382 Works

Shear anisotropy in Si-Cu interfaces on the atomic scale

D. Johansson, P. Hansson, A. Ahadi & S. Melin
Three dimensional molecular dynamics (MD) is used to model the mechanical response at the interface between a thin Cu coating resting on a base of Si. The copper coating is subjected to a displacement controlled shear load and the atom movements at the Si-Cu interface are monitored to investigate the effects of crystallographic anisotropy. The two crystals have the same crystallographic orientation, and two different interface normal directions are considered. The shear load is applied...

Data from: Evolutionary associations between host traits and parasite load: insights from Lake Tanganyika cichlids

Alexander Hayward, Masahito Tsuboi, Christian Owusu, Kotrschal Alexander, Severine D. Buechel, Josefina Zidar, Charlie K. Cornwallis, Hanne Lovlie, Niclas Kolm & A. Kotrschal
Parasite diversity and abundance (parasite load) vary greatly among host species. However, the influence of host traits on variation in parasitism remains poorly understood. Comparative studies of parasite load have largely examined measures of parasite species richness and are predominantly based on records obtained from published data. Consequently, little is known about the relationships between host traits and other aspects of parasite load, such as parasite abundance, prevalence and aggregation. Meanwhile, understanding of parasite species...

Data from: What can aquatic gastropods tell us about phenotypic plasticity? A review and meta-analysis

Paul E. Bourdeau, Roger K. Butlin, Christer Brönmark, Timothy C. Edgell, Jason T. Hoverman & Johan Hollander
There have been few attempts to synthesise the growing body of literature on phenotypic plasticity to reveal patterns and generalities about the extent and magnitude of plastic responses. Here, we conduct a review and meta-analysis of published literature on phenotypic plasticity in aquatic (marine and freshwater) gastropods, a common system for studying plasticity. We identified 96 studies, using pre-determined search terms, published between 1985 and November 2013. The literature was dominated by studies of predator-induced...

Data from: Disentangling plant and soil microbial controls on carbon and nitrogen loss in grassland mesocosms

Franciska T. De Vries, Helene Bracht Jorgensen, Katarina Hedlund & Richard D. Bardgett
1. It is well known that plant–soil interactions play an important role in determining the impact of global change phenomena on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Little is known, however, about the individual and relative importance for carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling of non-random changes in plant and soil communities that result from global change phenomena, such as fertilization and agricultural intensification. 2. We set up a field-based mesocosm experiment in which we re-inoculated soil...

Data from: Predation-mediated ecosystem services and disservices in agricultural landscapes

Matthias Tschumi, Johan Ekroos, Cecilia Hjort, Henrik G. Smith & Klaus Birkhofer
Ecological intensification may reduce environmental externalities of agriculture by harnessing biodiversity to benefit regulating ecosystem services. However, to propose management options for the production of such services, there is a need to understand the spatio-temporal dynamics of net effects between ecosystem services and disservices provided by wild organisms across taxonomic groups in relation to habitat and landscape management. We studied the contribution of predatory vertebrates and invertebrates (including both carnivores and seed herbivores) to regulating...

Data from: Evolution and systematics of polyploid Nigritella (Orchidaceae)

Mikael Hedrén, Richard Lorenz, Herwig Teppner, Branko Dolinar, Cesario Giotta, Norbert Griebl, Sven Hansson, Ulrich Heidtke, Erich Klein, Giorgio Perazza, David Ståhlberg & Bostjan Surina
Members of the orchid genus Nigritella are widespread in European mountains, but species circumscriptions and evolutionary patterns in the genus are subjects to conflicting opinions. We analyzed a representative material of Nigritella for differentiation at nuclear and plastid marker loci. In agreement with predictions from embryological studies, diploid members of Nigritella are sexual and mostly out-crossing, whereas triploid, tetraploid and pentaploid members are apomicts. The diploid taxa were poorly differentiated in the investigated molecular markers,...

