260 Works

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Fluxes from Terrestrial and Aquatic Environments in a High-Altitude Tropical Catchment

Diego Riveros-Iregui, Andrew Murray, Keridwen Whitmore, Chloe Schneider, Megan Raisle & Maribel Herrara

Moving Towards Global Solidarity for Global Health through Multilateral Governance in the Covid-19 Response

Judith Bueno de Mesquita & Benjamin Mason Meier

Data from: Genetic architecture influences when and how hybridization contributes to colonization

Bryan Reatini & Todd Vision
The role of genetic architecture in adaptation to novel environments has received considerable attention when the source of adaptation variation is de novo mutation. Relatively less is known when the source of adaptive variation is inter- or intraspecific hybridization. We model hybridization between divergent source populations and subsequent colonization of an unoccupied novel environment using individual-based simulations in order to understand the influence of genetic architecture on the timing of colonization and the mode of...

Interactive effects of previous and current thermal conditions on gene expression in Manduca sexta

Meggan A Alston, Jeeyun Lee, M. Elizabeth Moore, Joel G Kingsolver & Christopher S Willett
High temperatures can negatively impact performance and survival of organisms, particularly ectotherms. While an organism’s response to high temperature stress clearly depends on current thermal conditions, its response may also be affected by the temporal pattern and duration of past temperature exposures. We used RNA sequencing of Manduca sexta larvae fat body tissue to evaluate how diurnal temperature fluctuations during development affected gene expression both independently and in conjunction with subsequent heat stress. Additionally, we...

Data from: The effectiveness of pseudomagic traits in promoting divergence and enhancing local adaptation

Maria R. Servedio & Bürger Reinhard
The first file contains the code necessary to generate figures in the style of Fig 1 of the associated manuscript. These figures show the divergence between both ecological traits and mating traits by the strength of mating preference. Different panels correspond to different rates of recombination between these loci that control these types of traits. Files S1 and S2 are Mathematica versions of the corresponding files in the Supplementary Information of the paper.

Do Synthesis Centers Synthesize? A Semantic Analysis of Topical Diversity in Research

Edward Hackett, Erin Leahy, John Parker, Ismael Rafols, Stephanie Hampton, Ugo Corte, Diego Chavarro, John Drake, Bart Penders, Laura Sheble, Niki Vermeulen & Todd Vision
Synthesis centers are a form of scientific organization that catalyzes and supports research that integrates diverse theories, methods and data across spatial or temporal scales to increase the generality, parsimony, applicability, or empirical soundness of scientific explanations. Synthesis working groups are a distinctive form of scientific collaboration that produce consequential, high-impact publications. But no one has asked if synthesis working groups synthesize: are their publications substantially more diverse than others, and if so, in what...

Data from: Identification of candidate loci for adaptive phenotypic plasticity in natural populations of spadefoot toads

Nicholas Levis
Phenotypic plasticity allows organisms to alter their phenotype in direct response to changes in the environment. Despite growing recognition of plasticity’s role in ecology and evolution, few studies have probed plasticity’s molecular bases—especially using natural populations. We investigated the genetic basis of phenotypic plasticity in natural populations of spadefoot toads (Spea multiplicata). Spea tadpoles normally develop into an ‘omnivore’ morph that is favored in long-lasting, low-density ponds. However, if tadpoles consume freshwater shrimp or other...

Unique bacterial assembly, composition, and interactions in a parasitic plant and its host

Connor Fitzpatrick & Adam Schneider
How plant-associated microbiota are shaped by, and potentially contribute to the unique ecology and heterotrophic life history of parasitic plants is relatively unknown. Here, we investigate the leaf and root bacterial communities associated with the root holoparasite Orobanche hederae and its host plant Hedera spp. We sequenced the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene from DNA extracted from leaf and root samples of naturally growing populations of Orobanche and infected and uninfected Hedera. Root...

Data from: Range expansion and population dynamics of an invasive species: the Eurasian Collared-Dove (Streptopelia decaocto)

Spencer N. Scheidt & Allen H. Hurlbert
Invasive species offer ecologists the opportunity to study the factors governing species distributions and population growth. The Eurasian Collared-Dove (Streptopelia decaocto) serves as a model organism for invasive spread because of the wealth of abundance records and the recent development of the invasion. We tested whether a set of environmental variables were related to the carrying capacities and growth rates of individual populations by modeling the growth trajectories of individual populations of the Collared-Dove using...

Data from: Wolbachia in the Drosophila yakuba complex: pervasive frequency variation and weak cytoplasmic incompatibility, but no apparent effect on reproductive isolation

Brandon S. Cooper, Paul S. Ginsberg, Michael Turelli & Daniel R. Matute
Three hybridizing species-the clade ((Drosophila yakuba, D. santomea), D. teissieri) -comprise the yakuba complex in the D. melanogaster subgroup. Their ranges overlap on Bioko and São Tomé, islands off west Africa. All three species are infected with Wolbachia, maternally inherited, endosymbiotic bacteria, best known for manipulating host reproduction to favor infected females. Previous analyses reported no cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) in these species. However, we discovered that Wolbachia from each species cause intra- and interspecific CI....

