56 Works

Resistance-recovery tradeoff of soil microbial communities under altered rain regimes: An experimental test across European agroecosystems

Gabin Piton, Arnaud Foulquier, Laura B. Martinez-García, Nicolas Legay, Lijbert Brussaard, Katarina Hedlund, Pedro Martins Da Silva, Eduardo Nascimento, Filipa Reis, José Paulo Sousa, Jean Christophe Clement & Gerlinde De Deyn
With the increased occurrence of climate extremes, there is an urgent need to better understand how management strategies affect the capacity of the soil microbial community to maintain its ecosystem functions (e.g. nutrient cycling). To address this issue, intact monoliths were extracted from conventional and ecological managed grasslands in three countries across Europe and exposed under common air condition (temperature and moisture) to one of three altered rain regimes (dry, wet and intermittent wet/dry) as...

Data offspring performance following two-donor crosses at different floral stages and with different competitor types in greenhouse studies of Collinsia heterophylla

Åsa Lankinen, Josefin Madjidian, Henrik G. Smith & Stefan Andersson
Data on two offspring performance traits (seeds per capsule and flower number) in greenhouse studies of Collinsia heterophylla to investigate indirect benefits of mate choice. We performed two-donor pollinations during successive floral stages and with different competitor types (outcross and self) to assess how stigma receptivity and two pollen traits known to affect siring success influence offspring performance. We also investigated the link between seed production in mothers and offspring as an indication of heritability...

Down feather morphology reflects adaptation to habitat and thermal conditions across the avian phylogeny

Peter Laszlo Pap, Gergely Osváth, Timea Daubner, Andreas Nord & Orsolya Vincze
Down feathers are the first feather types that appear in both the phylogenetic and the ontogenetic history of birds. Although it is widely acknowledged that the primary function of downy elements is insulation, little is known about the interspecific variability in the structural morphology of these feathers, and the environmental factors that have influenced their evolution. Here, we collected samples of down and afterfeathers from 156 bird species and measured key morphological characters that define...

Data from: The costs and benefits of paternal care in fish: a meta-analysis

Rebecca Goldberg, Philip Downing, Ashleigh Griffin & Jonathan Green
Male-only parental care, while rare in most animals, is a widespread strategy within teleost fish. The costs and benefits to males of acting as sole carer are highly variable between fish species making it challenging to determine the selective pressures driving the evolution of male-only care to such a high prevalence. We conducted a phylogenetic meta-analysis to examine the costs and benefits of paternal care across fish species. We found no evidence that providing care...

Data from: More than meets the eye: predator-induced pupil size plasticity in a teleost fish

Jerker Vinterstare, Kaj Hulthén, Dan Nilsson, Anders Nilsson & Christer Brönmark
1. Most animals are visually oriented, and their eyes provide their “window to the world”. Eye size correlates positively with visual performance, because larger eyes can house larger pupils that increase photon catch and contrast discrimination, particularly under dim light, which have positive effects on behaviours that enhance fitness, including predator avoidance and foraging. 2. Recent studies have linked predation risk to selection for larger eyes and pupils, and such changes should be of importance...

Data from: Oxidative damage to lipids is rapidly reduced during migratory stopovers

Cas Eikenaar, Erica Winslott, Sven Hessler & Caroline Isaksson
Most migrating birds need to stopover in between flights in order to refuel. Lately, additional purposes of stopover have been suggested, including physiological recovery from metabolically demanding migratory flight. One apparently unavoidable, but harmful physiological effect of migratory flight is increased oxidative damage to lipids and proteins. We here, for the first time, tested whether migrating birds are able to reduce their oxidative damage during stopover. To be able to collect longitudinal data on a...

Predictability of food supply modulates nocturnal hypothermia in a small passerine

Johan Nilsson
The combination of short days and long cold nights in winter, in temperate regions, presents a major challenge for small diurnal birds. Small birds regularly employ heterothermy and enter rest-phase hypothermia during winter nights to conserve energy. However, we know little about how environmental conditions, such as food availability, shape these strategies. Using an experimental set-up, we manipulated food availability in winter to free-living great tits Parus major. A “predictable” and constant food supply was...