Data from: Experimental evidence that honeybees depress wild insect densities in a flowering crop

Sandra A.M. Lindström, Lina Herbertsson, , Riccardo Bommarco & Henrik G. Smith
While addition of managed honeybees (Apis mellifera) improves pollination of many entomophilous crops, it is unknown if it simultaneously suppresses the densities of wild insects through competition. To investigate this, we added 624 honeybee hives to 23 fields of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) over 2 years and made sure that the areas around 21 other fields were free from honeybee hives. We demonstrate that honeybee addition depresses the densities of wild insects (bumblebees, solitary...

Data from: Altered gene expression and ecological divergence in sibling allopolyploids of Dactylorhiza (Orchidaceae)

Ovidiu Paun, Richard M. Bateman, Michael F. Fay, Javier A. Luna, Justin Moat, Mikael Hedrén & Mark W Chase
Background: Hybridization and polyploidy are potent forces that have regularly stimulated plant evolution and adaptation. Dactylorhiza majalis s.s., D. traunsteineri s.l. and D. ebudensis are three allopolyploid species of a polyploid complex formed through unidirectional (and, in the first two cases, recurrent) hybridization between the widespread diploids D. fuchsii and D. incarnata. Differing considerably in geographical extent and ecological tolerance, the three allopolyploids together provide a useful system to explore genomic responses to allopolyploidization and...

Data from: The wake of hovering flight in bats

Jonas Håkansson, Anders Hedenström, York Winter & L. Christoffer Johansson
Hovering means stationary flight at zero net forward speed, which can be achieved by animals through muscle powered flapping flight. Small bats capable of hovering typically do so with a downstroke in an inclined stroke plane, and with an aerodynamically active outer wing during the upstroke. The magnitude and time history of aerodynamic forces should be reflected by vorticity shed into the wake. We thus expect hovering bats to generate a characteristic wake, but this...

Data from: A predation cost to bold fish in the wild

Kaj Hulthén, Ben B. Chapman, P. Anders Nilsson, Lars-Anders Hansson, Christian Skov, Jakob Brodersen, Jerker Vinterstare & Christer Brönmark
Studies of predator-mediated selection on behaviour are critical for our understanding of the evolution and maintenance of behavioural diversity in natural populations. Consistent individual differences in prey behaviour, especially in the propensity to take risks (“boldness”), are widespread in the animal kingdom. Theory predicts that individual behavioural types differ in a cost-benefit trade-off where bolder individuals benefit from greater access to resources while paying higher predation-risk costs. However, explicitly linking predation events to individual behaviour...

Data from: Disentangling population strategies of two cladocerans adapted to different ultraviolet regimes

Carla E. Fernández, Melina Campero, Cintia Uvo, Lars Anders Hansson & Lars-Anders Hansson
Zooplankton have evolved several mechanisms to deal with environmental threats, such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR), and in order to identify strategies inherent to organisms exposed to different UVR environments, we here examine life-history traits of two lineages of Daphnia pulex. The lineages differed in the UVR dose they had received at their place of origin from extremely high UVR stress at high-altitude Bolivian lakes to low UVR stress near the sea level in temperate Sweden....

Data from: Landscape history confounds the ability of the NDVI to detect fine-scale variation in grassland communities

Oskar Löfgren, Honor C. Prentice, Thomas Moeckel, Barbara C. Schmid & Karin Hall
1. The NDVI is a remotely-sensed vegetation index that is frequently used in ecological studies. There is, however, a lack of studies that evaluate the ability of the NDVI to detect fine-scale variation in grassland plant community composition and species richness. Ellenberg indicators characterize the environmental preferences of plant species – and community-mean Ellenberg values have been used to explore the environmental drivers of community assembly. 2. We used variation partitioning to test the ability...

Data from: Effects of protein malnutrition on tolerance to helminth infection

Dagmar Clough, Olena Prykhodko & Lars Råberg
Infection tolerance is the ability of a host to limit the health effects of a given parasite load. A few recent studies have demonstrated genetic variation for tolerance, but little is known about how environmental factors affect tolerance. Here, we used the intestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus in laboratory mice to test for effects of protein malnutrition on tolerance. We performed an experiment where two different mouse strains (CBA and BALB/c) were fed either adequate-protein food...

