359 Works

Data from: When and where does mortality occur in migratory birds? Direct evidence from long-term satellite tracking of raptors

Raymond H. G. Klaassen, Michael Hake, Roine Strandberg, Ben J. Koks, Christiane Trierweiler, Klaus-Michael Exo, Franz Bairlein, Thomas Alerstam & Mikael Hake
1. Information about when and where animals die is important to understand population regulation. In migratory animals, mortality might occur not only during the stationary periods (e.g. breeding and wintering) but also during the migration seasons. However, the relative importance of population limiting factors during different periods of the year remains poorly understood, and previous studies mainly relied on indirect evidence. 2. Here we provide direct evidence about when and where migrants die by identifying...

Data from: Genetic consequences of breaking migratory traditions in barnacle geese Branta leucopsis

Rudy M. Jonker, Robert H. S. Kraus, Qiong Zhang, Pim Van Hooft, Kjell Larsson, Henk P. Van Der Jeugd, Ralf H. J. M. Kurvers, Sip E. Van Wieren, Maarten J. J. M. Loonen, Richard P. M. A. Crooijmans, Ronald C. Ydenberg, Martien A. M. Groenen, Herbert H. T. Prins & M. J. J. E. Loonen
Cultural transmission of migratory traditions enables species to deal with their environment based on experiences from earlier generations. Also, it allows a more adequate and rapid response to rapidly changing environments. When individuals break with their migratory traditions, new population structures can emerge that may affect gene flow. Recently, the migratory traditions of the Barnacle Goose Branta leucopsis changed, and new populations differing in migratory distance emerged. Here, we investigate the population genetic structure of...

Data from: Independence among physiological traits suggests flexibility in the face of ecological demands on phenotypes

Deborah M. Buehler, Francois Vézina, Wolfgang Goymann, Ingrid Schwabl, Maaike Versteegh, B. Irene Tieleman & Theunis Piersma
Phenotypic flexibility allows animals to adjust their physiology to diverse environmental conditions encountered over the year. Examining how these varying traits covary gives insights into potential constraints or freedoms that may shape evolutionary trajectories. In this study we examined relationships among hematocrit, baseline corticosterone concentration, constitutive immune function and basal metabolic rate in red knot Calidris canutus islandica individuals subjected to experimentally manipulated temperature treatments over an entire annual cycle. If covariation among traits is...

Data from: A three-stage symbiosis forms the foundation of seagrass ecosystems

Tjisse Van Der Heide, Laura L. Govers, Jimmy De Fouw, Han Olff, Matthijs Van Der Geest, Marieke M. Van Katwijk, Theunis Piersma, Johan Van De Koppel, Brian R. Silliman, Alfons J. P. Smolders & Jan A. Van Gils
Seagrasses evolved from terrestrial plants into marine foundation species around 100 million years ago. Their ecological success, however, remains a mystery because natural organic matter accumulation within the beds should result in toxic sediment sulfide levels. Using a meta-analysis, a field study, and a laboratory experiment, we reveal how an ancient three-stage symbiosis between seagrass, lucinid bivalves, and their sulfide-oxidizing gill bacteria reduces sulfide stress for seagrasses. We found that the bivalve–sulfide-oxidizer symbiosis reduced sulfide...

Data from: Reproduction and dispersal in an ant-associated root aphid community

Aniek B. F. Ivens, Daniel J. C. Kronauer, Ido Pen, Franz J. Weissing & Jacobus J. Boomsma
Clonal organisms with occasional sex are important for our general understanding of the costs and benefits that maintain sexual reproduction. Cyclically parthenogenetic aphids are highly variable in their frequency of sexual reproduction and studies have mostly focused on free-living aphids above ground, whereas dispersal constraints and dependence on ant-tending may differentially affect the costs and benefits of sex in subterranean aphids. Here, we studied reproductive mode and dispersal in a community of root aphids that...

Data from: A novel integrative method for measuring body condition in ecological studies based on physiological dysregulation

Emmanuel Milot, Alan A. Cohen, François Vézina, Deborah M. Buehler, Kevin D. Matson, Theunis Piersman & Theunis Piersma
1. The body condition of free-ranging animals affects their response to stress, decisions, ability to fulfil vital needs and, ultimately, fitness. However, this key attribute in ecology remains difficult to assess, and there is a clear need for more integrative measures than the common univariate proxies. 2. We propose a systems biology approach that positions individuals along a gradient from a ‘normal/optimal’ to ‘abnormal/suboptimal’ physiological state based on Mahalanobis distance computed from physiological biomarkers. We...

