54 Works

Data from: Landscape-scale interactions of spatial and temporal cropland heterogeneity drive biological control of cereal aphids

Aliette Bosem Baillod, Teja Tscharntke, Yann Clough & Péter Batáry
1. Agricultural landscapes are characterised by dynamic crop mosaics changing in composition and configuration over space and time. While semi-natural habitat has been often shown to contribute to pest biological control, the effects of increasing landscape heterogeneity with cropland has been disregarded. Here, we examine how cereal aphids, their enemies and biological control are affected by the composition and configuration of the crop mosaic and its inter-annual change due to crop rotation. 2. We studied...

Data from: A predation cost to bold fish in the wild

Kaj Hulthén, Ben B. Chapman, P. Anders Nilsson, Lars-Anders Hansson, Christian Skov, Jakob Brodersen, Jerker Vinterstare & Christer Brönmark
Studies of predator-mediated selection on behaviour are critical for our understanding of the evolution and maintenance of behavioural diversity in natural populations. Consistent individual differences in prey behaviour, especially in the propensity to take risks (“boldness”), are widespread in the animal kingdom. Theory predicts that individual behavioural types differ in a cost-benefit trade-off where bolder individuals benefit from greater access to resources while paying higher predation-risk costs. However, explicitly linking predation events to individual behaviour...

Data from: Evolutionary associations between host traits and parasite load: insights from Lake Tanganyika cichlids

Alexander Hayward, Masahito Tsuboi, Christian Owusu, Kotrschal Alexander, Severine D. Buechel, Josefina Zidar, Charlie K. Cornwallis, Hanne Lovlie, Niclas Kolm & A. Kotrschal
Parasite diversity and abundance (parasite load) vary greatly among host species. However, the influence of host traits on variation in parasitism remains poorly understood. Comparative studies of parasite load have largely examined measures of parasite species richness and are predominantly based on records obtained from published data. Consequently, little is known about the relationships between host traits and other aspects of parasite load, such as parasite abundance, prevalence and aggregation. Meanwhile, understanding of parasite species...

Data from: How animals follow the stars

James J. Foster, Jochen Smolka, Dan-Eric Nilsson & Marie Dacke
Throughout history, the stars have provided humans with ever more information about our world, enabling increasingly accurate systems of navigation in addition to fuelling some of the greatest scientific controversies. What information animals have evolved to extract from a starry sky and how they do so, is a topic of study that combines the practical and theoretical challenges faced by both astronomers and field biologists. While a number of animal species have been demonstrated to...

Data from: Body size evolution in an old insect order: no evidence for Cope’s Rule in spite of fitness benefits of large size

John T. Waller & Erik I. Svensson
We integrate field data and phylogenetic comparative analyses to investigate causes of body size evolution and stasis in an old insect order: odonates (“dragonflies and damselflies”). Fossil evidence for “Cope's Rule” in odonates is weak or non-existent since the last major extinction event 65 million years ago, yet selection studies show consistent positive selection for increased body size among adults. In particular, we find that large males in natural populations of the banded demoiselle (Calopteryx...

Data from: Effect of light-level geolocators on apparent survival of two highly aerial swift species

Michelangelo Morganti, Diego Rubolini, Susanne Akesson, Ana Bermejo, Javier De La Puente, Roberto Lardelli, Felix Liechti, Giovanni Boano, Erika Tomassetto, Mauro Ferri, Mario Caffi, Nicola Saino & Roberto Ambrosini
Light-level geolocators are currently widely used to track the migration of small-sized birds, but their potentially detrimental effects on survival of highly aerial species have been poorly investigated so far. We recorded capture-recapture histories of 283 common swifts Apus apus and 107 pallid swifts Apus pallidus breeding in 14 colonies in Italy, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland that were deployed with 10 different types of geolocators (‘geolocator birds’), and compared their survival with that of, respectively,...

Data from: Indices of immune function used by ecologists are mostly unaffected by repeated freeze-thaw cycles and methodological deviations

Arne Hegemann, Sara Pardal & Kevin D. Matson
Background: Over the past couple of decades, measuring immunological parameters has become widespread in studies of ecology and evolution. A combination of different immunological indices is useful for quantifying different parts of the immune system and comprehensively assessing immune function. Running multiple immune assays usually requires samples to be repeatedly thawed and re-frozen. There is some evidence that repeated freezing and thawing can affect assay results, but this has never been comprehensively studied in some...