Data from: Species integrity enhanced by a predation cost to hybrids in the wild

P. Anders Nilsson, Kaj Hulthén, Ben B. Chapman, Lars-Anders Hansson, Jakob Brodersen, Henrik Baktoft, Jerker Vinterstare, Christer Brőnmark & Christian Skov
Species integrity can be challenged, and even eroded, if closely related species can hybridize and produce fertile offspring of comparable fitness to that of parental species. The maintenance of newly diverged or closely related species therefore hinges on the establishment and effectiveness of pre- and/or post-zygotic reproductive barriers. Ecological selection, including predation, is often presumed to contribute to reduced hybrid fitness, but field evidence for a predation cost to hybridization remains elusive. Here we provide...

Data from: Population divergence in chemical signals and the potential for premating isolation between islet- and mainland populations of the Skyros wall lizard, (Podarcis gaigeae)

Anna Runemark, Marianne Gabirot & Erik I Svensson
When sexually selected traits diverge due to different local selective environments premating isolation might arise as a correlated response. However, sexually selected traits might also diverge by stochastic forces. Here, we show that odour-based mate preferences and scent composition have diverged between islet- and mainland populations of Skyros wall lizard, Podarcis gaigeae. We quantified the degree of scent-mediated premating isolation between populations. Islet lizards preferred scent from islet lizards, whereas the mainland populations were less...

Data from: Chemical communication, sexual selection, and introgression in wall lizards

Hannah Elizabeth Alexandra MacGregor, Rachel Alison Margaret Lewandowsky, Patrizia D'Ettorre, Chloé Leroy, Noel W. Davies, Geoffrey M. While & Tobias Uller
Divergence in communication systems should influence the likelihood that individuals from different lineages interbreed, and consequently shape the direction and rate of hybridization. Here, we studied the role of chemical communication in hybridization, and its contribution to asymmetric and sexually selected introgression, between two lineages of the common wall lizard (Podarcis muralis). Males of the two lineages differed in the chemical composition of their femoral secretions. Chemical profiles provided information regarding male secondary sexual characters,...

Data from: Variation in laying date in relation to spring temperature in three species of tits (Paridae) and pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca in southernmost Sweden

Hans Källander, Dennis Hasselquist, Anders Hedenström, Andreas Nord, Henrik G. Smith & Jan-Åke Nilsson
This study documents the advancement of laying dates in three species of tits (Paridae) in southernmost Sweden during recent decades, and the absence of a similar response in the pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca. It is based on several different nestbox studies; the oldest one starting in 1969. During 1969 to 2012, mean spring temperatures in the study area increased by between 0.06 and 0.08°C per year, depending on the period considered. Great tits Parus major,...

Data from: Linking intra- and interspecific assortative mating: consequences for asymmetric sexual isolation

Erik I. Svensson, Anna Nordén, John T. Waller & Anna Runemark
Assortative mating is of interest because of its role in speciation and the maintenance of species boundaries. However, we know little about how within-species assortment is related to interspecific sexual isolation. Most previous studies of assortative mating have focused on a single trait in males and females, rather than utilizing multivariate trait information. Here we investigate how intraspecific assortative mating relates to sexual isolation in two sympatric and congeneric damselfly species (genus Calopteryx). We connect...

Data from: Effects of interspecific coexistence on laying date and clutch size in two closely related species of hole‐nesting birds

Anders Pape Møller, Javier Balbontin, André A. Dhondt, Vladimir Remeš, Frank Adriaensen, Clotilde Biard, Jordi Camprodon, Mariusz Cichoń, Blandine Doligez, Anna Dubiec, Marcel Eens, Tapio Eeva, Anne E. Goodenough, Andrew G. Gosler, Lars Gustafsson, Philipp Heeb, Shelley A. Hinsley, Staffan Jacob, Rimvydas Juškaitis, Toni Laaksonen, Bernard Leclercq, Bruno Massa, Tomasz D. Mazgajski, Rudi G. Nager, Jan-Åke Nilsson … & Ruedi G. Nager
Coexistence between great tits Parus major and blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus, but also other hole‐nesting taxa, constitutes a classic example of species co‐occurrence resulting in potential interference and exploitation competition for food and for breeding and roosting sites. However, the spatial and temporal variations in coexistence and its consequences for competition remain poorly understood. We used an extensive database on reproduction in nest boxes by great and blue tits based on 87 study plots across...

