73 Works

Data from: A molecular phylogeny of forktail damselflies (genus Ischnura) reveals a dynamic macroevolutionary history of female colour polymorphisms

Rachel Blow, Beatriz Willink & Erik Svensson
Colour polymorphisms are popular study systems among biologists interested in evolutionary dynamics, genomics, sexual selection and sexual conflict. In many damselflies, such as in the globally distributed genus Ischnura (forktails), female colour polymorphisms occur in some species. Female-polymorphic species contain two or three female morphs, one of which is male-coloured (androchrome or male mimic) and co-exists with sexually dimorphic (heterochrome) females. These female colour polymorphisms are considered to be maintained by frequency-dependent sexual conflict, but...

Genetics of quantitative traits with dominance under stabilizing and directional selection in partially selfing species

Josselin CLO & Øystein Opedal
Recurrent self-fertilization is thought to lead to reduced adaptive potential by decreasing the genetic diversity of populations, thus leading selfing lineages down an evolutionary ‘blind alley’. Though well supported theoretically, empirical support for reduced adaptability in selfing species is limited. One limitation of classical theoretical models is that they assume pure additivity of the fitness-related traits that are under stabilizing selection, despite ample evidence that quantitative traits are subject to dominance. Here we relax this...

Data from: Climate shapes the geographic distribution and introgressive spread of colour ornamentation in common wall lizards

Maravillas Ruiz Minano, Geoffrey While, Weizhao Yang, Christopher Burridge, Roberto Sacchi, Marco Zuffi, Stefano Scali, Daniele Salvi & Tobias Uller
Climate can exert an effect on the strength of sexual selection, but empirical evidence is limited. Here, we tested if climate predicts the geographic distribution and introgressive spread of sexually selected male colour ornamentation across 114 populations of the common wall lizard, Podarcis muralis. Colouration was highly structured across the landscape, and did not reflect genetic differentiation. Instead, colour ornamentation was consistently exaggerated in hot and dry environments, suggesting that climate-driven selection maintains geographic variation...

Exposure to artificial light at night alters innate immune response in wild great tit nestlings

Ann-Kathrin Ziegler, Watson Hannah, Hegemann Arne, Meitern Richard, Canoine Virginie, Nilsson Jan-Åke & Isaksson Caroline
The large-scale impact of urbanization on wildlife is rather well documented; however, the mechanisms underlying the effects of urban environments on animal physiology and behaviour are still poorly understood. Here, we focused on one major urban pollutant - artificial light at night (ALAN) - and its effects on the capacity to mount an innate immune response in wild great tit (Parus major) nestlings. Exposure to ALAN alters circadian rhythms of physiological processes, by disrupting the...

Towards a stable global Noctuidae (Lepidoptera) taxonomy

Kevin Keegan, Jadranka Rota, Reza Zahiri, Alberto Zilli, Niklas Wahlberg, B. Christian Schmidt, J. Donald Lafontaine, Paul Goldstein & David Wagner
The family Noctuidae is one of the world’s most diverse, ecologically successful, and economically important animal lineages; with over 12,000 species in ~1150 genera. We inferred a phylogeny based on eight protein-coding genes (>6,400 base pairs) for the global fauna, greatly expanding upon previous attempts to stabilize the higher classification of Noctuidae by sampling 70 of the 76 widely recognized family-group taxa: 20 of the 21 subfamilies, 32 of the 35 tribes, and 18 of...

Why don't all animals avoid inbreeding?

Victoria Pike, Charlie Cornwallis & Ashleigh Griffin
Individuals are expected to avoid mating with relatives as inbreeding can reduce offspring fitness, a phenomenon known as inbreeding depression. This has led to the widespread assumption that selection will favour individuals that avoid mating with relatives. However, the strength of inbreeding avoidance is variable across species and there are numerous cases where related mates are not avoided. Here we test if the frequency that related males and females encounter each other explains variation in...