Metabolic rate, context-dependent selection, and the competition-colonization trade-off

Amanda Pettersen, Matthew Hall, Craig White & Dustin Marshall
Metabolism is linked with the pace‐of‐life, co‐varying with survival, growth, and reproduction. Metabolic rates should therefore be under strong selection and, if heritable, become less variable over time. Yet intraspecific variation in metabolic rates is ubiquitous, even after accounting for body mass and temperature. Theory predicts variable selection maintains trait variation, but field estimates of how selection on metabolism varies are rare. We use a model marine invertebrate to estimate selection on metabolic rates in...

Using ecological context to interpret spatiotemporal variation in natural selection

Elena Albertsen, Elena Albertsen, Øystein Opedal, Geir Bolstad, Rocio Barrales, Thomas Hansen, Christophe Pelabon & W. Scott Armbruster
Spatiotemporal variation in natural selection is expected, but difficult to estimate. Pollinator-mediated selection on floral traits provides a good system for understanding and linking variation in selection to differences in ecological context. We studied pollinator-mediated selection in five populations of Dalechampia scandens (Euphorbiaceae) in Costa Rica and Mexico. Using a nonlinear path-analytical approach, we assessed several functional components of selection, and linked variation in pollinator-mediated selection across time and space to variation in pollinator assemblages....

A fingerprint of climate change across pine forests of Sweden

Jacek Oleksyn, Tomasz Wyka, Roma Żytkowiak, Marcin Zadworny, Joanna Mucha, Monika Dering, Krzysztof Ufnalski, Bengt Nihlgard & Peter Reich
Needle traits of coniferous forests reflect environmental conditions and influence tree physiology and growth. Given the sensitivity of needle traits and tree growth to climate, temperature warming of ≈1°C in the past century may have influenced structure and function of high latitude forests across the globe. Here we show that throughout a ≈1,000 km transect in cold, high latitude Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests in Sweden, which has warmed by ≈1°C in a century,...

Selection on phenotypic plasticity favors thermal canalization

Erik Svensson, Miguel Gomez-Llano & John Waller
Climate change affects organisms worldwide with profound ecological and evolutionary consequences, often increasing population extinction risk. Climatic factors can increase the strength, variability or direction of natural selection on phenotypic traits, potentially driving adaptive evolution. Phenotypic plasticity in relation to temperature can allow organisms to maintain fitness in response to increasing temperatures, thereby “buying time” for subsequent genetic adaptation and promoting evolutionary rescue. Although many studies have shown that organisms respond plastically to increasing temperatures,...

Configurational crop heterogeneity increases within-field plant diversity

Audrey Alignier, Xavier Solé-Senan, Irene Robleño, Barbara Baraibar, Fahrig Lenore, David Giralt, Nicolas Gross, Jean-Louis Martin, Jordi Recasens, Clelia Sirami, Gavin Siriwardena, Aliette Bosem Baillod, Colette Bertrand, Romain Carrie, Annika Hass, Laura Henckel, Paul Miguet, Isabelle Badenhausser, Jacques Baudry, Gerard Bota, Vincent Bretagnolle, Lluis Brotons, Francoise Burel, François Calatayud, Yann Clough … & Péter Batáry
1. Increasing landscape heterogeneity by restoring semi-natural elements to reverse farmland biodiversity declines is not always economically feasible or acceptable to farmers due to competition for land. We hypothesized that increasing the heterogeneity of the crop mosaic itself, hereafter referred to as crop heterogeneity, can have beneficial effects on within-field plant diversity. 2. Using a unique multi-country dataset from a cross-continent collaborative project covering 1451 agricultural fields within 432 landscapes in Europe and Canada, we...

The effectiveness of flower strips and hedgerows on pest control, pollination services and crop yield: a quantitative synthesis

Matthias Albrecht, David Kleijn, Neal Williams, Matthias Tschumi, Brett Blaauw, Riccardo Bommarco, Alistair Campbell, Matteo Dainese, Frank Drummond, Martin Entling, Dominik Ganser, Arjen De Groot, David Goulson, Heather Grab, Hannah Hamilton, Felix Herzog, Rufus Isaacs, Katja Jacot, Philippe Jeanneret, Mattias Jonsson, Eva Knop, Claire Kremen, Doug Landis, Greg Loeb, Lorenzo Marini … & Louis Sutter
Floral plantings are promoted to foster ecological intensification of agriculture through provisioning of ecosystem services. However, a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of different floral plantings, their characteristics and consequences for crop yield is lacking. Here we quantified the impacts of flower strips and hedgerows on pest control (18 studies) and pollination services (17 studies) in adjacent crops in North America, Europe and New Zealand. Flower strips, but not hedgerows, enhanced pest control services in...

