413 Works

ICOS Atmosphere Level 2 data, Norunda, release 2019-1

Meelis Mölder
ICOS Atmospheric Greenhouse Gas Mole Fractions of CO2, CH4, CO, 14CO2 and Meteorological Observations, period 2017-04-01 to 2019-04-30, Norunda, final quality controlled Level 2 data, release 2019-1. All ICOS stations follow the ICOS Atmospheric Station specification V1.3 (https://www.icos-ri.eu/fetch/ba12290c-3714-4dd5-a9f0-c431b9900ad1;1.0) and are certified as ICOS atmospheric stations Class I or II. Data processing has been performed as described in Hazan et al., 2016 (doi:10.5194/amt-9-4719-2016).

Heatwave induced invertebrate predation reshapes the plankton community

Nischal Devkota, Romana Salis & Lars-Anders Hansson
Climate change stressors including warming and heatwaves can alter zooplankton composition and dominance patterns in shallow lakes, which can disrupt ecosystem function and curtail ecosystem services. To understand such changes, we performed a mesocosm experiment with controls reflecting the present temperature conditions and a treatment reflecting a future climate change scenario, including heatwaves of 0-8°C. In the future climate scenario, the predatory invertebrate, Mesostoma exerted a strong top-down control particularly on Daphnia, resulting in a...

Data from: Individual and sex-related patterns of prolonged flights during both day and night by great reed warblers crossing the Mediterranean Sea and Sahara Desert

Gintaras Malmiga, Maja Tarka, Thomas Alerstam, Bengt Hansson & Dennis Hasselquist
A wide variety of the barrier crossing strategies exist among migrating songbirds, ranging from strict nocturnal flights to non-stop flights over a few days. We evaluate barrier crossing strategies in a nocturnally migrating songbird crossing the Mediterranean Sea and the Sahara Desert, the great reed warbler, exploring variation between the sexes and within individuals. We used data from 31 year-round light-level geolocators tracks from 26 individuals (13 males and 13 females), with four individuals tracked...

Data from: Seed dispersal and fine-scale genetic structuring in the asexual Nigritella miniata (Orchidaceae) in the Alps

Mikael Hedrén & Richard Lorenz
Orchids have minute, air-filled seeds and are considered as efficient dispersers and colonizers. Yet, empirical studies show that most seeds fall within the nearest metre from the mother plant in orchids, and that individuals standing close to each other are often closely related. A poor contribution to gene dispersal by seeds may be compensated for by more efficient dispersal by pollen, but in autogamous or agamospermous orchids this component is not available. Here, we used...

Crop diversity benefits carabid and pollinator communities in landscapes with semi-natural habitats

Guillermo Aguilera Núñez, Tomas Roslin, Kirsten Miller, Giovanni Tamburini, Klaus Birkhofer, Berta Caballero-Lopez, Sandra Lindström, Erik Öckinger, , Adrien Rusch, Henrik Smith & Riccardo Bommarco
1. In agricultural landscapes, arthropods provide essential ecosystem services such as biological pest control and pollination. Intensified crop management practices and homogenization of landscapes have led to declines among such organisms. Semi-natural habitats, associated with high numbers of these organisms, are increasingly lost from agricultural landscapes but diversification by increasing crop diversity has been proposed as a way to reverse observed arthropod declines and thus restore ecosystem services. However, whether or not an increase in...

Reliably predicting pollinator abundance: challenges of calibrating process-based ecological models

Emma Gardner, Tom Breeze, Yann Clough, Henrik Smith, Katherine Baldock, Alistair Campbell, Michael Garratt, Mark Gillespie, William Kunin, Megan McKerchar, Jane Memmott, Simon Potts, Deepa Senapathi, Graham Stone, Felix Wäckers, Duncan Westbury, Andrew Wilby & Thomas Oliver
1. Pollination is a key ecosystem service for global agriculture but evidence of pollinator population declines is growing. Reliable spatial modelling of pollinator abundance is essential if we are to identify areas at risk of pollination service deficit and effectively target resources to support pollinator populations. Many models exist which predict pollinator abundance but few have been calibrated against observational data from multiple habitats to ensure their predictions are accurate. 2. We selected the most...