A field experiment reveals seasonal variation in the Daphnia gut microbiome

Alexander Hegg, Reinder Radersma & Tobias Uller
The gut microbiome is increasingly recognized for its impact on host fitness, but it remains poorly understood how naturally variable environments influence gut microbiome diversity and composition. We studied changes in the gut microbiome of ten genotypes of water fleas (Daphnia magna) in submerged mesocosm enclosures in a eutrophic lake over a period of 16 weeks, from early summer to autumn. The microbial diversity increased when Daphnia were reintroduced from the laboratory to the lake,...

Data from: Reindeer control over subarctic treeline alters soil fungal communities with potential consequences for soil carbon storage

Henni Ylänne, Rieke L. Madsen, Carles Castaño, Daniel B. Metcalfe & Karina E. Clemmensen
Here we present the data and R script from “Reindeer control over subarctic treeline alters soil fungal communities with potential consequences for soil carbon storage” by Henni Ylänne, Rieke L. Madsen, Carles Castaño, Daniel B. Metcalfe and Karina E. Clemmensen (Global Change Biology, 2021). In this study we reported the impacts of grazing regime and mountain birch vicinity on the abundance, diversity and community composition of the soil fungal community, and explored how the soil...

Daphnia magna trade-off safety from UV radiation for food

Marcus Lee & Lars-Anders Hansson
Research on diel vertical migration (DVM) is generally conducted at the population level, whereas few studies have focused on how individual animals behaviorally respond to threats when also having access to foraging opportunities. We utilized a 3-D tracking platform to record the swimming behavior of Daphnia magna exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in the presence or absence of a food patch. We analyzed the vertical position of individuals before and during UVR exposure and found...

Fine-scale changes in speed and altitude suggest protean movements in homing pigeon flights

Baptiste Garde, Rory Wilson, Emmanouil Lempidakis, Luca Börger, Steven Portugal, Anders Hedenström, Giacomo Dell'Omo, Michael Quetting, Martin Wikelski & Emily L. C. Shepard
The power curve provides a basis for predicting adjustments that animals make in flight speed, for example in relation to wind, distance, habitat foraging quality and objective. However, relatively few studies have examined how animals respond to the landscape below them, which could affect speed and power allocation through modifications in climb rate and perceived predation risk. We equipped homing pigeons (Columba livia) with high-frequency loggers to examine how flight speed, and hence effort, varies...

Divergence in coding sequence and expression of different functional categories of immune genes between two wild rodent species

Lars Råberg, Xiuqin Zhong & Max Lundberg
Differences in immune function between species could be a result of interspecific divergence in coding sequence and/or expression of immune genes. Here, we investigate how the degree of divergence in coding sequence and expression differs between functional categories of immune genes, and if differences between categories occur independently of other factors (e.g. expression level, pleiotropy). To this end, we compared spleen transcriptomes of wild-caught yellow-necked mice and bank voles. Immune genes expressed in the spleen...

Recent changes in mountain birch forest structure and understory vegetation depend on the seasonal timing of reindeer grazing

Sari Stark, Henni Ylänne & Jouko Kumpula
1. Subarctic forest-tundra ecotones dominated by mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) is an important habitat for semi-domestic reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). The seasonal timing of reindeer grazing may direct vegetation trajectories in these systems, because in the summer ranges, mountain birches are subjected to browsing, while in the winter ranges, reindeer feed on understorey vegetation and arboreal lichens but leave the mountain birches intact. 2. Based on earlier research, we predicted that (1) summer browsing...

Low-quality carbon and lack of nutrients result in a stronger fungal than bacterial home-field advantage during the decomposition of leaf litter

Garazi Benito-Carnero, Nahia Gartzia-Bengoetxea, Ander Arias-Gonzalez & Johannes Rousk
Decomposition of litter is a key biochemical process that regulates the rate and magnitude of CO2 fluxes from biosphere to atmosphere and determines soil nutrient availability. Although several studies have shown that plant litter decomposes faster in their native compared to a foreign environment, i.e. a home field advantage (HFA) for litter degradation, to date HFA has only been considered in terms of respiration or litter mass loss. The ecological success will be determined by...