Reliably predicting pollinator abundance: challenges of calibrating process-based ecological models

Emma Gardner, Tom Breeze, Yann Clough, Henrik Smith, Katherine Baldock, Alistair Campbell, Michael Garratt, Mark Gillespie, William Kunin, Megan McKerchar, Jane Memmott, Simon Potts, Deepa Senapathi, Graham Stone, Felix Wäckers, Duncan Westbury, Andrew Wilby & Thomas Oliver
1. Pollination is a key ecosystem service for global agriculture but evidence of pollinator population declines is growing. Reliable spatial modelling of pollinator abundance is essential if we are to identify areas at risk of pollination service deficit and effectively target resources to support pollinator populations. Many models exist which predict pollinator abundance but few have been calibrated against observational data from multiple habitats to ensure their predictions are accurate. 2. We selected the most...

Crop diversity benefits carabid and pollinator communities in landscapes with semi-natural habitats

Guillermo Aguilera Núñez, Tomas Roslin, Kirsten Miller, Giovanni Tamburini, Klaus Birkhofer, Berta Caballero-Lopez, Sandra Lindström, Erik Öckinger, , Adrien Rusch, Henrik Smith & Riccardo Bommarco
1. In agricultural landscapes, arthropods provide essential ecosystem services such as biological pest control and pollination. Intensified crop management practices and homogenization of landscapes have led to declines among such organisms. Semi-natural habitats, associated with high numbers of these organisms, are increasingly lost from agricultural landscapes but diversification by increasing crop diversity has been proposed as a way to reverse observed arthropod declines and thus restore ecosystem services. However, whether or not an increase in...

Derivation and utility of an Aβ-PET pathology accumulation index to estimate Aβ load

Antoine Leuzy, Johan Lilja, Christopher Buckley, Rik Ossenkoppele, Sebastian Palmqvist, Mark Battle, Gill Farrar, Dietmar Thal, Shorena Janelidze, Erik Stomrud, Olof Strandberg, Ruben Smith & Oskar Hansson
Abstract Objective: To evaluate a novel Aβ-PET based quantitative measure (Aβ accumulation index [Aβ-index]), including the assessment of its ability to discriminate between subjects based on Aβ-status using visual-read, CSF Aβ42/Aβ40 and post-mortem neuritic-plaque burden as standards of truth. Methods: 1121 subjects (with and without cognitive impairment) scanned with Aβ-PET: Swedish BioFINDER, n=392, [18F]flutemetamol; ADNI, n=692, [18F]florbetapir; a phase-3 end-of-life study, n=100, [18F]flutemetamol). The relationships between Aβ-index and standardized uptake values ratios (SUVR) from Aβ-PET...

The microevolutionary response to male-limited X-chromosome evolution in Drosophila melanogaster reflects macroevolutionary patterns

Jessica Abbott, Adam Chippindale & Ted Morrow
Due to its hemizygous inheritance and role in sex determination, the X chromosome is expected to play an important role in the evolution of sexual dimorphism, and to be enriched for sexually antagonistic genetic variation. By forcing the X chromosome to only be expressed in males over >40 generations, we changed the selection pressures on the X to become similar to those experienced by the Y. This releases the X from any constraints arising from...

Data from: Co-introduction of native mycorrhizal fungi and plant seeds accelerates restoration of post-mining landscapes

Tanel Vahter, C. Bueno, John Davison, Koit Herodes, Inga Hiiesalu, Liis Kasari-Toussaint, Jane Oja, Pal Olsson, Siim Sepp, Martin Zobel, Martti Vasar & Maarja Öpik
1. Grasslands are among the most threatened terrestrial biomes, and habitat conservation alone will be insufficient to meet biodiversity goals. While restoration of indigenous grasslands is a priority, conflict with economic objectives means that incorporation of alternative habitats is necessary to offset grassland loss. With up to 800,000 km² of land affected by mining globally, there is an opportunity to create additional grassland habitat in post-mining landscapes. 2. We aimed to assess whether co-introduction of...

Helmet continuous positive airway pressure versus high-flow nasal cannula in COVID-19: a pragmatic randomised clinical trial (COVID HELMET)

Jonas Tverring, Anna Åkesson & Niklas Nielsen
Abstract Background Patients with COVID-19 and hypoxaemia despite conventional low-flow oxygen therapy are often treated with high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) in line with international guidelines. Oxygen delivery by helmet continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a feasible option that enables a higher positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and may theoretically reduce the need for intubation compared to HFNC but direct comparative evidence is lacking. Methods We plan to perform an investigator-initiated, pragmatic, randomised trial at an...