Data from: Non-adaptive female pursuit of extra-pair copulations can evolve through hitchhiking

Nan Lyu, Maria R. Servedio & Yue-Hua Sun
Mounting evidence has indicated that engaging in extra-pair copulations (EPCs) might be maladaptive or detrimental to females. It is unclear why such non-adaptive female behavior evolves. In this study, we test two hypotheses about the evolution of female EPC behavior using population genetic models. First, we find that both male preference for allocating extra-effort to seek EPCs and female pursuit behavior without costs can be maintained and remain polymorphic in a population via frequency dependent...

Data from: Complex data produce better characters

B.K. Kirchoff, S.J. Richter, D.L. Remington & E. Wisniewski
Two studies were conducted to explore the use of complex data in character description and hybrid identification. In order to determine if complex data allow the production of better characters, eight groups of plant systematists were given two classes of drawings of plant parts, and asked to divide them into character states (clusters) in two separate experiments. The first class of drawings consisted only of cotyledons. The second class consisted of triplets of drawings: a...

Data from: Using trait and phylogenetic diversity to evaluate the generality of the stress-dominance hypothesis in eastern North American tree communities

Jessica R. Coyle, Fletcher W. Halliday, Bianca E. Lopez, Kyle A. Palmquist, Peter A. Wilfahrt & Allen H. Hurlbert
The stress-dominance hypothesis (SDH) is a model of community assembly predicting that the relative importance of environmental filtering increases and competition decreases along a gradient of increasing environmental stress. Tests of the SDH at limited spatial scales have thus far demonstrated equivocal support and no prior study has assessed the generality of the SDH at continental scales. We examined over 53 000 tree communities spanning the eastern United States to determine whether functional trait variation...

Data from: Further development of the Assessment of Military Multitasking Performance: iterative reliability testing

Margaret M. Weightman, Karen L. McCulloch, Mary V. Radomski, Marsha Finkelstein, Amy S. Cecchini, Leslie F. Davidson, Kristin J. Heaton, Laurel B. Smith & Matthew R. Scherer
The Assessment of Military Multitasking Performance (AMMP) is a battery of functional dual-tasks and multitasks based on military activities that target known sensorimotor, cognitive, and exertional vulnerabilities after concussion/mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). The AMMP was developed to help address known limitations in post concussive return to duty assessment and decision making. Once validated, the AMMP is intended for use in combination with other metrics to inform duty-readiness decisions in Active Duty Service Members following...

Data from: The analysis and interpretation of critical temperatures

Joel G. Kingsolver & James Umbanhowar
Critical temperatures are widely used to quantify the upper and lower thermal limits of organisms. But measured critical temperatures often vary with methodological details, leading to spirited discussions about the potential consequences of stress and acclimation during the experiments. We review a model based on the simple assumption that failure rate increases with increasing temperature, independent of previous temperature exposure, water loss or metabolism during the experiment. The model predicts that mean critical thermal maximal...

Data from: Evolution of a mating preference for a dual-utility trait used in intrasexual competition in genetically monogamous populations

Caitlin A. Stern & Maria R. Servedio
The selection pressures by which mating preferences for ornamental traits can evolve in genetically monogamous mating systems remain understudied. Empirical evidence from several taxa supports the prevalence of dual-utility traits, defined as traits used both as armaments in intersexual selection and ornaments in intrasexual selection, as well as the importance of intrasexual resource competition for the evolution of female ornamentation. Here, we study whether mating preferences for traits used in intrasexual resource competition can evolve...

Data from: Ranking and characterization of established BMI and lipid associated loci as candidates for gene-environment interactions

Dmitry Shungin, Wei Q. Deng, Tibor V. Varga, Jian'an Luan, Evelin Mihailov, Andres Metspalu, Andrew P. Morris, Nita G. Forouhi, Cecilia Lindgren, Patrik K. E. Magnusson, Nancy L. Pedersen, Göran Hallmans, Audrey Y. Chu, Anne E. Justice, Mariaelisa Graff, Thomas W. Winkler, Lynda M. Rose, Claudia Langenberg, L. Adrienne Cupples, Paul M. Ridker, Nicholas J. Wareham, Ken K. Ong, Ruth J. F. Loos, Daniel I. Chasman, Erik Ingelsson … & Paul W. Franks
Phenotypic variance heterogeneity across genotypes at a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) may reflect underlying gene-environment (G·E) or gene-gene interactions. We modeled variance heterogeneity for blood lipids and BMI in up to 44,211 participants and investigated relationships between variance effects (Pv), G·E interaction effects (with smoking and physical activity), and marginal genetic effects (Pm). Correlations between Pv and Pm were stronger for SNPs with established marginal effects (Spearman's ρ=0.401 for triglycerides, and ρ=0.236 for BMI) compared...

Data from: The location of the citation: changing practices in how publications cite original data in the Dryad Digital Repository

Christine Mayo, Todd J. Vision & Elizabeth A. Hull
While stakeholders in scholarly communication generally agree on the importance of data citation, there is not consensus on where those citations should be placed within the publication – particularly when the publication is citing original data. Recently, CrossRef and the Digital Curation Center (DCC) have recommended as a best practice that original data citations appear in the works cited sections of the article. In some fields, such as the life sciences, this contrasts with the...

