791 Works

Data from: Candidate genes for colour and vision exhibit signals of selection across the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) breeding range

Paula K. Lehtonen, Toni Laaksonen, Aleksandr V. Artemyev, Eugen Belskii, Paul R. Berg, Christiaan Both, Laura Buggiotti, Stanislav Bureš, Malcolm D. Burgess, Andrey V. Bushuev, Indrikis Krams, Juan Moreno, Marko Mägi, Andreas Nord, Jaime Potti, Pierre-Alain Ravussin, Glenn Peter Sætre, Paivi Sirkiä, Wolfgang Winkel & Craig R. Primmer
The role of natural selection in shaping adaptive trait differentiation in natural populations has long been recognized. Determining its molecular basis, however, remains a challenge. Here, we search for signals of selection in candidate genes for colour and its perception in a passerine bird. Pied flycatcher plumage varies geographically in both its structural and pigment-based properties. Both characteristics appear to be shaped by selection. A single-locus outlier test revealed two of fourteen loci to exhibit...

Data from: Marked host specificity and lack of phylogeographic population structure of Campylobacter jejuni in wild birds

Petra Griekspoor, Frances M. Colles, Noel D. McCarthy, Philip M. Hansbro, Chris Ashhurst-Smith, Björn Olsen, Dennis Hasselquist, Martin C. J. Maiden & Jonas Waldenström
Zoonotic pathogens often infect several animal species, and gene flow among populations infecting different host species may affect the biological traits of the pathogen including host specificity, transmissibility and virulence. The bacterium Campylobacter jejuni is a widespread zoonotic multihost pathogen, which frequently causes gastroenteritis in humans. Poultry products are important transmission vehicles to humans, but the bacterium is common in other domestic and wild animals, particularly birds, which are a potential infection source. Population genetic...

Data from: Is population structure in the European white stork determined by flyway permeability rather than translocation history?

Jill M. Shephard, Rob Ogden, Piotr Tryjanowski, Ola Olsson & Peter Galbusera
European white stork are long considered to diverge to eastern and western migration pools as a result of independent overwintering flyways. In relatively recent times, the western and northern distribution has been subject to dramatic population declines and country-specific extirpations. A number of independent reintroduction programs were started in the mid 1950s to bring storks back to historical ranges. Founder individuals were sourced opportunistically from the Eastern and Western European distributions and Algeria, leading to...

Data from: Group formation, relatedness, and the evolution of multicellularity

Roberta M. Fisher, Charlie K. Cornwallis & Stuart A. West
The evolution of multicellular organisms represents one of approximately eight major evolutionary transitions that have occurred on earth. The major challenge raised by this transition is to explain why single cells should join together and become mutually dependent, in a way that leads to a more complex multicellular life form that can only replicate as a whole. It has been argued that a high genetic relatedness (r) between cells played a pivotal role in the...

Data from: Express yourself: bold individuals induce enhanced morphological defences

Kaj Hulthén, Ben B. Chapman, Anders P. Nilsson, Johan Hollander, Christer Brönmark, C. Bronmark & K. Hulthen
Organisms display an impressive array of defence strategies in nature. Inducible defences (changes in morphology and/or behaviour within a prey's lifetime) allow prey to decrease vulnerability to predators and avoid unnecessary costs of expression. Many studies report considerable interindividual variation in the degree to which inducible defences are expressed, yet what underlies this variation is poorly understood. Here, we show that individuals differing in a key personality trait also differ in the magnitude of morphological...

Data from: Polar lakes may act as ecological islands to aquatic protists

Karin Rengefors, Ramiro Logares & Johanna Laybourn-Parry
A fundamental question in ecology is whether microorganisms follow the same patterns as multicellular organisms when it comes to population structure and levels of genetic diversity. Enormous population sizes, predominately asexual reproduction, and presumably high dispersal due to small body size could have profound implications on their genetic diversity and population structure. Here, we have analyzed the population genetic structure in a lake-dwelling microbial eukaryote (dinoflagellate) and tested the hypothesis that there is population genetic...

