When resource competition occurs between close relatives the negative effects of competition are potentially amplified. However, kin selection theory predicts that natural selection should promote the evolution of mechanisms that minimize the intensity of competition between kin. Experimental tests of these hypotheses are mixed, however. Moreover, there is little consensus regarding the generality of either outcome, suggesting that the conditions important in determining the effects of competition between kin are likely complex and not fully...
Women rarely give birth after approximately 45 years of age, and they experience the cessation of reproductive cycles – menopause – at approximately 50 years of age, after a fertility decline lasting almost two decades. Such reproductive senescence in mid-lifespan is an evolutionary puzzle of enduring interest because it should be inherently disadvantageous. Further, comparative data on reproductive senescence from other primates, or indeed other mammals, remains relatively rare. Here we carried out the first...
Although learned mate preferences are suspected to have important effects during speciation, theoretical models have largely neglected the effects on speciation and population divergence of within-generational learning, that is, learning based upon prior experience with potential mates. Here we use population genetic models to address this deficit. Focussing on the situation of secondary contact between populations that still hybridize, we consider models of learning by females and by males under polygyny. We assess the effects...
Background: Attribution to the original contributor upon reuse of published data is important both as a reward for data creators and to document the provenance of research findings. Previous studies have found that papers with publicly available datasets receive a higher number of citations than similar studies without available data. However, few previous analyses have had the statistical power to control for the many variables known to predict citation rate, which has led to uncertain...
Data from: Gene conversion yields novel gene combinations in paralogs of GOT1 in the copepod Tigriopus californicusChristopher S. Willett
Background: Gene conversion of duplicated genes can slow the divergence of paralogous copies over time but can also result in other interesting evolutionary patterns. Islands of genetic divergence that persist in the face of gene conversion can point to gene regions undergoing selection for new functions. Novel combinations of genetic variation that differ greatly from the original sequence can result from the transfer of genetic variation between paralogous genes by rare gene conversion events. Genetically...
Many insects feed on only one or a few types of host. These host specialists often evolve a preference for chemical cues emanting from their host and develop mechanisms for circumventing their host’s defenses. Adaptations like these are central to evolutionary biology, yet our understanding of their genetics remains incomplete. Drosophila sechellia, an emerging model for the genetics of host specialization, is an island endemic that has adapted to chemical toxins present in the fruit...
Data from: Multiple predator species alter prey behavior, population growth and a trophic cascade in a model estuarine food webPamela L. Reynolds & John F. Bruno
Predators can influence prey population dynamics by affecting prey behaviors with strong fitness consequences, with cascading effects on lower trophic levels. Here, we demonstrate that multiple predator species can nonconsumptively influence prey population growth and the strength of a trophic cascade in a model marine community. We exposed the herbivorous amphipod Ampithoe longimana to olfactory and visual cues from three common predators (pinfish, mud crabs, brown shrimp) singly and together in a multiple-predator assemblage to...
Data from: Complex genetic effects on early vegetative development shape resource allocation differences between Arabidopsis lyrata populationsDavid L. Remington, Päivi H. Leinonen, Johanna Leppälä & Outi Savolainen
Costs of reproduction due to resource allocation trade-offs have long been recognized as key forces in life history evolution, but little is known about their functional or genetic basis. Arabidopsis lyrata, a perennial relative of the annual model plant A. thaliana with a wide climatic distribution, has populations that are strongly diverged in resource allocation. In this study, we evaluated the genetic and functional basis for variation in resource allocation in a reciprocal transplant experiment,...
Gene expression biomarkers can enable rapid assessment of physiological conditions in situ, providing a valuable tool for reef managers interested in linking organism physiology with large-scale climatic conditions. Here, we assessed the ability of quantitative PCR (qPCR) based gene expression biomarkers to evaluate (1) the immediate cellular stress response (CSR) of Porites astreoides to incremental thermal stress and (2) the magnitude of CSR and cellular homeostasis response (CHR) during a natural bleaching event. Expression levels...
Although sexual selection is an important cause of display evolution, in socially monogamous species (e.g. many birds), displays continue after formation of the pair bond. Here, we consider that these displays evolve because they stimulate the partner to increase investment in offspring. Our study is motivated by elaborate mutual displays in species that are largely monomorphic and have long-term pair bonds (e.g. the great crested grebe, Podiceps cristatus) and by many empirical results evidencing that...
University of North Carolina10
University of Chicago2
National Evolutionary Synthesis Center1
The University of Texas at Austin1
University of Georgia1
The University of Texas at Arlington1
Institute of Primate Research1
University of Wisconsin-Madison1