Data from: Quantifying thermal extremes and biological variation to predict evolutionary responses to changing climate

Joel G. Kingsolver & Lauren B. Buckley
Central ideas from thermal biology, including thermal performance curves and tolerances, have been widely used to evaluate how changes in environmental means and variances generate changes in fitness, selection and microevolution in response to climate change. We summarize the opportunities and challenges for extending this approach to understanding the consequences of extreme climatic events. Using statistical tools from extreme value theory, we show how distributions of thermal extremes vary with latitude, time scale and climate...

Data from: The role of habitat filtering in the leaf economics spectrum and plant susceptibility to pathogen infection

Miranda E. Welsh, James Patrick Cronin & Charles E. Mitchell
The leaf economics spectrum (LES) describes global covariation in the traits of plant leaves. The LES is thought to arise from biophysical constraints and habitat filtering (ecological selection against unfit trait combinations along environmental gradients). However, the role of habitat filtering in generating the LES has not been tested experimentally. If the process of habitat filtering plays a role in generating the LES, the LES could weaken in communities that have yet to be filtered...

Data from: Improved access to early diagnosis and complete treatment of malaria in Odisha, India

Sreya Pradhan, Madan M. Pradhan, Ambarish Dutta, Naman K. Shah, Pyare L. Joshi, Khageshwar Pradhan, S.K. Sharma, Penny Grewal Daumerie, Jaya Banerji, Stephan Duparc, Kamini Mendis, Shiva Murugasampillay, Neena Valecha, Anupkumar R. Anvikar & S. K. Sharma
Background In 2013, the Comprehensive Case Management Programme (CCMP) was initiated to assess the impact of universal access to diagnosis and treatment and improved surveillance on malaria transmission in different settings in Odisha state, India. Methods Pairs of intervention and control sub-districts (blocks), matched on malaria incidence were selected in four districts with different transmission intensities. CCMP activities included training and supervision, ensuring no stock-outs of malaria tests and drugs, analysing verified surveillance data, stratifying...

Data from: Cardiac vagal dysfunction moderates patterns of craving across the day in moderate to heavy consumers of alcohol

Rhiannon E. Mayhugh, Paul J. Laurienti, Jason Fanning, Lise Gauvin, Keri J. Heilman, Stephen W. Porges & W. Jack Rejeski
Background: Alcohol craving, a known correlate of vulnerability to Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD), has been found to be inversely related to cardiac vagal tone (CVT). Here we examine how resting CVT, CVT reactivity to a postural challenge, and their interaction influence craving during imposed alcohol abstinence and their usual drinking among moderate to heavy drinkers. Methods: Participants were recruited from the local community (final n=29) and assessed for CVT functioning via respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA)...

Data from: Genetic by environmental variation but no local adaptation in oysters (Crassostrea virginica)

A. Randall Hughes, Torrance C. Hanley, James E. Byers, Jonathan H. Grabowski, Jennafer C. Malek, Micahel F. Piehler, David L. Kimbro & Michael F. Piehler
Functional trait variation within and across populations can strongly influence population, community, and ecosystem processes, but the relative contributions of genetic vs. environmental factors to this variation are often not clear, potentially complicating conservation and restoration efforts. For example, local adaptation, a particular type of genetic by environmental (G*E) interaction in which the fitness of a population in its own habitat is greater than in other habitats, is often invoked in management practices, even in...

Data from: Transitions between phases of genomic differentiation during stick-insect speciation

Rüdiger Riesch, Moritz Muschick, Dorothea Lindtke, Romain Villoutreix, Aaron A. Comeault, Timothy E. Farkas, Kay Lucek, Elizabeth Hellen, Víctor Soria-Carrasco, Stuart R. Dennis, Clarissa F. De Carvalho, Rebecca J. Safran, Cristina P. Sandoval, Jeff Feder, Regine Gries, Bernard J. Crespi, Gerhard Gries, Zach Gompert & Patrik Nosil
Speciation can involve a transition from a few genetic loci that are resistant to gene flow to genome-wide differentiation. However, only limited data exist concerning this transition and the factors promoting it. Here, we study phases of speciation using data from >100 populations of 11 species of Timema stick insects. Consistent with early phases of genic speciation, adaptive colour-pattern loci reside in localized genetic regions of accentuated differentiation between populations experiencing gene flow. Transitions to...

Data from: The complex effects of demographic history on the estimation of substitution rate: concatenated gene analysis results in no more than twofold overestimation

Christopher H. Martin, Sebastian Hohna, Jacob E. Crawford, Bruce J. Turner, Emilie J. Richards & Lee H. Simons
Our recent estimation of the divergence time and isolation of Death Valley pupfishes, including the iconic Devil’s Hole pupfish (DHP), rewrote widespread assumptions about this group. These species were previously assumed to be relic populations isolated over millions of years; our genomic analyses indicated recent colonization of Devil’s Hole within the past 105–830 years and frequent gene flow among Death Valley populations [1]. These results understandably attracted substantial attention given the iconic battle for conservation...

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