizard

Anna Runemark, Kostas Sagonas & Erik I. Svensson
Although rapid evolution of body size on islands has long been known, the ecological mechanisms behind this island phenomenon remain poorly understood. Diet is an important selective pressure for morphological divergence. Here we investigate if selection for novel diets has contributed to the multiple independent cases of island gigantism in the Skyros wall lizard (Podarcis gaigeae) and if diet, predation, or both factors best explain island gigantism. We combined data on body size, shape, bite...

Data from: Priority effects in a planktonic bloom-forming marine diatom

Josefin Sefbom, Ingrid Sassenhagen, Karin Rengefors & Anna Godhe
Priority effects occur when a species or genotype with earlier arrival has an advantage such that its relative abundance in the community or population is increased compared with later-arriving species. Few studies have dealt with this concept in the context of within-species competition. Skeletonema marinoi is a marine diatom that shows a high degree of genetic differentiation between populations over small geographical distances. To test whether historical events such as priority effects may have been...

Data from: Adaptive strategies in nocturnally migrating insects and songbirds: contrasting responses to wind

Jason W. Chapman, Cecilia Nilsson, Ka S. Lim, Johan Bäckman, Donald R. Reynolds, Thomas Alerstam & Don R. Reynolds
1. Animals that use flight as their mode of transportation must cope with the fact that their migration and orientation performance is strongly affected by the flow of the medium they are moving in, i.e. by the winds. Different strategies can be used to mitigate the negative effects and benefit from the positive effects of a moving flow. The strategies an animal can use will be constrained by the relationship between the speed of the...

Data from: Chronic Trichuris muris Infection Decreases Diversity of the Intestinal Microbiota and Concomitantly Increases the Abundance of Lactobacilli

Jacob Bak Holm, Daniel Sorobetea, Pia Kiilerich, Yuliaxis Ramayo-Caldas, Jordi Estellé, Tao Ma, Lise Madsen, Karsten Kristiansen & Marcus Svensson-Frej
The intestinal microbiota is vital for shaping the local intestinal environment as well as host immunity and metabolism. At the same time, epidemiological and experimental evidence suggest an important role for parasitic worm infections in maintaining the inflammatory and regulatory balance of the immune system. In line with this, the prevalence of persistent worm infections is inversely correlated with the incidence of immune-associated diseases, prompting the use of controlled parasite infections for therapeutic purposes. Despite...

Data from: Simultaneous fMRI and EEG during the multi-source interference task

John A. Robertson, Alex W. Thomas, Frank S. Prato, Mikael Johansson & Henrietta Nittby
Background: fMRI and EEG are two non-invasive functional imaging techniques within cognitive neuroscience that have complementary advantages to obtain both temporal and spatial information. The multi-source interference task (MSIT) has been shown to generate robust activations of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) on both a single-subject level and in group averages, in fMRI studies. We have now simultaneously acquired fMRI and EEG during a cognitive interference task. Materials and Methods: Healthy volunteers were tested...

Data from: Range expansion and retraction along a moving contact zone has no effect on the genetic diversity of two passerine birds

Jan O. Engler, Jean Secondi, Deborah A. Dawson, Ortwin Elle & Axel Hochkirch
Disentangling the factors shaping species distributions remains a central goal in biogeography, ecology and evolutionary biology. The extrinsic pressures that may facilitate range shifts, such as climatic factors or biotic interactions are well known. However, in contrast, the possible intrinsic factors are manifold and hard to generalize across taxa. Recently, several theoretical studies have investigated the consequences of moving range borders on genetic diversity. However, empirical studies that support or refute these theoretical predictions are...

Data from: Fifty thousand years of arctic vegetation and megafaunal diet

Eske Willerslev, John Davison, Mari Moora, Martin Zobel, Eric Coissac, Mary E. Edwards, Eline D. Lorenzen, Mette Vestergård, Galina Gussarova, James Haile, Joseph Craine, Gaddy Bergmann, Ludovic Gielly, Sanne Boessenkool, Laura S. Epp, Peter B. Pearman, Rachid Cheddadi, David Murray, Karri Anne Bråthen, Nigel Yoccoz, Heather Binney, Corinne Cruaud, Patrick Wincker, Tomasz Goslar, Inger Greve Alsos … & Pierre Taberlet
Although it is generally agreed that the arctic flora is among the youngest and least diverse on Earth, the processes that shaped it are poorly understood. Here we present 50 thousand years (kyr) of arctic vegetation history, derived from the first large-scale ancient DNA metabarcoding study of circumpolar plant diversity. For this interval we additionally explore nematode diversity as a proxy for modelling vegetation cover and soil quality, and diets of herbivorous megafaunal mammals, many...

Data from: Convergent losses of decay mechanisms and rapid turnover of symbiosis genes in mycorrhizal mutualists

Annegret Kohler, Alan Kuo, Laszlo G. Nagy, Emmanuelle Morin, Kerrie W. Barry, Francois Buscot, Bjorn Canback, Cindy Choi, Nicolas Cichocki, Alicia Clum, Jan Colpaert, Alex Copeland, Mauricio D. Costa, Jeanne Dore, Dimitrios Floudas, Gilles Gay, Mariangela Girlanda, Bernard Henrissat, Sylvie Herrmann, Jaqueline Hess, Nils Hogberg, Tomas Johansson, Hassine-Radhouane Khouja, Kurt LaButti, Urs Lahrmann … & Francis Martin
To elucidate the genetic bases of mycorrhizal lifestyle evolution, we sequenced new fungal genomes, including 13 ectomycorrhizal (ECM), orchid (ORM) and ericoid (ERM) species, and five saprotrophs, which we analyzed along with other fungal genomes. Ectomycorrhizal fungi have a reduced complement of genes encoding plant cell wall–degrading enzymes (PCWDEs), as compared to their ancestral wood decayers. Nevertheless, they have retained a unique array of PCWDEs, thus suggesting that they possess diverse abilities to decompose lignocellulose....

Data from: Visual modelling suggests a weak relationship between the evolution of ultraviolet vision and plumage colouration in birds

Olle Lind & Kaspar Delhey
Birds have sophisticated colour vision mediated by four cones types that cover a wide visual spectrum including ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths. Many birds have modest UV-sensitivity provided by violet-sensitive (VS) cones with sensitivity maxima between 400-425 nm. However, some birds have evolved higher UV-sensitivity and a larger visual spectrum given by UV-sensitive (UVS) cones maximally sensitive at 360-370 nm. The reasons for VS-UVS transitions and their relationship to visual ecology remain unclear. It has been hypothesized...

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