318 Works

ICOS Atmosphere Level 2 data, Norunda, release 2019-1

Meelis Mölder
ICOS Atmospheric Greenhouse Gas Mole Fractions of CO2, CH4, CO, 14CO2 and Meteorological Observations, period 2017-04-01 to 2019-04-30, Norunda, final quality controlled Level 2 data, release 2019-1. All ICOS stations follow the ICOS Atmospheric Station specification V1.3 (https://www.icos-ri.eu/fetch/ba12290c-3714-4dd5-a9f0-c431b9900ad1;1.0) and are certified as ICOS atmospheric stations Class I or II. Data processing has been performed as described in Hazan et al., 2016 (doi:10.5194/amt-9-4719-2016).

Data from: Wintering bird communities are tracking climate change faster than breeding communities

Aleksi Lehikoinen, Åke Lindström, Andrea Santangeli, Päivi Sirkiä, Lluis Brotons, Vincent Devictor, Jaanus Elts, Ruud P. B. Fobben, Henning Heldbjerg, Sergi Herrando, Marc Herremans, Marie-Anne R. Hudson, Frederic Jiguet, Alison Johnston, Romain Lorrilliere, Emma-Liina Marjakangas, Nicole L. Michel, Charlotte M. Moshøj, Renno Nellis, Jean-Yves Paquet, Adam C. Smith, Tibor Szep & Chris Van Turnhout
1. Global climate change is driving species’ distributions towards the poles and mountain tops during both non-breeding and breeding seasons, leading to changes in the composition of natural communities. However, the degree of season differences in climate-driven community shifts has not been thoroughly investigated at large spatial scales. 2. We compared the rates of change in the community composition during both winter (non-breeding season) and summer (breeding) and their relation to temperature changes. 3. Based...

Data from: Vicariance divergence and gene flow among islet populations of an endemic lizard

Anna Runemark, Jody Hey, Bengt Hansson & Erik I. Svensson
Allopatry and allopatric speciation can arise through two different mechanisms: vicariance or colonization through dispersal. Distinguishing between these different allopatric mechanisms is difficult and one of the major challenges in biogeographical research. Here, we address whether allopatric isolation in an endemic island lizard is the result of vicariance or dispersal. We estimated the amount and direction of gene flow during the divergence of isolated islet populations and subspecies of the endemic Skyros wall lizard Podarcis...

Data from: Phylogenetic conservatism in plant phenology

T. Jonathan Davies, Elizabeth M. Wolkovich, Nathan J. B. Kraft, Nicolas Salamin, Jenica M. Allen, Toby R. Ault, Julio L. Betancourt, Kjell Bolmgren, Elsa E. Cleland, Benjamin I. Cook, Theresa M. Crimmins, Susan J. Mazer, Gregory J. McCabe, Stephanie Pau, Jim Regetz, Mark D. Schwartz & Steven E. Travers
Phenological events – defined points in the life cycle of a plant or animal – have been regarded as highly plastic traits, reflecting flexible responses to various environmental cues. The ability of a species to track, via shifts in phenological events, the abiotic environment through time might dictate its vulnerability to future climate change. Understanding the predictors and drivers of phenological change is therefore critical. Here, we evaluated evidence for phylogenetic conservatism – the tendency...

Data from: Katatopygia gen. n., a monophyletic branch segregated from Boletina (Diptera, Mycetophilidae)

Svante Martinsson, Jostein Kjærandsen & Jostein Kjaerandsen
The genus Katatopygia gen. n. is proposed for the Boletina erythropyga/punctus-group that was first introduced by Garrett (1924, 1925) and currently comprises eight described species. Molecular studies have strongly indicated that this group forms a monophyletic sister-group to a clade consisting of all other Boletina, Coelosia and Gnoriste, and its monophyly is supported by morphological data as well. The new genus includes the following species: Katatopygia antoma (Garrett, 1924), comb. n., Katatopygia antica (Garrett, 1924),...

Data from: Polymorphisms at the innate immune receptor TLR2 are associated with Borrelia infection in a wild rodent population

Barbara Tschirren, Martin Andersson, Kristin Scherman, Helena Westerdahl, Peer R. E. Mittl & Lars Raberg
The discovery of the key role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in initiating innate immune responses and modulating adaptive immunity has revolutionised our understanding of vertebrate defence against pathogens. Yet, despite their central role in pathogen recognition and defence initiation, there is little information on how variation in TLRs influences disease susceptibility in natural populations. Here we assessed the extent of naturally occurring polymorphisms at TLR2 in wild bank voles (Myodes glareolus) and tested for associations...