Data from: Frugivores and cheap fruits make fruiting fruitful

Francisco Encinas-Viso, Tomas A. Revilla, Ellen Van Velzen & Rampal S. Etienne
Animal seed dispersal provides an important ecosystem service by strongly benefiting plant communities. There are several theoretical studies on the ecology of plant-animal seed-disperser interactions, but few studies have explored the evolution of this mutualism. Moreover, these studies ignore plant life-history and frugivore foraging behavior. Thus, it remains an open question what the conditions for the diversification of fruit traits are, in spite of the multitude of empirical studies on fruit trait diversity. Here we...

Data from: Behavioural isolation may facilitate homoploid hybrid speciation in cichlid fish

Oliver M. Selz, Rahel Thommen, Martine E. Maan & Ole Seehausen
Hybrid speciation is constrained by the homogenizing effects of gene flow from the parental species. In the absence of post-mating isolation due to structural changes in the genome, or temporal or spatial premating isolation, another form of reproductive isolation would be needed for homoploid hybrid speciation to occur. Here, we investigate the potential of behavioural mate choice to generate assortative mating among hybrids and parental species. We made three-first-generation hybrid crosses between different species of...

Data from: The impact of translocations on neutral and functional genetic diversity within and among populations of the Seychelles warbler

David J. Wright, Lewis G. Spurgin, Nigel J. Collar, Jan Komdeur, Terry Burke & David S. Richardson
Translocations are an increasingly common tool in conservation. The maintenance of genetic diversity through translocation is critical for both the short and long term persistence of populations and species. However, the relative spatio-temporal impacts of translocations on neutral and functional genetic diversity and how this affects genetic structure among the conserved populations overall has received little investigation. We compared the impact of translocating different numbers of founders on both microsatellite and major histocompatibility complex (MHC)...

Data from: Cost-minimization model of a multidisciplinary antibiotic stewardship team based on a successful implementation on a urology ward of an academic hospital

Jan-Willem H. Dik, Ron Hendrix, Alex W. Friedrich, Jos Luttjeboer, Prashant Nannan Panday, Kasper R. Wilting, Jerome R. Lo-Ten-Foe, Maarten J. Postma & Bhanu Sinha
Background: In order to stimulate appropriate antimicrobial use and thereby lower the chances of resistance development, an Antibiotic Stewardship Team (A-Team) has been implemented at the University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands. Focus of the A-Team was a pro-active day 2 case-audit, which was financially evaluated here to calculate the return on investment from a hospital perspective. Methods: Effects were evaluated by comparing audited patients with a historic cohort with the same diagnosis-related groups. Based...

Data from: Baseline immune activity is associated with date rather than with moult stage in the Arctic-breeding barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis)

Cecilia A. M. Sandström, Jouke Prop, H Van Der Jeugd & Maarten J. J. E. Loonen
Variation in immune defence in birds is often explained either by external factors such as food availability and disease pressure or by internal factors such as moult and reproductive effort. We explored these factors together in one sampling design by measuring immune activity over the time frame of the moulting period of Arctic-breeding barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis). We assessed baseline innate immunity by measuring levels of complement-mediated lysis and natural antibody-mediated agglutination together with total...

Data from: Mediation analysis demonstrates that trans-eQTLs are often explained by cis-mediation: a genome-wide analysis among 1,800 South Asians

Brandon L. Pierce, Lin Tong, Lin S. Chen, Ronald Rahaman, Maria Argos, Farzana Jasmine, Shantanu Roy, Rachelle Paul-Brutus, Harm-Jan Westra, Lude Franke, Tonu Esko, Rakibuz Zaman, Tariqul Islam, Mahfuzar Rahman, John A. Baron, Muhammad G. Kibriya & Habibul Ahsan
A large fraction of human genes are regulated by genetic variation near the transcribed sequence (cis-eQTL, expression quantitative trait locus), and many cis-eQTLs have implications for human disease. Less is known regarding the effects of genetic variation on expression of distant genes (trans-eQTLs) and their biological mechanisms. In this work, we use genome-wide data on SNPs and array-based expression measures from mononuclear cells obtained from a population-based cohort of 1,799 Bangladeshi individuals to characterize cis-...