The effectiveness of flower strips and hedgerows on pest control, pollination services and crop yield: a quantitative synthesis

Matthias Albrecht, David Kleijn, Neal Williams, Matthias Tschumi, Brett Blaauw, Riccardo Bommarco, Alistair Campbell, Matteo Dainese, Frank Drummond, Martin Entling, Dominik Ganser, Arjen De Groot, David Goulson, Heather Grab, Hannah Hamilton, Felix Herzog, Rufus Isaacs, Katja Jacot, Philippe Jeanneret, Mattias Jonsson, Eva Knop, Claire Kremen, Doug Landis, Greg Loeb, Lorenzo Marini … & Louis Sutter
Floral plantings are promoted to foster ecological intensification of agriculture through provisioning of ecosystem services. However, a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of different floral plantings, their characteristics and consequences for crop yield is lacking. Here we quantified the impacts of flower strips and hedgerows on pest control (18 studies) and pollination services (17 studies) in adjacent crops in North America, Europe and New Zealand. Flower strips, but not hedgerows, enhanced pest control services in...

A fingerprint of climate change across pine forests of Sweden

Jacek Oleksyn, Tomasz Wyka, Roma Żytkowiak, Marcin Zadworny, Joanna Mucha, Monika Dering, Krzysztof Ufnalski, Bengt Nihlgard & Peter Reich
Needle traits of coniferous forests reflect environmental conditions and influence tree physiology and growth. Given the sensitivity of needle traits and tree growth to climate, temperature warming of ≈1°C in the past century may have influenced structure and function of high latitude forests across the globe. Here we show that throughout a ≈1,000 km transect in cold, high latitude Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests in Sweden, which has warmed by ≈1°C in a century,...

The microevolutionary response to male-limited X-chromosome evolution in Drosophila melanogaster reflects macroevolutionary patterns

Jessica Abbott, Adam Chippindale & Ted Morrow
Due to its hemizygous inheritance and role in sex determination, the X chromosome is expected to play an important role in the evolution of sexual dimorphism, and to be enriched for sexually antagonistic genetic variation. By forcing the X chromosome to only be expressed in males over >40 generations, we changed the selection pressures on the X to become similar to those experienced by the Y. This releases the X from any constraints arising from...

Matching habitat choice in Azure sand grasshoppers

Carlos Camacho, Alberto Sanabria-Fernández, Adrián Baños-Villalba & Pim Edelaar
This data set includes measurements of substrate use by ground-perching grasshoppers (Sphingonotus azurescens) in relation to body colour before and after experimental manipulation of their original colour. The data were collected between May and September 2017 in an urban mosaic of dark and pale pavements located in an abandoned housing development area near Dos Hermanas (Seville, Spain; 37.306° N, 5.932° E). The analysis presented in this article is based on 80 adult females and 138...

Beak morphology predicts apparent survival of crossbills: due to selective survival or selective dispersal?

David Gómez-Blanco, Simone Santoro, Pim Edelaar, Antoni Borrás, Josep Cabrera & Juan Carlos Senar
Dozens of morphologically differentiated populations, subspecies and species of crossbills (genus Loxia) exist. It has been suggested that this divergence is due to variation in the conifer cones that each population specialises upon, requiring a specific beak size to efficiently separate the cone scales. If so, apparent survival should depend on beak size. To test this hypothesis, we undertook multievent capture-recapture modelling for 6,844 individuals monitored during 27 years in a Pyrenean Common crossbill (L....

Configurational crop heterogeneity increases within-field plant diversity

Audrey Alignier, Xavier Solé-Senan, Irene Robleño, Barbara Baraibar, Fahrig Lenore, David Giralt, Nicolas Gross, Jean-Louis Martin, Jordi Recasens, Clelia Sirami, Gavin Siriwardena, Aliette Bosem Baillod, Colette Bertrand, Romain Carrie, Annika Hass, Laura Henckel, Paul Miguet, Isabelle Badenhausser, Jacques Baudry, Gerard Bota, Vincent Bretagnolle, Lluis Brotons, Francoise Burel, François Calatayud, Yann Clough … & Péter Batáry
1. Increasing landscape heterogeneity by restoring semi-natural elements to reverse farmland biodiversity declines is not always economically feasible or acceptable to farmers due to competition for land. We hypothesized that increasing the heterogeneity of the crop mosaic itself, hereafter referred to as crop heterogeneity, can have beneficial effects on within-field plant diversity. 2. Using a unique multi-country dataset from a cross-continent collaborative project covering 1451 agricultural fields within 432 landscapes in Europe and Canada, we...