Data from: Bushmeat hunting changes regeneration of African rainforests

Edu O. Effiom, Gabriela Nuñez-Iturri, Henrik G. Smith, Ulf Ottosson, Ola Olsson & G. Nunez-Iturri
To assess ecological consequences of bushmeat hunting in African lowland rainforests, we compared paired sites, with high and low hunting pressure, in three areas of southeastern Nigeria. In hunted sites, populations of important seed dispersers—both small and large primates (including the Cross River gorilla, Gorilla gorilla diehli)—were drastically reduced. Large rodents were more abundant in hunted sites, even though they are hunted. Hunted and protected sites had similar mature tree communities dominated by primate-dispersed species....

Data from: Eyeless Mexican cavefish save energy by eliminating the circadian rhythm in metabolism

Damian Moran, Rowan Softley & Eric J. Warrant
The eyed surface form and eyeless cave form of the Mexican tetra Astyanax mexicanus experience stark differences in the daily periodicities of light, food and predation, factors which are likely to have a profound influence on metabolism. We measured the metabolic rate of Pachón cave and surface fish at a fixed swimming speed under light/dark and constant dark photoperiods. In constant darkness surface forms exhibited a circadian rhythm in metabolism with an increase in oxygen...

Data from: The interplay between multiple predators and prey color divergence

Beatriz Willink, Adrián García-Rodríguez, Federico Bolaños & Heike Pröhl
Evolutionary divergence in the coloration of toxic prey is expected when geographic variation in predator composition and behavior favours shifts in prey conspicuousness. A fundamental prediction of predator-driven colour divergence is that the local coloration should experience lower predation risk than novel prey phenotypes. The dorsal coloration of the granular poison frog varies gradually from populations of conspicuous bright red frogs to populations of dull green and relatively cryptic frogs. We conducted experiments with clay...

Data from: Genetic divergence predicts reproductive isolation in damselflies

Rosa Ana Sánchez Guillén, Alex Córdoba-Aguilar, Adolfo Cordero Rivera & Maren Wellenreuther
Reproductive isolation is the defining characteristic of a biological species, and a common but often untested prediction is a positive correlation between reproductive isolation and genetic divergence. Here we test for this correlation in odonates, an order characterized by strong sexual selection. First, we measure reproductive isolation and genetic divergence in eight damselfly genera (30 species pairs) and test for a positive correlation. Second, we estimate the genetic threshold preventing hybrid formation and empirically test...

Data from: Experimental manipulation suggests effect of polyandry but not mate familiarity on within-pair aggression in the social skink, Liopholis whitii

Thomas Botterill-James, Jacinta Silince, Tobias Uller, David G. Chapple, Michael G. Gardner, Erik Wapstra, Geoffrey M. While & Jacinta Sillince
Long-term monogamy is a key characteristic of family living across animals. The evolutionary maintenance of long-term monogamy has been suggested to be facilitated by increased reproductive coordination as a result of mate familiarity, leading to increased reproductive success. However, such effects can be compromised if females mate outside the pair bond (e.g. female polyandry), introducing conflicts of interest between the male and female. Here, we experimentally test the effects of both mate familiarity and female...

Data from: Comparison of reproductive investment in native and non-native populations of common wall lizards reveals sex differences in adaptive potential.

Hannah E.A. MacGregor, Geoffrey M. While, Tobias Uller & Hannah E. A. MacGregor
Non-native animals can encounter very different environments than those they are adapted to. Functional changes in morphology, physiology and life-history following introduction show that organisms can adapt both fast and efficiently. It remains unclear, however, if female reproductive characters and male sexually selected behaviour show the same adaptive potential. Furthermore, the invasion success and evolutionary trajectory of non-native species might often depend on the ability of the sexes to coordinate shifts in characters associated with...

Data from: Locality or habitat? Exploring predictors of biodiversity in Amazonia

Camila D. Ritter, Alexander Zizka, Christopher Barnes, R. Henrik Nilsson, Fabian Roger & Alexandre Antonelli
Amazonia is an environmentally heterogeneous and biologically megadiverse region, and its biodiversity varies considerably over space. However, existing knowledge on Amazonian biodiversity and its environmental determinants stems almost exclusively from studies of macroscopic above‐ground organisms, notably vertebrates and trees. In contrast, diversity patterns of most other organisms remain elusive, although some of them, for instance microorganisms, constitute the overwhelming majority of taxa in any given location, both in terms of diversity and abundance. Here, we...

