68 Works

Root influence on soil nitrogen availability and microbial community dynamics results in contrasting rhizosphere priming effects in pine and spruce soil

Jian Li, Saeed Alaei, Moyan Zhou & Per Bengtson
1. The rhizosphere priming effect (RPE) is increasingly considered an important regulator of belowground C and N cycling, with implications for terrestrial ecosystem feedback to global change. Even so there is a lack of knowledge about the mechanisms underlying RPEs. 2. We used novel stable isotope probing methods to investigate RPEs in an experiment with Scots pine and Norway spruce seedlings, two of the most common boreal forest species. We determined root exudation rates, RPEs...

Data from: Reduced crop density increases floral resources to pollinators without affecting crop yield in organic and conventional fields

William Sidemo-Holm, Romain Carrié, Johan Ekroos, Sandra A.M. Lindström & Henrik G. Smith
Effective weed control in agricultural crop fields increases yields, but simultaneously reduces floral resources for pollinators because many weed species provide pollen and nectar. Consequently, efforts to enhance crop yields on organic farms by using effective weed control methods risk compromising positive effects of organic farming on pollinating insects. Thus, it is important to find management strategies that alleviate the trade-off between crop yields and flowering weeds on organic farms. We investigated the relationship between...

Data from: Opsins in Onychophora (velvet worms) suggest a single origin and subsequent diversification of visual pigments in arthropods

Lars Hering, Miriam J. Henze, Martin Kohler, Almut Kelber, Christoph Bleidorn, Maren Leschke, Birgit Nickel, Matthias Meyer, Martin Kircher, Paul Sunnucks & Georg Mayer
Multiple visual pigments, prerequisites for color vision, are found in arthropods, but the evolutionary origin of their diversity remains obscure. In this study, we explore the opsin genes in five distantly related species of Onychophora, using deep transcriptome sequencing and screening approaches. Surprisingly, our data reveal the presence of only one opsin gene (onychopsin) in each onychophoran species, and our behavioral experiments indicate a maximum sensitivity of onychopsin to blue–green light. In our phylogenetic analyses,...

Data from: Female-limited X-chromosome evolution effects on male pre- and post-copulatory success

Yesbol Manat, Katrine Lund-Hansen, Georgios Katsianis & Jessica Abbott
In our article, entitled “Female-limited X-chromosome evolution effects on male pre- and post-copulatory success”, we carried out a female-limited X chromosome evolution experiment to study the effect of X-linked sexually antagonistic genetic variance on male reproductive traits. By limiting expression of the X chromosome to females for multiple generations, we removed male selective constraints, which should allow X-linked female-beneficial alleles to increase in frequency. As a result, expressing the experimentally evolved X chromosome in males,...

Hybrids between Rubus idaeus and Rubus Sect. Corylifolii and their relation to R. pruinosus and R. rosanthus

Ulf Ryde, Melanie Montes, Mingyue Zhou, Tore Mattsson, Tomas Burén & Mikael Hedrén
We have studied hybrids between Rubus idaeus and various members of R. Sect. Corylifolii, primarily in Sweden. With the help of DNA-ploidy level determinations using flow cytometry and microsatellite DNA analysis of over 500 samples, we show that the material can be divided into four stable apomictic species (belonging to Subsect. Subidaei) and a large number of primary hybrids. Stable species can be recognised by a distribution that is distinct from the Corylifolii parent, a...

Comparing the clinical utility and diagnostic performance of cerebrospinal fluid P-tau181, P-tau217 and P-tau231 assays

Antoine Leuzy, Shorena Janelidze, Niklas Mattsson-Carlgren, Sebastian Palmqvist, Dirk Jacobs, Claudia Cicognola, Erik Stomrud, Oskar Hansson, Eugeen Vanmechelen & Jeffrey Dage
Background and Objectives: Phosphorylated tau (P-tau) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is considered an important biomarker in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and has been incorporated in recent diagnostic criteria. Several variants exist, including P-tau at threonines 181 (P-tau181), 217 (P-tau217) and 231 (P-tau231). However, no studies have compared their diagnostic performance or association to amyloid-β (Aβ) and Tau positron emission tomography (PET). Understanding which P-tau variant to use remains an important yet answered question. We aimed to...