Data from: Reference data for the Ruff Figural Fluency Test stratified by age and educational level

Gerbrand J. Izaks, Hanneke Joosten, Janneke Koerts, Ron T. Gansevoort & Joris P. Slaets
The Ruff Figural Fluency Test (RFFT) was developed to avoid the difficulties that were encountered in earlier tests of figural fluency. Although the test characteristics of the RFFT seem to be good and it is a valuable addition to neuropsychological assessments, reference data are still scarce. To this aim, we required 2,404 community dwelling persons in Groningen, The Netherlands to perform the RFFT. All 1,651 persons with a complete RFFT and known educational level formed...

Data from: Moving on with foraging theory: incorporating movement decisions into the functional response of a gregarious shorebird

Jan A. Van Gils, Matthijs Van Der Geest, Brecht De Meulenaer, Hanneke Gillis, Theunis Piersma & Eelke O. Folmer
1. Models relating intake rate to food abundance and competitor densities (generalized functional response models) can predict forager distributions and movements between patches, but we lack understanding of how distributions and small-scale movements by the foragers themselves affect intake rates. 2. Using a state-of-the-art approach based on continuous-time Markov chain dynamics, we add realism to classic functional response models by acknowledging that the chances to encounter food and competitors are influenced by movement decisions, and,...

Data from: Enhanced computational methods for quantifying the effect of geographic and environmental isolation on genetic differentiation

Gilles Guillot, Filippo Botta, Capser Eriksen & Michaël C. Fontaine
1. In a recent paper, Bradburd et al. (Evolution, 67, 2013, 3258) proposed a model to quantify the relative effect of geographic and environmental distance on genetic differentiation. Here, we enhance this method in several ways. 2. We modify the covariance model so as to fit better with mainstream geostatistical models and avoid mathematically ill-behaved covariance functions. We extend the model – initially implemented only for co-dominant bi-allelic markers such as single nucleotide polymorphisms –...

Data from: Exposing the structure of an Arctic food web

Eero J. Vesterinen, Helena K. Wirta, Peter A. Hambäck, Elisabeth Weingartner, Claus Rasmussen, Jeroen Reneerkens, Niels M. Schmidt, Olivier Gilg & Tomas Roslin
How food webs are structured has major implications for their stability and dynamics. While poorly studied to date, arctic food webs are commonly assumed to be simple in structure, with few links per species. If this is the case, then different parts of the web may be weakly connected to each other, with populations and species united by only a low number of links. We provide the first highly resolved description of trophic link structure...

Data from: Relative deprivation and relative wealth enhances anti-immigrant sentiments: the v-curve re-examined

Jolanda Jetten, Frank Mols & Tom Postmes
Previous research has shown that negative attitudes towards immigrants and support for anti-immigrant parties are observed both among those experiencing relative deprivation and those experiencing relative gratification (so called v-curve). Whereas the effect of relative deprivation is intuitive, the effect of relative gratification is more difficult to explain. Why would economic prosperity provoke negative attitudes towards immigrants? We first present correlational (Study 1) and experimental (Study 2) support for the v-curve. In Study 1, in...

Data from: Current management of surgical oncologic emergencies

Marianne R. F. Bosscher, Barbara L. Van Leeuwen & Harald J. Hoekstra
Objectives: For some oncologic emergencies, surgical interventions are necessary for dissolution or temporary relieve. In the absence of guidelines, the most optimal method for decision making would be in a multidisciplinary cancer conference (MCC). In an acute setting, the opportunity for multidisciplinary discussion is often not available. In this study, the management and short term outcome of patients after surgical oncologic emergency consultation was analyzed. Method: A prospective registration and follow up of adult patients...

Data from: Climate impacts on trans-ocean dispersal and habitat in gray whales from the Pleistocene to 2100

S. Elizabeth Alter, Matthias Meyer, Klaas Post, Paul Czechowski, Peter Gravlund, Cork Gaines, Howard C. Rosenbaum, Kristin Kaschner, Samuel T. Turvey, Johannes Van Der Plicht, Beth Shapiro & Michael Hofreiter
Arctic animals face dramatic habitat alteration due to ongoing climate change. Understanding how such species have responded to past glacial cycles can help us forecast their response to today's changing climate. Gray whales are among those marine species likely to be strongly affected by Arctic climate change, but a thorough analysis of past climate impacts on this species has been complicated by lack of information about an extinct population in the Atlantic. While little is...