Data for Predation and resource availability interact to drive life-history evolution in an adaptive radiation of livebearing fish

Randall Brian Langerhans & Kaj Hulthén
Predation risk and resource availability are two primary factors predicted by theory to drive the evolution of life histories. Yet, disentangling their roles in life-history evolution in the wild is challenging because (1) the two factors often co-vary across environments and (2) environmental effects on phenotypes can mask patterns of genotypic evolution. Here, we use the model system of the Post-Pleistocene radiation of Bahamas mosquitofish (Gambusia hubbsi) inhabiting blue holes to provide a strong test...

Urbanization extends flight phenology and leads to local adaptation of seasonal plasticity in Lepidoptera

Thomas Merckx, Matthew Nielsen, Janne Heliölä, Mikko Kuussaari, Lars Pettersson, Juha Pöyry, Juha Tiainen, Karl Gotthard & Sami Kivelä
Urbanization is globally gaining force and challenges biodiversity but has recently also emerged as an agent of evolutionary change. Seasonal phenology and life-cycle regulation are essential processes that urbanization is likely to alter through both the urban-heat-island effect (UHI) and artificial-light-at-night (ALAN). However, how UHI and ALAN affect the evolution of seasonal adaptations has received little attention. Here, we test for urban evolution of seasonal life-history plasticity, specifically changes in the photoperiodic induction of diapause...

Data supporting Fear of sex: Sexual conflict exposed as avoidance in a parthenogenetic invertebrate

Marcus Lee, Carlota Solano Udina & Lars-Anders Hansson
Males and females often have divergent evolutionary interests, generating sexual conflicts. This is particularly true in organisms that exhibit facultative sexuality, whereby females are capable of reproducing without fitness costs of mating. Here we provide the first documented evidence with quantitative tracking showing that sex interacts with social context to determine space-use of females, in a pattern resembling predator avoidance. To achieve this, we labeled Daphnia magna with fluorescent nanoparticles and utilized a 3-D tracking...

Analyzing disparity and rates of morphological evolution with model-based phylogenetic comparative methods

Thomas F. Hansen, Geir Bolstad & Masahito Tsuboi
Understanding variation in rates of evolution and morphological disparity is a goal of macroevolutionary research. In a phylogenetic comparative methods framework, we present three explicit models for linking the rate of evolution of a trait to the state of another evolving trait. This allows testing hypotheses about causal influences on rates of phenotypic evolution with phylogenetic comparative data. We develop a statistical framework for fitting the models with generalized least-squares regression, and use this to...

Contrasting effects of tree origin and urbanization on invertebrate abundance and tree phenology

Johan Kjellberg Jensen, Sherin Jayousi, Maria Von Post, Caroline Isaksson & Anna S. Persson
The ongoing wide-scale introduction of non-native plants across the world may negatively influence native invertebrate fauna, due to a lack of co-evolved traits related to the novel plants, e.g. unique phytochemicals or shifted phenology. Non-native plants, specifically trees, are common in urban environments, areas that already pose novel habitats to plants and wildlife through a wide array of anthropogenic factors. For example, impervious surfaces contribute to increased ambient temperatures, the so-called urban heat island effect...

Data from: Phenotypic plasticity in floral scent in response to nutrient, but not water, availability in the perennial plant Arabis alpina (Brassicaceae)

Victoria Luizzi, Magne Friberg & Hampus Petrén
Floral scent is an important mediator of plant-pollinator interactions. Multiple recent studies report ample intraspecific scent variation among populations and individuals. Yet, few studies have estimated effects of phenotypic plasticity on floral scent in response to differing environmental factors. In this study, we investigated effects of nutrient and water availability on floral scent in self-compatible and self-incompatible populations of the perennial herb Arabis alpina. We subjected greenhouse grown plants to different nutrient and water treatments...