Borrelia infection in bank voles Myodes glareolus is associated with specific DQB haplotypes which affect allelic divergence within individuals

Kristin Scherman, Lars Råberg & Helena Westerdahl
The high polymorphism of Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) genes is generally considered to be a result of pathogen-mediated balancing selection. Such selection may operate in the form of heterozygote advantage, and/or through specific MHC allele–pathogen interactions. Specific MHC allele–pathogen interactions may promote polymorphism via negative frequency-dependent selection (NFDS), or selection that varies in time and/or space because of variability in the composition of the pathogen community (fluctuating selection; FS). In addition, divergent allele advantage (DAA)...

Data for: Predation risk and the evolution of a vertebrate stress response: parallel evolution of stress reactivity and sexual dimorphism

Jerker Vinterstare, Gustaf MO Ekelund Ugge, Kaj Hulthén, Alexander Hegg, Christer Brönmark, P Anders Nilsson, U Ronja Zellmer, Marcus Lee, Varpu Pärssinen, Yongcui Sha, Caroline Björnerås, Huan Zhang, Raphael Gollnisch, Simon David Herzog, Lars-Anders Hansson, Martin Škerlep, Nan Hu, Emma Johansson & R Brian Langerhans
Predation risk is often invoked to explain variation in stress responses. Yet, the answers to several key questions remain elusive, including: 1) how predation risk influences the evolution of stress phenotypes, 2) the relative importance of environmental versus genetic factors in stress reactivity, and 3) sexual dimorphism in stress physiology. To address these questions, we explored variation in stress reactivity (ventilation frequency) in a post-Pleistocene radiation of live-bearing fish, where Bahamas mosquitofish (Gambusia hubbsi) inhabit...

Data for: Larval environmental conditions influence plasticity in resource use by adults in the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides

Matthew Schrader, Benjamin Jarrett & Rebecca Kilner
Recent studies have shown that intraspecific patterns of phenotypic plasticity can mirror patterns of evolutionary diversification among species. This appears to be the case in Nicrophorus beetles. Within species, body size is positively correlated with the size of carrion used to provision larvae and parental performance. Likewise, among species, variation in body size influences whether species exploit smaller or larger carrion and the extent to which larvae depend on parental care. However, it is unclear...

Major population splits coincide with episodes of rapid climate change in a forest-dependent bird

Vera-Maria Warmuth, Malcolm Burgess, Marko Mägi, Toni Laaksonen, Andrea Manica, Andreas Nord, Craig Primmer, Glenn-Peter Sætre, Wolfgang Winkel & Hans Ellegren
Climate change influences population demography by altering patterns of gene flow and reproductive isolation. Direct mutation rates offer the possibility for accurate dating on the within-species level but are currently only available for a handful of vertebrate species. Here, we use the first directly estimated mutation rate in birds to study the evolutionary history of pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca). Using a combination of demographic inference and environmental niche modelling, we show that all major population...

A highly invasive malaria parasite has expanded its range to non-migratory birds in North America

Angela Theodosopoulos, Kathryn Grabenstein, Staffan Bensch & Scott Taylor
Parasite range expansions are a direct consequence of globalization and are an increasing threat to biodiversity. Here we report a recent range expansion of the SGS1 strain of a highly invasive parasite, Plasmodium relictum, to two non-migratory passerines in North America. Plasmodium relictum is considered one of the world’s most invasive parasites and causes the disease avian malaria: this is the first reported case of SGS1 in wild birds of Western North America and wild...

Data and code from: The evolution of developmental thresholds and reaction norms for age and size at maturity

Viktor Nilsson & Locke Rowe
Developing organisms typically mature earlier and at larger sizes in favorable growth conditions, while in rarer cases maturity is delayed. The rarer reaction norm is easily accommodated by general life history models, whereas the common pattern is not. Theory suggests that a solution to this paradox lies in the existence of developmental thresholds that define the minimum size at which maturation or metamorphosis can commence, and in the evolution of these threshold sizes in response...