Data from: Habitat partitioning during character displacement between the sexes

Stephen P. De Lisle, Samuel Paiva & Locke Rowe
Ecological differences between the sexes are often interpreted as evidence of within-species ecological character displacement (ECD), a hypothesis with almost no direct tests. Here we experimentally-test two predictions, that are direct corollaries of ECD between the sexes, in a salamander. First, we find support for the prediction that each sex has a growth rate advantage in the aquatic microhabitat where it is most commonly found. Second, we test the prediction that selection for ECD in...

Reliably predicting pollinator abundance: challenges of calibrating process-based ecological models

Emma Gardner, Tom Breeze, Yann Clough, Henrik Smith, Katherine Baldock, Alistair Campbell, Michael Garratt, Mark Gillespie, William Kunin, Megan McKerchar, Jane Memmott, Simon Potts, Deepa Senapathi, Graham Stone, Felix Wäckers, Duncan Westbury, Andrew Wilby & Thomas Oliver
1. Pollination is a key ecosystem service for global agriculture but evidence of pollinator population declines is growing. Reliable spatial modelling of pollinator abundance is essential if we are to identify areas at risk of pollination service deficit and effectively target resources to support pollinator populations. Many models exist which predict pollinator abundance but few have been calibrated against observational data from multiple habitats to ensure their predictions are accurate. 2. We selected the most...

Derivation and utility of an Aβ-PET pathology accumulation index to estimate Aβ load

Antoine Leuzy, Johan Lilja, Christopher Buckley, Rik Ossenkoppele, Sebastian Palmqvist, Mark Battle, Gill Farrar, Dietmar Thal, Shorena Janelidze, Erik Stomrud, Olof Strandberg, Ruben Smith & Oskar Hansson
Abstract Objective: To evaluate a novel Aβ-PET based quantitative measure (Aβ accumulation index [Aβ-index]), including the assessment of its ability to discriminate between subjects based on Aβ-status using visual-read, CSF Aβ42/Aβ40 and post-mortem neuritic-plaque burden as standards of truth. Methods: 1121 subjects (with and without cognitive impairment) scanned with Aβ-PET: Swedish BioFINDER, n=392, [18F]flutemetamol; ADNI, n=692, [18F]florbetapir; a phase-3 end-of-life study, n=100, [18F]flutemetamol). The relationships between Aβ-index and standardized uptake values ratios (SUVR) from Aβ-PET...

Data from: Co-introduction of native mycorrhizal fungi and plant seeds accelerates restoration of post-mining landscapes

Tanel Vahter, C. Bueno, John Davison, Koit Herodes, Inga Hiiesalu, Liis Kasari-Toussaint, Jane Oja, Pal Olsson, Siim Sepp, Martin Zobel, Martti Vasar & Maarja Öpik
1. Grasslands are among the most threatened terrestrial biomes, and habitat conservation alone will be insufficient to meet biodiversity goals. While restoration of indigenous grasslands is a priority, conflict with economic objectives means that incorporation of alternative habitats is necessary to offset grassland loss. With up to 800,000 km² of land affected by mining globally, there is an opportunity to create additional grassland habitat in post-mining landscapes. 2. We aimed to assess whether co-introduction of...

Metabolic rate, context-dependent selection, and the competition-colonization trade-off

Amanda Pettersen, Matthew Hall, Craig White & Dustin Marshall
Metabolism is linked with the pace‐of‐life, co‐varying with survival, growth, and reproduction. Metabolic rates should therefore be under strong selection and, if heritable, become less variable over time. Yet intraspecific variation in metabolic rates is ubiquitous, even after accounting for body mass and temperature. Theory predicts variable selection maintains trait variation, but field estimates of how selection on metabolism varies are rare. We use a model marine invertebrate to estimate selection on metabolic rates in...

