37 Works

Allometric scaling of a superposition eye optimises sensitivity and acuity in large and small hawkmoths

Anna Stöckl, Anna Stöckl, Rebecca Grittner, Gavin Taylor, Christoph Rau, Andrew J. Bodey, Almut Kelber & Emily Baird
Animals vary widely in body size within and across species. This has consequences for the function of organs and body parts in both large and small individuals. How these scale, in relation to body size, reveals evolutionary investment strategies, often resulting in trade-offs between functions. Eyes exemplify these trade-offs, as they are limited by their absolute size in two key performance features: sensitivity and spatial acuity. Due to their size polymorphism, insect compound eyes are...

MHC class II genotype-by-pathogen genotype interaction for infection prevalence in a natural rodent-Borrelia system

Lars Råberg
MHC genes are extraordinarily polymorphic in most taxa. Host-pathogen coevolution driven by negative frequency-dependent selection (NFDS) is one of the main hypotheses for the maintenance of such immunogenetic variation. Here we test a critical but rarely tested assumption of this hypothesis—that MHC alleles affect resistance/susceptibility to a pathogen in a strain-specific way, i.e. that there is a host genotype-by-pathogen genotype interaction. In a field study of bank voles naturally infected with the tick-transmitted bacterium Borrelia...

Ancestral environment determines the current reaction to ultraviolet radiation in Daphnia magna

Yongcui Sha & Lars-Anders Hansson
An individual’s phenotype can be altered by direct contact with its present environment but also by environmental features experienced by previous generations, i.e. parental or grandparental effects. However, the strength and direction of these transgenerational effects may be highly variable according to the ecological conditions experienced by ancestral generations. Here we performed a reciprocal split-brood experiment to compare transgenerational responses to the threat of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in the zooplankter Daphnia magna, which had, or...

Dataset and reference: Marine gastropods at higher trophic level show stronger tolerance to ocean acidification

Nan Hu
Climate change and anthropogenic activities are producing a range of new selection pressures, both abiotic and biotic, on marine organisms. Although it is known that climate change can differentially affect fitness-related traits at different trophic levels of the food web, it is not clear if different trophic levels will respond via phenotypic plasticity in the form of maintenance of phenotypes in the face of abiotic and biotic environmental stress similarly. To answer this question, we...

Morphological measurements of two host specialists of the dipteran Tephritis conura, both in sympatry and allopatry

Kalle Nilsson, Jesús Ortega, Magne Friberg & Anna Runemark
Adaptation to new ecological niches is known to spur population diversification and may lead to speciation if gene flow is ceased. While adaptation to the same ecological niche is expected to be parallel, it is more difficult to predict whether selection against maladaptive hybridization in secondary sympatry results in parallel divergence also in traits that are not directly related to the ecological niches. Such parallelisms in response to selection for reproductive isolation can be identified...

Phenotypic plasticity is aligned with phenological adaptation on micro- and macroevolutionary timescales

Stephen De Lisle, Maarit Mäenpää & Erik Svensson
In seasonally-variable environments, phenotypic plasticity in phenology may be critical for adaptation to fluctuating environmental conditions. Using an 18-generation longitudinal dataset from natural damselfly populations, we show that phenology has strongly advanced. Individual fitness data suggest this is likely an adaptive response towards a temperature-dependent optimum. A laboratory experiment revealed that developmental plasticity qualitatively matches the temperature-dependence of selection, partially explaining observed advance in phenology. Expanding our analysis to the macroevolutionary level, we use a...

Predictors of genomic differentiation within a hybrid taxon

Angelica Cuevas, Fabrice Eroukhmanoff, Mark Ravinet, Glenn-Peter Sætre & Anna Runemark
Hybridization is increasingly recognized as an important evolutionary force. Novel genetic methods now enable us to address how the genomes of parental species are combined in hybrid lineages. However, we still do not know the relative importance of admixed proportions, genome architecture and local selection in shaping hybrid genomes. Here, we take advantage of the genetically divergent island populations of Italian sparrow on Crete, Corsica and Sicily to investigate the predictors of genomic variation within...

A single locus regulates a female-limited color pattern polymorphism in a reptile

Nathalie Feiner
Animal coloration is often expressed in periodic patterns that can arise from differential cell migration, yet how these processes are regulated remains elusive. We show that a female-limited polymorphism in dorsal patterning (diamond/chevron) in the brown anole is controlled by a single Mendelian locus. This locus contains the gene CCDC170 that is adjacent to, and co-expressed with, the Estrogen receptor-1 gene, explaining why the polymorphism is female-limited. CCDC170 is an organizer of the Golgi-microtubule network...

Arrival dates of male and female willow warblers (Phylloscopus trochilus) to their breeding site in Sweden 1979-2016

Johanna Hedlund, Thord Fransson, Cecilia Kullberg, Jan-Olov Persson & Sven Jakobsson
Protandry is a widespread life-history phenomenon describing how males precede females at the site or state of reproduction. In migratory birds, protandry has important influence on individual fitness, the migratory syndrome and phenological response to climate change. Despite its significance, accurate analyses on the dynamics of protandry using data sets collected at the breeding site, are lacking. Basing our study on records collected daily, spanning a period of 38 years, we aim to investigate protandry...

Algal growth, bumblebee colony and individual development, bee behavior and yield of oilseed rape under a trophic cascade and extreme weather

Björn Klatt, Bethany Pudifoot, Pablo Urrutia-Cordero, Henrik Smith & Christian Alsterberg
Trophic cascades in the aquatic environment constitute important mechanisms for improving water quality. However, how the presence or non-presence of these trophic cascades may affect interactions across the aquatic-terrestrial interface remains poorly investigated. Pollinators such as bees may be especially vulnerable to changes in water resource quality induced by trophic cascades. Understanding how aquatic trophic cascades affect bees and pollination becomes even more pressing under ongoing climate change due to increased physiological demands for water...

Pollinators, pests and yield – multiple trade-offs from insecticide use in a mass-flowering crop

Jessica Knapp, Adam Bates, Ove Jonsson, Björn Klatt, Theresia Krausl, Ullrika Sahlin, Glenn Svensson &
Multiple trade-offs are likely to occur between pesticide use, pollinators and yield (via crop flowers) in pollinator-dependent, mass-flowering crops (MFCs), causing potential conflict between conservation and agronomic goals. To date, no studies have looked at both outcomes within the same system, meaning ‘win-win solutions’ for pollinators and yield can only be inferred. Here, we outline a new framework to explore these trade-offs, using red clover (Trifolium pratense) grown for seed production as an example. Specifically,...

A radial model for fast analysis of thermal pile heat exchangers

Nicholas Woodman, Fleur Loveridge, Saqib Javed & Johan Claesson
Energy piles offer an effective way to decarbonise heating and cooling via exchange of heat through the deep foundations of a building or other structure. However, efficient analysis methods are required to allow energy performance to be determined in a way compatible with building energy design and energy system design approaches. We test a fast run time analytical model (the Claesson-Javed radial model) that retains a physical basis linked to the energy pile geometry, while...

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