Data from: Disentangling population strategies of two cladocerans adapted to different ultraviolet regimes

Carla E. Fernández, Melina Campero, Cintia Uvo, Lars Anders Hansson & Lars-Anders Hansson
Zooplankton have evolved several mechanisms to deal with environmental threats, such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR), and in order to identify strategies inherent to organisms exposed to different UVR environments, we here examine life-history traits of two lineages of Daphnia pulex. The lineages differed in the UVR dose they had received at their place of origin from extremely high UVR stress at high-altitude Bolivian lakes to low UVR stress near the sea level in temperate Sweden....

Data from: Chemical communication, sexual selection, and introgression in wall lizards

Hannah Elizabeth Alexandra MacGregor, Rachel Alison Margaret Lewandowsky, Patrizia D'Ettorre, Chloé Leroy, Noel W. Davies, Geoffrey M. While & Tobias Uller
Divergence in communication systems should influence the likelihood that individuals from different lineages interbreed, and consequently shape the direction and rate of hybridization. Here, we studied the role of chemical communication in hybridization, and its contribution to asymmetric and sexually selected introgression, between two lineages of the common wall lizard (Podarcis muralis). Males of the two lineages differed in the chemical composition of their femoral secretions. Chemical profiles provided information regarding male secondary sexual characters,...

Data from: Species integrity enhanced by a predation cost to hybrids in the wild

P. Anders Nilsson, Kaj Hulthén, Ben B. Chapman, Lars-Anders Hansson, Jakob Brodersen, Henrik Baktoft, Jerker Vinterstare, Christer Brőnmark & Christian Skov
Species integrity can be challenged, and even eroded, if closely related species can hybridize and produce fertile offspring of comparable fitness to that of parental species. The maintenance of newly diverged or closely related species therefore hinges on the establishment and effectiveness of pre- and/or post-zygotic reproductive barriers. Ecological selection, including predation, is often presumed to contribute to reduced hybrid fitness, but field evidence for a predation cost to hybridization remains elusive. Here we provide...

Data from: Experimental manipulation suggests effect of polyandry but not mate familiarity on within-pair aggression in the social skink, Liopholis whitii

Thomas Botterill-James, Jacinta Silince, Tobias Uller, David G. Chapple, Michael G. Gardner, Erik Wapstra, Geoffrey M. While & Jacinta Sillince
Long-term monogamy is a key characteristic of family living across animals. The evolutionary maintenance of long-term monogamy has been suggested to be facilitated by increased reproductive coordination as a result of mate familiarity, leading to increased reproductive success. However, such effects can be compromised if females mate outside the pair bond (e.g. female polyandry), introducing conflicts of interest between the male and female. Here, we experimentally test the effects of both mate familiarity and female...

Data from: Comparison of reproductive investment in native and non-native populations of common wall lizards reveals sex differences in adaptive potential.

Hannah E.A. MacGregor, Geoffrey M. While, Tobias Uller & Hannah E. A. MacGregor
Non-native animals can encounter very different environments than those they are adapted to. Functional changes in morphology, physiology and life-history following introduction show that organisms can adapt both fast and efficiently. It remains unclear, however, if female reproductive characters and male sexually selected behaviour show the same adaptive potential. Furthermore, the invasion success and evolutionary trajectory of non-native species might often depend on the ability of the sexes to coordinate shifts in characters associated with...

Data from: Centennial-long trends of lake browning show major effect of afforestation

Emma S. Kritzberg
Observations of increasing water color and organic carbon concentrations in lakes are widespread across the Northern Hemisphere. The drivers of these trends are debated. Declining atmospheric sulfur deposition has been put forward as an important underlying factor, since recovery from acidification enhances mobility of organic matter from surrounding soils. This would suggest that the current browning represents a return to a more natural state. This study explores historical lake data from Sweden—1935 to 2015—providing a...

Data from: To graze or gorge: consistency and flexibility of individual foraging tactics in tits

Nicole D. Milligan, Reinder Radersma, Ella F. Cole & Ben C. Sheldon
An individual's foraging behaviour and time allocated to feeding have direct consequences for its fitness. Despite much research on population-level foraging decisions, few studies have investigated individual differences in fine-scale daily foraging patterns among wild animals. Here, we explore the consistency and plasticity of feeding tactics of individual great tits (Parus major) and blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus), using a grid of 65 automated feeding stations in a 385-ha woodland, during three winters. We use a...