Data from: Centennial-long trends of lake browning show major effect of afforestation

Emma S. Kritzberg
Observations of increasing water color and organic carbon concentrations in lakes are widespread across the Northern Hemisphere. The drivers of these trends are debated. Declining atmospheric sulfur deposition has been put forward as an important underlying factor, since recovery from acidification enhances mobility of organic matter from surrounding soils. This would suggest that the current browning represents a return to a more natural state. This study explores historical lake data from Sweden—1935 to 2015—providing a...

Data from: Comparison of reproductive investment in native and non-native populations of common wall lizards reveals sex differences in adaptive potential.

Hannah E.A. MacGregor, Geoffrey M. While, Tobias Uller & Hannah E. A. MacGregor
Non-native animals can encounter very different environments than those they are adapted to. Functional changes in morphology, physiology and life-history following introduction show that organisms can adapt both fast and efficiently. It remains unclear, however, if female reproductive characters and male sexually selected behaviour show the same adaptive potential. Furthermore, the invasion success and evolutionary trajectory of non-native species might often depend on the ability of the sexes to coordinate shifts in characters associated with...

Data from: How feathered are birds? environment predicts both the mass and density of body feathers

Gergely Osváth, Timea Daubner, Gareth Dyke, Tibor I. Fuisz, Andreas Nord, Janka Pénzes, Dorottya Vargancsik, Csongor I. Vagasi, Orsolya Vincze & Péter L. Pap
1.Studies modelling heat transfer of bird plumage design suggest that insulative properties can be attributed to the density and structure of the downy layer, while waterproofing is the result of the outer layer, comprised of contour feathers. In this study, we test how habitat and thermal condition affect feather mass and density of body feathers (contour, semiplume and downy feathers) measured on the ventral and dorsal sides of the body, using a phylogenetic comparative analysis...

Data from: Poor housing conditions in association with child health in a disadvantaged immigrant population: a cross-sectional study in Rosengård, Malmö, Sweden

Anna Oudin, Jens C. Richter, Tahir Taj, Kristina Jakobsson & Lina Al-Nahar
Objectives: To describe the home environment in terms of housing conditions and their association with child health in a disadvantaged immigrant population. Design: A cross-sectional observational study. Setting: Enrolment took place during 2010–2011 in Rosengård, Malmö, Sweden. Participants: Children aged 0–13 years in 2 study neighbourhoods were recruited from local health records and from schools. 359 children participated, with a participation rate of 40%. Data on health, lifestyle and apartment characteristics from questionnaire-led interviews with...

Data from: Extreme MHC class I diversity in the sedge warbler (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus); selection patterns and allelic divergence suggest that different genes have different functions

Aleksandra Biedrzycka, Emily O’Connor, Alvaro Sebastian, Magdalena Migalska, Jacek Radwan, Tadeusz Zając, Wojciech Bielański, Wojciech Solarz, Adam Ćmiel & Helena Westerdahl
Background: Recent work suggests that gene duplications may play an important role in the evolution of immunity genes. Passerine birds, and in particular Sylvioidea warblers, have highly duplicated major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, which are key in immunity, compared to other vertebrates. However, reasons for this high MHC gene copy number are yet unclear. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) allows MHC genotyping even in individuals with extremely duplicated genes. This HTS data can reveal evidence of selection,...

Data from: To graze or gorge: consistency and flexibility of individual foraging tactics in tits

Nicole D. Milligan, Reinder Radersma, Ella F. Cole & Ben C. Sheldon
An individual's foraging behaviour and time allocated to feeding have direct consequences for its fitness. Despite much research on population-level foraging decisions, few studies have investigated individual differences in fine-scale daily foraging patterns among wild animals. Here, we explore the consistency and plasticity of feeding tactics of individual great tits (Parus major) and blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus), using a grid of 65 automated feeding stations in a 385-ha woodland, during three winters. We use a...

Data from: Ranking and characterization of established BMI and lipid associated loci as candidates for gene-environment interactions

Dmitry Shungin, Wei Q. Deng, Tibor V. Varga, Jian'an Luan, Evelin Mihailov, Andres Metspalu, Andrew P. Morris, Nita G. Forouhi, Cecilia Lindgren, Patrik K. E. Magnusson, Nancy L. Pedersen, Göran Hallmans, Audrey Y. Chu, Anne E. Justice, Mariaelisa Graff, Thomas W. Winkler, Lynda M. Rose, Claudia Langenberg, L. Adrienne Cupples, Paul M. Ridker, Nicholas J. Wareham, Ken K. Ong, Ruth J. F. Loos, Daniel I. Chasman, Erik Ingelsson … & Paul W. Franks
Phenotypic variance heterogeneity across genotypes at a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) may reflect underlying gene-environment (G·E) or gene-gene interactions. We modeled variance heterogeneity for blood lipids and BMI in up to 44,211 participants and investigated relationships between variance effects (Pv), G·E interaction effects (with smoking and physical activity), and marginal genetic effects (Pm). Correlations between Pv and Pm were stronger for SNPs with established marginal effects (Spearman's ρ=0.401 for triglycerides, and ρ=0.236 for BMI) compared...