Data from: Barometer logging reveals new dimensions of individual songbird migration

Sissel Sjöberg, Lykke Pedersen, Gintaras Malmiga, Thomas Alerstam, Bengt Hansson, Dennis Hasselquist, Kasper Thorup, Anders P. Tøttrup, Arne Andersson & Johan Bäckman
Recent advances in tracking technology are based on the use of miniature sensors for recording new aspects of individual migratory behaviour. In this study, we have used activity data loggers with barometric and temperature sensors to record the flight altitudes as well as ground elevations during stationary periods of migratory songbirds. We tracked one individual of red-backed shrike and one great reed warbler along their autumn migration from Europe to Africa. Both individuals performed their...

Data from: Effect of light-level geolocators on apparent survival of two highly aerial swift species

Michelangelo Morganti, Diego Rubolini, Susanne Akesson, Ana Bermejo, Javier De La Puente, Roberto Lardelli, Felix Liechti, Giovanni Boano, Erika Tomassetto, Mauro Ferri, Mario Caffi, Nicola Saino & Roberto Ambrosini
Light-level geolocators are currently widely used to track the migration of small-sized birds, but their potentially detrimental effects on survival of highly aerial species have been poorly investigated so far. We recorded capture-recapture histories of 283 common swifts Apus apus and 107 pallid swifts Apus pallidus breeding in 14 colonies in Italy, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland that were deployed with 10 different types of geolocators (‘geolocator birds’), and compared their survival with that of, respectively,...

Data from: Genetic structure in parasitic Rhinanthus angustifolius is determined by geographical distance rather than habitat – implications for taxonomy and conservation

Anneli Jonstrup, Stefan Andersson & Mikael Hedrén
Analyses of intraspecific genetic structure can promote the conservation of genetic diversity of rare or declining plant species by enabling identification of proper management units. Here we investigate the genetic structure of the annual hemiparasitic herb Rhinanthus angustifolius to evaluate the genetic distinctness of two currently described subspecies and three habitat-related groups of populations inferred from recent common-garden data. Data from 11 nuclear microsatellite loci, obtained from 17 southern Swedish populations of R. angustifolius, were...

Data from: The interplay between local ecology, divergent selection and genetic drift in population divergence of a sexually antagonistic female trait

Kristina Karlsson Green, Erik I. Svensson, Johannes Bergsten, Roger Härdling & Bengt Hansson
Genetically polymorphic species offer the possibility to study maintenance of genetic variation and the potential role for genetic drift in population divergence. Indirect inference of the selection regimes operating on polymorphic traits can be achieved by comparing population divergence in neutral genetic markers with population divergence in trait frequencies. Such an approach could further be combined with ecological data to better understand agents of selection. Here, we infer the selective regimes acting on a polymorphic...

Data from: Mutation screening of 1,237 cancer genes across six model cell lines of basal-like breast cancer

Eleonor Olsson, Christof Winter, Anthony George, Yilun Chen, Therese Törngren, Pär-Ola Bendahl, Åke Borg, Sofia K. Gruvberger-Saal & Lao H. Saal
Basal-like breast cancer is an aggressive subtype generally characterized as poor prognosis and lacking the expression of the three most important clinical biomarkers, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER2. Cell lines serve as useful model systems to study cancer biology in vitro and in vivo. We performed mutational profiling of six basal-like breast cancer cell lines (HCC38, HCC1143, HCC1187, HCC1395, HCC1954, and HCC1937) and their matched normal lymphocyte DNA using targeted capture and next-generation sequencing...

Data from: MHC-I provides both quantitative resistance and susceptibility to blood parasites in blue tits in the wild

Juan Rivero-De Aguilar, Helena Westerdahl, Josue Martínez-De La Puente, Gustavo Tomas, Javier Martínez & Santiago Merino
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are central for the adaptive immune response against parasites. Here, we investigated potential associations among MHC-I alleles and blood parasite infections in a natural breeding population of a passerine bird, the blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus, in central Spain. We screened both infection status (presence/absence of infection) and infection intensity to the pathogenic blood parasites Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon. Three MHC-I alleles (UA104, UA108 and UA117) were associated with higher or lower...

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