Data from: Body shrinkage due to Arctic warming reduces red knot fitness in tropical wintering range

Jan A. Van Gils, Simeon Lisovski, Tamar Lok, Włodzimierz Meissner, Agnieszka Ożarowska, Jimmy De Fouw, Eldar Rakhiemberdiev, Mikhail Y. Soloviev, Theunis Piersma & Marcel Klaassen
Reductions in body size are increasingly being identified as a response to climate warming. Here we present evidence for a case of such body shrinkage, potentially due to malnutrition in early life. We show that an avian long-distance migrant (red knot, Calidris canutus canutus), which is experiencing globally unrivaled warming rates at its high-Arctic breeding grounds, produces smaller offspring with shorter bills during summers with early snowmelt. This has consequences half a world away at...

Data from: Delayed dispersal and the costs and benefits of different routes to independent breeding in a cooperatively breeding bird

Sjouke A. Kingma, Kat Bebbington, Martijn Hammers, David S. Richardson & Jan Komdeur
Why sexually mature individuals stay in groups as nonreproductive subordinates is central to the evolution of sociality and cooperative breeding. To understand such delayed dispersal, its costs and benefits need to be compared with those of permanently leaving to float through the population. However, comprehensive comparisons, especially regarding differences in future breeding opportunities, are rare. Moreover, extraterritorial prospecting by philopatric individuals has generally been ignored, even though the factors underlying this route to independent breeding...

Data from: Stabilising survival selection on pre-senescent expression of a sexual ornament followed by a terminal decline

Mirre Simons, Michael Briga, Simon Verhulst & M. J. P. Simons
Senescence is a decrease in functional capacity, increasing mortality rate with age. Sexual signals indicate functional capacity, because costs of ornamentation ensure signal honesty, and are therefore expected to senesce, tracking physiological deterioration and mortality. For sexual traits, mixed associations with age and positive associations with life expectancy have been reported. However, whether these associations are caused by selective disappearance and/or within-individual senescence of sexual signals, respectively, is not known. We previously reported that zebra...

Data from: Structure and functioning of intertidal food webs along an avian flyway: a comparative approach using stable isotopes

Teresa Catry, Pedro M. Lourenço, Ricardo J. Lopes, Camilo Carneiro, José A. Alves, Joana Costa, Hamid Rguibi-Idrissi, Stuart Bearhop, Theunis Piersma & José P. Granadeiro
Food webs and trophic dynamics of coastal systems have been the focus of intense research throughout the world, as they prove to be critical in understanding ecosystem processes and functions. However, very few studies have undertaken a quantitative comparison of entire food webs from a key consumer perspective across a broad geographical area, limiting relevant comparisons among systems with distinct biotic and abiotic components. We investigate the structure and functioning of food webs in four...

Data from: Tightly congruent bursts of lineage and phenotypic diversification identified in a continental ant radiation

Shauna L. Price, Rampal S. Etienne & Scott Powell
Adaptive diversification is thought to be shaped by ecological opportunity. A prediction of this ecological process of diversification is that it should result in congruent bursts of lineage and phenotypic diversification, but few studies have found this expected association. Here, we study the relationship between rates of lineage diversification and body size evolution in the turtle ants, a diverse Neotropical clade. Using a near complete, time-calibrated phylogeny we investigated lineage diversification dynamics and body size...

Data from: An experimental test of state-behaviour feedbacks: gizzard mass and foraging behaviour in red knots

Kimberley J. Mathot, Anne Dekinga & Theunis Piersma
1. Animals frequently exhibit consistent among-individual differences in behavioural and physiological traits that are inherently flexible. Why should individuals differ consistently in their expression of labile traits? Recently, positive feedbacks between state and behaviour have been proposed as a parsimonious explanation for the maintenance of consistent among-individual differences in both state and behaviour. If state affects behaviour, and behaviour reciprocally affects state, then even chance differences in either state or behaviour that arise among-individuals could...

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