A highly conserved ontogenetic limb allometry and its evolutionary significance in the adaptive radiation of Anolis lizards

Nathalie Feiner, Illiam Jackson, Eliane Van Der Cruyssen & Tobias Uller
A key characteristic of adaptive radiations is the diversification into ecologically specialized morphologies. However, comparative morphology indicates that diversifications often proceed along narrow, and phylogenetically highly conserved, evolutionary trajectories. These patterns of covariation between characters arise in ontogeny, raising the possibility that adaptive morphologies might be biased towards trait covariation that resemble growth trajectories. Anolis lizards are an excellent system to test this prediction since they have repeatedly evolved highly specialized locomotor morphologies. Here, we...

Predation shapes behavioral lateralization: insights from an adaptive radiation of livebearing fish

Kaj Hulthén, Heinen-Kay Justa Lee, Danielle Schmidt & R. Brian Langerhans
Hemispheric brain lateralization can drive the expression of behavioral asymmetry, or laterality, which varies notably both within and among species. To explain these left–right behavioral asymmetries in animals, predator-mediated selection is often invoked. Recent studies have revealed that a relatively high degree of lateralization correlates positively with traits known to confer survival benefits against predators, including escape performance, multitasking abilities, and group coordination. Yet, we still know comparatively little about 1) how consistently predators shape...

The influence of maternal glucocorticoids on offspring phenotype in high- and low-risk environments

Kirsty J. MacLeod, Tracy Langkilde, Cameron Venable, David Ensminger & Michael Sheriff
Elevated maternal glucocorticoid levels during gestation can lead to phenotypic changes in offspring via maternal effects. Although such effects have traditionally been considered maladaptive, maternally derived glucocorticoids may adaptively prepare offspring for their future environment depending upon the correlation between maternal and offspring environments. Nevertheless, relatively few studies test the effects of prenatal glucocorticoid exposure across multiple environments. We tested the potential for ecologically relevant increases in maternal glucocorticoids in the eastern fence lizard (Sceloporus...

Supplementary Figure S1. Novel protein markers of androgen activity in humans with potential clinical value

Aleksander Giwercman, K. Barbara Sahlin, Indira Pla, Krzysztof Pawlowski, Yvonne Lundberg Giwercman, Irene Leijonhufvud, Roger Appelqvist, Aniel Sanchez & Johan Malm
Supplementary Figure S1. Boxplots based on the Log2 intensities of the differentially expressed proteins (Table S5). The healthy human model (i.e. castrated men).

A possible association between early life factors and burden of functional bowel symptoms in adulthood

Johanna Wennerberg, Shantanu Sharma, Peter M. Nilsson & Bodil Ohlsson
The studies of early life factors and development of functional bowel diseases show inconsistent results. We therefore examined associations between certain early life factors and functional bowel symptoms in adulthood. Population-based cross-sectional study. Weight and height were measured and questionnaires were completed at the time point of enrollment in MOS. 1013 participants in the Malmö Offspring Study (MOS) without organic bowel disease with data available from the Swedish Medical Birth Registry. Associations were calculated between...

Latitudinal clines in sexual selection, sexual size dimorphism, and sex-specific genetic dispersal during a poleward range expansion

Rachael Dudaniec, Alexander Carey, Erik Svensson, Bengt Hansson, Chuan Ji Yong & Lesley Lancaster
Range expansions can be shaped by sex differences in behaviours and other phenotypic traits affecting dispersal and reproduction. Here, we investigate sex differences in morphology, behaviour and genomic population differentiation along a climate-mediated range expansion in the common bluetail damselfly Ischnura elegans in northern Europe. We sampled 65 sites along a 583 km gradient spanning the I. elegans range in Sweden and quantified latitudinal gradients in site relative abundance, sex ratio and sex-specific shifts in...

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Affiliations

  • Lund University
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  • Skåne University Hospital
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  • North Carolina State University
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  • Aarhus University
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  • University of Oslo
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  • University of Connecticut
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  • Natural Resources Institute Finland
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  • Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
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