Bedrock weathering controls on terrestrial carbon-nitrogen-climate interactions

Pawlok Dass, Benjamin Houlton, Yingping Wang, David Warlind & Scott Morford
Anthropogenic nitrogen deposition is widely considered to increase CO2 sequestration by land plant communities on a global scale. Here, we suggest that bedrock nitrogen weathering contributes significantly more to nitrogen-carbon interactions than anthropogenic nitrogen deposition. This working hypothesis is based on the application of empirical results into a global biogeochemical simulation model from the mid-1800s to the end of the 21st century. We demonstrate that rock nitrogen inputs have contributed roughly 2 to 11 times...

Male incubation feeding and fleas

Juan Manuel Peralta-Sánchez & Jan-Åke Nilsson
Parasites exert a strong selection pressure on their hosts as manifested in behavioural antiparasite traits to reduce negative impacts on fitness. The numerous nest-dwelling ecto-parasites residing in avian nests make altricial birds excellent model-systems for investigating the relationship between parasites and their hosts. Here, we experimentally increased natural levels of hen fleas (Ceratophyllus gallinae) in blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) nests during incubation, and tested their effects on parental incubation behaviours and reproductive performance. Our experimental...

Herbivores reduce seedling recruitment in alpine plant communities

Øystein H. Opedal, Kristin Nystuen, Dagmar Hagen, Håkon Holien, Mia Sørensen, Simone Lang, Sigrid Lindmo, G. RIchard Strimbeck & Bente Graae
Through changes in climate and other environmental factors, alpine tundra ecosystems are subject to increased cover of erect shrubs, reduced predictability of rodent dynamics, and changes in wild and domesticated herbivore densities. To predict the dynamics of these ecosystems, we need to understand how these simultaneous changes affect alpine vegetation. In the long term, vegetation dynamics may depend critically on seedling recruitment. To study drivers of alpine plant seedling recruitment, we set up a field...

Elevated temperature increases genome-wide selection on de novo mutations

David Berger, Josefine Stångberg, Julian Baur & Richard Walters
Adaptation in new environments depends on the amount of genetic variation available for evolution, and the efficacy by which natural selection discriminates among this variation. However, whether some ecological factors reveal more genetic variation, or impose stronger selection pressures than others, is typically not known. Here, we apply enzyme kinetic theory to show that rising global temperatures are predicted to intensify natural selection throughout the genome by increasing the effects of DNA sequence variation on...

Results of CNN-based pollen analysis

Ola Olsson, Melanie Karlsson, Anna S. Persson, Henrik G. Smith, Vidula Varadarajan, Johanna Yourstone & Martin Stjernman
Several datasets representing cross-validation of convoluted neural network (CNN) classification of pollen images. In each data file, one variable represents the pollen species (or pollen type when pollen are not identified to species level, but to a group of morphologically similar species represented by a type), and one the model predicted species. The remaining variables are the model likelihoods of the individual pollen grain belonging to a particular species. The maximum of these likelihoods will...

Flight altitude dynamics of migrating European nightjars across regions and seasons

Gabriel Norevik, Susanne Åkesson, Arne Andersson, Johan Bäckman & Anders Hedenström
Avian migrants may fly at a range of altitudes, but usually concentrate near strata where a combination of flight conditions is favourable. The aerial environment can have a large impact on the performance of the migrant and is usually highly dynamic, making it beneficial for the bird to regularly check the flight conditions at alternative altitudes. We recorded the migrations between northern Europe and sub-Saharan Africa of European nightjars Caprimulgus europaeus to explore their altitudinal...

Registration Year

  • 2021

Resource Types

  • Dataset
  • Journal Article
  • Text


  • Lund University
  • University of Cambridge
  • Uppsala University
  • North Carolina State University
  • Aarhus University
  • University of Oslo
  • University of Connecticut
  • Natural Resources Institute Finland
  • Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
  • University of Tartu