Data from: Nocturnal migratory songbirds adjust their travelling direction aloft: evidence from a radiotelemetry and radar study

Sissel Sjöberg & Cecilia Nilsson
In order to fully understand the orientation behaviour of migrating birds, it is important to understand when birds set their travel direction. Departure directions of migratory passerines leaving stopover sites are often assumed to reflect the birds' intended travel directions, but this assumption has not been critically tested. We used data from an automated radiotelemetry system and a tracking radar at Falsterbo peninsula, Sweden, to compare the initial orientation of departing songbirds (recorded by radiotelemetry)...

Data from: The complex aerodynamic footprint of desert locusts revealed by large-volume tomographic particle image velocimetry

Per Henningsson, Dirk Michaelis, Toshiyuki Nakata, Daniel Schanz, Reinhard Geisler, Andreas Schröder & Richard J. Bomphrey
Particle image velocimetry has been the preferred experimental technique with which to study the aerodynamics of animal flight for over a decade. In that time, hardware has become more accessible and the software has progressed from the acquisition of planes through the flow field to the reconstruction of small volumetric measurements. Until now, it has not been possible to capture large volumes that incorporate the full wavelength of the aerodynamic track left behind during a...

Data from: Sexual antagonism in the pistil varies among populations of a hermaphroditic mixed-mating plant

Evan Hersh, Josefin A. Madjidian, Stefan Andersson, Maria Strandh, W. Scott Armbruster & Åsa Lankinen
Sexual conflicts and their evolutionary outcomes may be influenced by population-specific features such as mating system and ecological context; however, very few studies have investigated the link between sexual conflict and mating system. The self-compatible, mixed-mating hermaphrodite Collinsia heterophylla (Plantaginaceae) is thought to exhibit a sexual conflict over timing of stigma receptivity. This conflict involves 1) delayed stigma receptivity, which intensifies pollen competition, and 2) early fertilization forced by pollen, which reduces seed set. We...

Data from: Context-dependent effects of yolk androgens on nestling growth and immune function in a multibrooded passerine

Jaime Muriel, Pablo Salmón, Angel Nunez-Buiza, Felipe De Salas, Lorenzo Pérez-Rodríguez, Marisa Puerta & Diego Gil
Female birds may adjust their offspring phenotype to the specific requirements of the environment by differential allocation of physiologically active substances into yolks, such as androgens. Yolk androgens have been shown to accelerate embryonic development, growth rate and competitive ability of nestlings, but they can also entail immunological costs. The balance between costs and benefits of androgen allocation is expected to depend on nestling environment. We tested this hypothesis in a multibrooded passerine, the spotless...

Data from: Within-host competition between Borrelia afzelii ospC strains in wild hosts as revealed by massively parallel amplicon sequencing

Maria Strandh & Lars Råberg
Infections frequently consist of more than one strain of a given pathogen. Experiments have shown that co-infecting strains often compete, so that the infection intensity of each strain in mixed infections is lower than in single strain infections. Such within-host competition can have important epidemiological and evolutionary consequences. However, the extent of competition has rarely been investigated in wild, naturally infected hosts, where there is noise in the form of varying inoculation doses, asynchronous infections...

Data from: Effects of soil resources on expression of a sexual conflict over timing of stigma receptivity in a mixed-mating plant

Asa Lankinen & Sofia Hydbom
While environmental factors strongly influence plant growth and reproduction, less is known about environmental effects on sexual selection and sexual conflict. In this study on mixed-mating Collinsia heterophylla we investigated whether soil resource environment affected traits associated with sexual conflict. In C. heterophylla a sexual conflict over timing of stigma receptivity occurs. Early stigma receptivity benefits pollen parents by securing paternity while late stigma receptivity benefits female fitness in terms of increased seed production. We...