Data from: Ranking and characterization of established BMI and lipid associated loci as candidates for gene-environment interactions

Dmitry Shungin, Wei Q. Deng, Tibor V. Varga, Jian'an Luan, Evelin Mihailov, Andres Metspalu, Andrew P. Morris, Nita G. Forouhi, Cecilia Lindgren, Patrik K. E. Magnusson, Nancy L. Pedersen, Göran Hallmans, Audrey Y. Chu, Anne E. Justice, Mariaelisa Graff, Thomas W. Winkler, Lynda M. Rose, Claudia Langenberg, L. Adrienne Cupples, Paul M. Ridker, Nicholas J. Wareham, Ken K. Ong, Ruth J. F. Loos, Daniel I. Chasman, Erik Ingelsson … & Paul W. Franks
Phenotypic variance heterogeneity across genotypes at a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) may reflect underlying gene-environment (G·E) or gene-gene interactions. We modeled variance heterogeneity for blood lipids and BMI in up to 44,211 participants and investigated relationships between variance effects (Pv), G·E interaction effects (with smoking and physical activity), and marginal genetic effects (Pm). Correlations between Pv and Pm were stronger for SNPs with established marginal effects (Spearman's ρ=0.401 for triglycerides, and ρ=0.236 for BMI) compared...

Data from: Extreme MHC class I diversity in the sedge warbler (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus); selection patterns and allelic divergence suggest that different genes have different functions

Aleksandra Biedrzycka, Emily O’Connor, Alvaro Sebastian, Magdalena Migalska, Jacek Radwan, Tadeusz Zając, Wojciech Bielański, Wojciech Solarz, Adam Ćmiel & Helena Westerdahl
Background: Recent work suggests that gene duplications may play an important role in the evolution of immunity genes. Passerine birds, and in particular Sylvioidea warblers, have highly duplicated major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, which are key in immunity, compared to other vertebrates. However, reasons for this high MHC gene copy number are yet unclear. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) allows MHC genotyping even in individuals with extremely duplicated genes. This HTS data can reveal evidence of selection,...

Data from: Pale and dark morphs of tawny owls show different patterns of telomere dynamics in relation to disease status

Patrik Karell, Staffan Bensch, Kari Ahola & Muhammad Asghar
Parasites are expected to exert long-term costs on host fecundity and longevity. Understanding the consequences of heritable polymorphic variation in disease defence in wild populations is essential in order to predict evolutionary responses to changes in disease risk. Telomeres have been found to shorten faster in malaria-diseased individuals compared with healthy ones with negative effects on longevity and thereby fitness. Here, we study the impact of haemosporidian blood parasites on telomere dynamics in tawny owls,...

Data from: Physiology at near-critical temperatures, but not critical limits, varies between two lizard species that partition the thermal environment

Rory S. Telemeco, Eric J. Gangloff, Gerardo A. Cordero, Rebecca L. Polich, Anne M. Bronikowski & Fredric J. Janzen
The mechanisms that mediate the interaction between the thermal environment and species’ ranges are generally uncertain. Thermal environments may directly restrict species when environments exceed tolerance limits (i.e. the fundamental niche). However, thermal environments might also differentially affect relative performance among species prior to fundamental tolerances being met (i.e. the realized niche). We examined stress physiology (plasma glucose and corticosterone), mitochondrial performance, and the muscle metabolome of congeneric lizards that naturally partition the thermal niche,...

Data from: Marine ecosystem connectivity mediated by migrant–resident interactions and the concomitant cross-system flux of lipids

Mikael Van Deurs, Anders Persson, Martin Lindegren, Charlotte Jacobsen, Stefan Neuenfeldt, Christian Jørgensen & P. Anders Nilsson
Accumulating research argues that migrants influence the functioning and productivity of local habitats and ecosystems along migration routes and potentially drive cross-system energy fluxes of considerable magnitude, yet empirical documentation of local ecological effects and descriptions of the underlying mechanisms are surprisingly rare. In this study, we discovered migrant–resident interactions and substantial cross-system lipid transportation in the transition zone between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea where a resident cod population (predators) was found...