A genome-wide linkage map for the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) provides insights into the evolutionary history of the avian genome

Ingerid Hagen, Sigbjørn Lien, Anna Billing, Tore O. Elgvin, Cassandra Trier, Alina K. Niskanen, Maja Tarka, Jon Slate, Glenn-Peter Sætre & Henrik Jensen
The house sparrow is an important model species for studying physiological, ecological and evolutionary processes in wild populations. Here, we present a medium density, genome wide linkage map for house sparrow (Passer domesticus) that has aided the assembly of the house sparrow reference genome, and that will provide an important resource for ongoing mapping of genes controlling important traits in the ecology and evolution of this species. Using a custom house sparrow 10K iSelect Illumina...

Data from: Male-male competition causes parasite-mediated sexual selection for local adaptation

Miguel Gomez-Llano, Aaditya Narasimhan & Erik Svensson
Sexual selection has been suggested to accelerate local adaptation and promote evolutionary rescue through several ecological and genetic mechanisms. Condition-dependent sexual selection has mainly been studied in laboratory settings while data from natural populations are lacking. One ecological factor that can cause condition-dependent sexual selection is parasitism. Here, we quantified ectoparasite load (Arrenurus water mites) in a natural population of the common bluetail damselfly (Ischnura elegans) over 15 years. We quantified the strength of sexual...

Supplementary tables S5, S7, S9, S10, original protein models fasta files used for alignments, aligned and manually curated protein modes files used for phylogenies (PHYLIP format), and phylogenetic trees of plant cell wall decomposition gene families from 44 basidiomycete genomes (.tre files)

Dimitrios Floudas, Johan Bentzer, Dag Ahren, Tomas Johansson, Per Persson & Anders Tunlid
Litter-decomposing Agaricales play key role in terrestrial carbon cycling, but little is known about their decomposition mechanisms. We assembled datasets of 42 gene families involved in plant-cell-wall decomposition from seven newly sequenced litter decomposers and 35 other Agaricomycotina members, mostly white-rot and brown-rot species. Using sequence similarity and phylogenetics, we split the families into phylogroups and compared their gene composition across nutritional strategies. Subsequently, we used Raman spectroscopy to examine the ability of litter decomposers,...

Dramatic decline of northern bat Eptesicus nilssonii in Sweden over 30 years

Jens Rydell, Marcus Elfstrom & Sonia Sanchez-Navarro
We monitored northern bat Eptesicus nilssonii (Keyserling & Blasius, 1839) acoustically along a 27 km road transect at weekly intervals in 1988, 1989, and 1990, and again in 2016 and 2017. The methodology of data collection and the transect were the same throughout, except that the insect-attracting mercury-vapour streetlights along parts of the road were replaced by sodium lights between the two survey periods. Counts along sections of the transect with and without streetlights were...

Accelerated landing in a stingless bee and its unexpected benefits for traffic congestion

Pierre Tichit, Isabel Alves-Dos-Santos, Marie Dacke & Emily Baird
To land, flying animals must simultaneously reduce speed and control their path to the target. While the control of approach speed has been studied in many different animals, little is known about the effect of target size on landing, particularly for small targets that require precise trajectory control. To begin to explore this, we recorded the stingless bee Scaptotrigona depilis landing on their natural hive entrance – a narrow wax tube built by the bees...

Whole-genome analysis across ten songbird families within Sylvioidea reveals a novel autosome–sex chromosome fusion

Hanna Sigeman, Suvi Ponnikas & Bengt Hansson
Sex chromosomes in birds have long been considered to be extremely stable. However, this notion has lately been challenged by findings of independent autosome–sex chromosome fusions within songbirds, several of which occur within a single clade, the superfamily Sylvioidea. To understand what ecological and evolutionary processes drive changes in sex chromosome systems, we need complete descriptions of sex chromosome diversity across taxonomic groups. Here, we characterize the sex chromosome systems across Sylvioidea using whole-genome data...

Registration Year

  • 2020
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Affiliations

  • Lund University
    56
  • Stockholm University
    4
  • University of Reading
    4
  • Monash University
    3
  • Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
    3
  • University of Worcester
    2
  • University of Cambridge
    2
  • University of Edinburgh
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  • University of Oslo
    2
  • University of Wisconsin-Madison
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