Data from: Brood size constrains the development of endothermy in blue tits

Fredrik Andreasson, Andreas Nord & Jan-Åke Nilsson
Altricial birds are unable to maintain body temperature when exposed to low ambient temperatures during the first days after hatching. Thermoregulatory capacity begins to form as postnatal development progresses, and eventually nestlings become homeothermic. Several factors may influence this development at both the level of the individual and the level of the whole brood, but to our knowledge no studies have focused on the effect of brood size per se on the development of endothermy...

Data from: Body temperature regulation in hot environments

Jan-Åke Nilsson, Mary Ngozi Molokwu & Ola Olsson
Organisms in hot environments will not be able to passively dissipate metabolically generated heat. Instead, they have to revert to evaporative cooling, a process that is energetically expensive and promotes excessive water loss. To alleviate these costs, birds in captivity let their body temperature increase, thereby entering a state of hyperthermia. Here we explore the use of hyperthermia in wild birds captured during the hot and dry season in central Nigeria. We found pronounced hyperthermia...

Data from: Uncovering cryptic parasitoid diversity in Horismenus (Chalcidoidea, Eulophidae)

Sarah G. Kenyon, Sven Buerki, Christer Hansson, Nadir Alvarez & Betty Benrey
Horismenus parasitoids are an abundant and understudied group of eulophid wasps found mainly in the New World. Recent surveys based on morphological analyses in Costa Rica have quadrupled the number of named taxa, with more than 400 species described so far. This recent revision suggests that there is still a vast number of unknown species to be identified. As Horismenus wasps have been widely described as parasitoids of insect pests associated with crop plants, it...

Data from: Long-term consequences of high incubation temperature in a wild bird population

Andreas Nord & Jan-Åke Nilsson
Because incubation by birds is energetically costly, parents frequently trade off investment in incubation against self-maintenance. This can be manifested by a reduction in incubation temperature, which comes at high somatic costs for nestlings. The extent to which these costs constrain fitness is poorly understood. We incubated wild blue tit clutches at three biologically relevant temperatures and subsequently recorded winter survival and survival to the breeding season. Fledglings from the coldest treatment (35.0°C) survived less...

Data from: The evolution of highly variable immunity genes across a passerine bird radiation.

Emily O'Connor, Maria Strandh, Dennis Hasselquist, Jan-Åke Nilsson & Helena Westerdahl
To survive, individuals must be able to recognize and eliminate pathogens. The genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) play an essential role in this process in vertebrates as their diversity affects the repertoire of pathogens that can be recognized by the immune system. Emerging evidence suggests that birds within the parvorder Passerida possess an exceptionally high number of MHC genes. However, this has yet to be directly investigated using a consistent framework, and the...

Data from: Differences in endophyte communities of introduced trees depend on the phylogenetic relatedness of the receiving forest

Michael J. Gundale, Juan P. Almeida, Håkan Wallander, David A. Wardle, Paul Kardol, Marie-Charlotte Nilsson Hegethorn, Alex Fajardo, Anibal Pauchard, Duane A. Peltzer, Seppo Ruotsalainen, Bill Mason, Nicholas Rosenstock & Marie-Charlotte Nilsson
Plant species sometimes perform extraordinarily well when introduced to new environments, through achieving higher growth rates, individual biomasses or higher densities in their receiving communities compared to their native range communities. One hypothesis proposed to explain enhanced performance in species’ new environments is that their soil microbial communities may be different and provide greater benefit than microbial communities encountered in species’ native environments. However, detailed descriptions of soil biota associated with species in both their...

Data from: Activity and migratory flights of individual free-flying songbirds throughout the annual cycle: method and first case study

Johan Bäckman, Arne Andersson, Thomas Alerstam, Lykke Pedersen, Sissel Sjöberg, Kasper Thorup & Anders P. Tøttrup
We describe a method and device (< 1.2 g) for recording, processing and storing data about activity and location of individuals of free-living songbirds throughout the annual cycle. Activity level was determined every five minutes from five 100 ms samples of accelerometer data with 5 s between the sampling events. Activity levels were stored on an hourly basis throughout the annual cycle, allowing periods of resting/sleep, continuous flight and intermediate activity (foraging, breeding) to be...