Data from: Aerodynamics of manoeuvring flight in brown long-eared bats (Plecotus auritus)

Per Henningsson, Lasse Jakobsen & Anders Hedenström
In this study, we explicitly examine the aerodynamics of manoeuvring flight in animals. We studied brown long-eared bats flying in a wind tunnel while performing basic sideways manoeuvres. We used particle image velocimetry in combination with high-speed filming to link aerodynamics and kinematics to understand the mechanistic basis of manoeuvres. We predicted that the bats would primarily use the downstroke to generate the asymmetries for the manoeuvre since it has been shown previously that the...

Data from: What you need is what you eat? Prey selection by the bat Myotis daubentonii

Eero J. Vesterinen, Lasse Ruokolainen, Niklas Wahlberg, Carlos Peña, Tomas Roslin, Veronika N. Laine, Ville Vasko, Ilari E. Sääksjärvi, Kai Norrdahl & Thomas M. Lilley
Optimal foraging theory predicts that predators are selective when faced with abundant prey, but become less picky when prey gets sparse. Insectivorous bats in temperate regions are faced with the challenge of building up fat reserves vital for hibernation during a period of decreasing arthropod abundances. According to optimal foraging theory, prehibernating bats should adopt a less selective feeding behaviour – yet empirical studies have revealed many apparently generalized species to be composed of specialist...

Data from: Bumblebee visual allometry results in locally improved resolution and globally improved sensitivity

Gavin J. Taylor, Pierre Tichit, Marie D. Schmidt, Andrew J. Bodey, Christoph Rau & Emily Baird
The quality of visual information that is available to an animal is limited by the size of its eyes. Differences in eye size can be observed even between closely related individuals, yet we understand little about how this affects vision. Insects are good models for exploring the effects of size on visual systems because many insect species exhibit size polymorphism. Previous work has been limited by difficulties in determining the 3D structure of eyes. We...

Data from: Vicariance divergence and gene flow among islet populations of an endemic lizard

Anna Runemark, Jody Hey, Bengt Hansson & Erik I. Svensson
Allopatry and allopatric speciation can arise through two different mechanisms: vicariance or colonization through dispersal. Distinguishing between these different allopatric mechanisms is difficult and one of the major challenges in biogeographical research. Here, we address whether allopatric isolation in an endemic island lizard is the result of vicariance or dispersal. We estimated the amount and direction of gene flow during the divergence of isolated islet populations and subspecies of the endemic Skyros wall lizard Podarcis...

Data from: Inferring dispersal across a fragmented landscape using reconstructed families in the Glanville fritillary butterfly

Toby Fountain, Arild Husby, Etsuko Nonaka, Michelle F. DiLeo, Janne H. Korhonen, Pasi Rastas, Torsti Schulz, Marjo Saastamoinen & Ilkka Hanski
Dispersal is important for determining both a species ecological processes, such as population viability, and its evolutionary processes, like gene flow and local adaptation. Yet obtaining accurate estimates in the wild through direct observation can be challenging or even impossible, particularly over large spatial and temporal scales. Genotyping many individuals from wild populations can provide detailed inferences about dispersal. We therefore utilized genomewide marker data to estimate dispersal in the classic metapopulation of the Glanville...

Data from: Blood parasites shape extreme major histocompatibility complex diversity in a migratory passerine

Aleksandra Biedrzycka, Wojciech Bielański, Adam Ćmiel, Wojciech Solarz, Tadeusz Zając, Magdalena Migalska, Alvaro Sebastian, Helena Westerdahl & Jacek Radwan
Pathogens are one of the main forces driving the evolution and maintenance of the highly polymorphic genes of the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Although MHC proteins are crucial in pathogen recognition, it is still poorly understood how pathogen-mediated selection promotes and maintains MHC diversity, and especially so in host species with highly duplicated MHC genes. Sedge warblers (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus) have highly duplicated MHC genes and using data from high-throughput MHC genotyping we were able...

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