Crop diversity benefits carabid and pollinator communities in landscapes with semi-natural habitats

Guillermo Aguilera Núñez, Tomas Roslin, Kirsten Miller, Giovanni Tamburini, Klaus Birkhofer, Berta Caballero-Lopez, Sandra Lindström, Erik Öckinger, , Adrien Rusch, Henrik Smith & Riccardo Bommarco
1. In agricultural landscapes, arthropods provide essential ecosystem services such as biological pest control and pollination. Intensified crop management practices and homogenization of landscapes have led to declines among such organisms. Semi-natural habitats, associated with high numbers of these organisms, are increasingly lost from agricultural landscapes but diversification by increasing crop diversity has been proposed as a way to reverse observed arthropod declines and thus restore ecosystem services. However, whether or not an increase in...

Using ecological context to interpret spatiotemporal variation in natural selection

Elena Albertsen, Elena Albertsen, Øystein Opedal, Geir Bolstad, Rocio Barrales, Thomas Hansen, Christophe Pelabon & W. Scott Armbruster
Spatiotemporal variation in natural selection is expected, but difficult to estimate. Pollinator-mediated selection on floral traits provides a good system for understanding and linking variation in selection to differences in ecological context. We studied pollinator-mediated selection in five populations of Dalechampia scandens (Euphorbiaceae) in Costa Rica and Mexico. Using a nonlinear path-analytical approach, we assessed several functional components of selection, and linked variation in pollinator-mediated selection across time and space to variation in pollinator assemblages....

Selection on phenotypic plasticity favors thermal canalization

Erik Svensson, Miguel Gomez-Llano & John Waller
Climate change affects organisms worldwide with profound ecological and evolutionary consequences, often increasing population extinction risk. Climatic factors can increase the strength, variability or direction of natural selection on phenotypic traits, potentially driving adaptive evolution. Phenotypic plasticity in relation to temperature can allow organisms to maintain fitness in response to increasing temperatures, thereby “buying time” for subsequent genetic adaptation and promoting evolutionary rescue. Although many studies have shown that organisms respond plastically to increasing temperatures,...

A fingerprint of climate change across pine forests of Sweden

Jacek Oleksyn, Tomasz Wyka, Roma Żytkowiak, Marcin Zadworny, Joanna Mucha, Monika Dering, Krzysztof Ufnalski, Bengt Nihlgard & Peter Reich
Needle traits of coniferous forests reflect environmental conditions and influence tree physiology and growth. Given the sensitivity of needle traits and tree growth to climate, temperature warming of ≈1°C in the past century may have influenced structure and function of high latitude forests across the globe. Here we show that throughout a ≈1,000 km transect in cold, high latitude Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests in Sweden, which has warmed by ≈1°C in a century,...

Data from: Competition, seed dispersal, and hunting: what drives germination and seedling survival in an Afrotropical forest?

Ola Olsson, Gabriela Nuñez-Iturri, Henrik G. Smith, Ulf Ottosson & Edu O. Effiom
Disentangling the contributions of different processes that influence plant recruitment, such as competition and seed dispersal, is important given the increased human-mediated changes in tropical forest ecosystems. Previous studies have shown that seedling communities in an Afro-tropical rainforest in Southeastern Nigeria are strongly affected by the loss of important seed dispersing primates, including Cross River gorillas (Gorilla gorilla diehli), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes elioti), and drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus). Here we study how germination and survival of...

Beak morphology predicts apparent survival of crossbills: due to selective survival or selective dispersal?

David Gómez-Blanco, Simone Santoro, Pim Edelaar, Antoni Borrás, Josep Cabrera & Juan Carlos Senar
Dozens of morphologically differentiated populations, subspecies and species of crossbills (genus Loxia) exist. It has been suggested that this divergence is due to variation in the conifer cones that each population specialises upon, requiring a specific beak size to efficiently separate the cone scales. If so, apparent survival should depend on beak size. To test this hypothesis, we undertook multievent capture-recapture modelling for 6,844 individuals monitored during 27 years in a Pyrenean Common crossbill (L....

Data from: Pollination treatment affects fruit set and modifies marketable and storable fruit quality of commercial apples

Ulrika Samnegård, Peter Hambäck & Henrik Smith
Insect-mediated pollination increases yields of many crop species and some evidence suggests that it also influences crop quality. However, the mechanistic linkages between insect-mediated pollination and crop quality are poorly known. In this study, we explored how different pollination treatments affected fruit set, dry matter content (DMC), mineral content and storability of apples. Apple flowers supplementary pollinated with compatible pollen resulted in higher initial fruit set rates, higher fruit DMC and a tendency for lower...

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