Data from: Parallel telomere shortening in multiple body tissues owing to malaria infection

Muhammad Asghar, Vaidas Palinauskas, Nadège Zaghdoudi-Allan, Gediminas Valkiūnas, Andrey Mukhin, Elena Platonova, Anna Färnert, Staffan Bensch & Dennis Hasselquist
Several studies have shown associations between shorter telomere length in blood and weakened immune function, susceptibility to infections, and increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Recently, we have shown that malaria accelerates telomere attrition in blood cells and shortens lifespan in birds. However, the impact of infections on telomere attrition in different body tissues within an individual is unknown. Here, we tested whether malarial infection leads to parallel telomere shortening in blood and tissue samples...

Data from: Zinc supplementation inhibits complement activation in age-related macular degeneration

Dzenita Smailhodzic, Freekje Van Asten, Anna M. Blom, Frida C. Mohlin, Anneke I. Den Hollander, Johannes P. H. Van De Ven, Ramon A. C. Van Huet, Joannes M. M. Groenewoud, Yuan Tian, Tos T. J. M. Berendschot, Yara T. E. Lechanteur, Sascha Fauser, Chris De Bruijn, Mohamed R. Daha, Gert Jan Van Der Wilt, Carel B. Hoyng & B. Jeroen Klevering
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the Western world. AMD is a multifactorial disorder but complement-mediated inflammation at the level of the retina plays a pivotal role. Oral zinc supplementation can reduce the progression of AMD but the precise mechanism of this protective effect is as yet unclear. We investigated whether zinc supplementation directly affects the degree of complement activation in AMD and whether there is a relation between serum...

Data from: Sex differences in developmental plasticity and canalization shape population divergence in mate preferences

Erik I. Svensson, Anna Runemark, Machteld N. Verzijden & Maren Wellenreuther
Sexual selection of high-quality mates can conflict with species recognition if traits that govern intraspecific mate preferences also influence interspecific recognition. This conflict might be resolved by developmental plasticity and learned mate preferences, which could drive preference divergence in populations that differ in local species composition. We integrate field and laboratory experiments on two calopterygid damselfly species with population genetic data to investigate how sex differences in developmental plasticity affect population divergence in the face...

Data from: Oxidant trade-offs in immunity: an experimental test in a lizard

Michael Tobler, Cissy Ballen, Mo Healey, Mark Wilson & Mats Olsson
Immune system functioning and maintenance entails costs which may limit investment into other processes such as reproduction. Yet, the proximate mechanisms and ‘currencies’ mediating the costs of immune responses remain elusive. In vertebrates, up-regulation of the innate immune system is associated with rapid phagocytic production of pro-oxidant molecules (so-called ‘oxidative burst’ responses). Oxidative burst responses are intended to eliminate pathogens but may also constitute an immunopathological risk as they may induce oxidative damage to self...

Data from: Comparing analysis methods in functional calcium imaging of the insect brain

Anna Balkenius, Anders J. Johansson & Christian Balkenius
We investigate four different methods for background estimation in calcium imaging of the insect brain and evaluate their performance on six data sets consisting of data recorded from two sites in two species of moths. The calcium fluorescence decay curve outside the potential response is estimated using either a low-pass filter or constant, linear or polynomial regression, and is subsequently used to calculate the magnitude, latency and duration of the response. The magnitude and variance...

Data from: Indirect genetic effects from competition in the clonal herb Sedum album (Crassulaceae)

Stefan Andersson
Recent years have seen increasing interest in indirect genetic effects, i.e. influences on the phenotype that depend on the genotype of other conspecific individuals; however, the empirical evidence for such effects is still limited, especially in wild plant species. The present study of the clonal herb Sedum album assessed direct and indirect genetic effects on performance-related traits in a 4-year experiment with clonally replicated genotypes, grown in pairs and differing in anthocyanin pigmentation to allow...

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