Data from: Body lift, drag and power are relatively higher in large-eared compared to small-eared bat species

Jonas Håkansson, Lasse Jakobsen, Anders Hedenström & L. Christoffer Johansson
Bats navigate the dark using echolocation. Echolocation is enhanced by external ears, but external ears increase the projected frontal area and reduce the streamlining of the animal. External ears are thus expected to compromise flight efficiency, but research suggests that very large ears may mitigate the cost by producing aerodynamic lift. Here we compare quantitative aerodynamic measures of flight efficiency of two bat species, one large-eared (Plecotus auritus) and one small-eared (Glossophaga soricina), flying freely...

Data from: Inferring dispersal across a fragmented landscape using reconstructed families in the Glanville fritillary butterfly

Toby Fountain, Arild Husby, Etsuko Nonaka, Michelle F. DiLeo, Janne H. Korhonen, Pasi Rastas, Torsti Schulz, Marjo Saastamoinen & Ilkka Hanski
Dispersal is important for determining both a species ecological processes, such as population viability, and its evolutionary processes, like gene flow and local adaptation. Yet obtaining accurate estimates in the wild through direct observation can be challenging or even impossible, particularly over large spatial and temporal scales. Genotyping many individuals from wild populations can provide detailed inferences about dispersal. We therefore utilized genomewide marker data to estimate dispersal in the classic metapopulation of the Glanville...

Data from: Cold adaptation drives variability in needle structure and anatomy in Pinus sylvestris L. along a 1,900 km temperate–boreal transect

Artur Jankowski, Tomasz P. Wyka, Roma Żytkowiak, Bengt Nihlgård, Peter B. Reich & Jacek Oleksyn
1. Occupancy of cold habitats by evergreen species requires structural modification of photosynthetic organs for stress resistance and longevity. Such modifications have been described at inter-specific level while intra-specific variation has been underexplored. 2. To identify structural and anatomical traits that may be adaptive in cold environments, we studied intra-specific variability of needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), a wide-ranging tree, along a 1900 km temperate-boreal transect in Europe. 3. Needles from 20 sites...

Data from: Widespread increases in iron concentration in European and North American freshwaters

Caroline Björnerås, Gesa A. Weyhenmeyer, Chris D. Evans, Mark O. Gessner, Hans-Peter Grossart, Külli Kangur, Ilga Kokorite, Pirkko Kortelainen, Hjalmar Laudon, Jouni Lehoranta, Noah Lottig, Don T. Monteith, Peter Nõges, Tiina Nõges, Filip Oulehle, Gunnhild Riise, James A. Rusak, Antti Räike, Janis Sire, Shannon Sterling & Emma Kritzberg
Recent reports of increasing iron (Fe) concentrations in freshwaters are of concern, given the fundamental role of Fe in biogeochemical processes. Still, little is known about the frequency and geographical distribution of Fe trends, or about the underlying drivers. We analyzed temporal trends of Fe concentrations across 340 water bodies distributed over 10 countries in northern Europe and North America in order to gain a clearer understanding of where, to what extent, and why Fe...

Data from: How feathered are birds? environment predicts both the mass and density of body feathers

Gergely Osváth, Timea Daubner, Gareth Dyke, Tibor I. Fuisz, Andreas Nord, Janka Pénzes, Dorottya Vargancsik, Csongor I. Vagasi, Orsolya Vincze & Péter L. Pap
1.Studies modelling heat transfer of bird plumage design suggest that insulative properties can be attributed to the density and structure of the downy layer, while waterproofing is the result of the outer layer, comprised of contour feathers. In this study, we test how habitat and thermal condition affect feather mass and density of body feathers (contour, semiplume and downy feathers) measured on the ventral and dorsal sides of the body, using a phylogenetic comparative analysis...

Data from: On the missing link in ecology: improving communication between modellers and experimentalists

Jan Heuschele, Mikael T. Ekvall, Patrizio Mariani & Christian Lindemann
Collaboration between modellers and experimentalists is essential in ecological research, however, different obstacles linking both camps often hinder scientific progress. In this commentary, we discuss several issues of the current state of affairs in this research loop. Backed by an online survey amongst fellow ecologists, modellers and experimentalists alike, we identify two major areas that need to be mended. Firstly, differences in language and jargon lead to a lack of exchange of ideas and to...

Registration Year

  • 2017
    54

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    54

Affiliations

  • Lund University
    54
  • Uppsala University
    6
  • University of Oxford
    6
  • University of Cambridge
    5
  • University of Tasmania
    3
  • Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
    3
  • Max Planck Institute for Ornithology
    2
  • Estación Biológica de Doñana
    2
  • Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology
    2
  • Universidad Mayor
    2