34 Works

Data from: Breakdown of local information processing may underlie isoflurane anesthesia effects

Patricia Wollstadt, Kristin K. Sellers, Lucas Rudelt, Viola Priesemann, Axel Hutt, Flavio Fröhlich, Michael Wibral & Flavio Fröhlich
The disruption of coupling between brain areas has been suggested as the mechanism underlying loss of consciousness in anesthesia. This hypothesis has been tested previously by measuring the information transfer between brain areas, and by taking reduced information transfer as a proxy for decoupling. Yet, information transfer is a function of the amount of information available in the information source—such that transfer decreases even for unchanged coupling when less source information is available. Therefore, we...

Data from: Intraspecific adaptive radiation: competition, ecological opportunity, and phenotypic diversification within species

Nicholas A. Levis, Ryan A. Martin, Kerry A. O'Donnell & David W. Pfennig
Intraspecific variation in resource-use traits can have profound ecological and evolutionary implications. Among the most striking examples are resource polymorphisms, where alternative morphs that utilize different resources evolve within a population. An underappreciated aspect of their evolution is that the same conditions that favor resource polymorphism—competition and ecological opportunity—might foster additional rounds of diversification within already existing morphs. We examined these issues in spadefoot toad tadpoles that develop into either a generalist ‘omnivore’ or a...

Data from: Geographic variation in mimetic precision among different species of coral snake mimics

Christopher K. Akcali & David W. Pfennig
Batesian mimicry is widespread, but whether and why different species of mimics vary geographically in resemblance to their model is unclear. We characterized geographic variation in mimetic precision among four Batesian mimics of coral snakes. Each mimic occurs where its model is abundant (i.e., in “deep sympatry”), rare (i.e., at the sympatry/allopatry boundary or “edge sympatry”), and absent (i.e., in allopatry). Geographic variation in mimetic precision was qualitatively different among these mimics. In one mimic,...

Data from: Archipelagic genetics in a widespread Caribbean anole

Robert Graham Reynolds, Tanner R. Strickland, Jason J. Kolbe, Bryan G. Falk, Gad Perry, Liam J. Revell & Jonathan B. Losos
Aim We examine the influence of fluctuating sea levels in a land-bridge archipelago on the apportioning of intraspecific genetic diversity and divergence in the widespread Puerto Rican crested anole (Anolis cristatellus). We compare three alternative scenarios for genetic diversification in an archipelagic species that contrast the relative influences of periodic isolation versus island connectedness driven by fluctuating sea levels. Our approach combines information from geography and population genetics to assess the influence of island size,...

Data from: Evolution of plasticity and adaptive responses to climate change along climate gradients

Joel G. Kingsolver & Lauren B. Buckley
The relative contributions of phenotypic plasticity and adaptive evolution to the responses of species to recent and future climate change are poorly understood. We combine recent (1960–2010) climate and phenotypic data with microclimate, heat balance, demographic and evolutionary models to address this issue for a montane butterfly, Colias eriphyle, along an elevational gradient. Our focal phenotype, wing solar absorptivity, responds plastically to developmental (pupal) temperatures and plays a central role in thermoregulatory adaptation in adults....

Data from: Genetic accommodation in the wild: evolution of gene expression plasticity during character displacement

Nicholas A. Levis, Antonio Serrato-Capuchina & David W. Pfennig
Ecological character displacement is considered crucial in promoting diversification, yet relatively little is known of its underlying mechanisms. We examined whether evolutionary shifts in gene expression plasticity (‘genetic accommodation’) mediate character displacement in spadefoot toads. Where Spea bombifrons and S. multiplicata occur separately in allopatry (the ancestral condition), each produces alternative, diet-induced, larval ecomorphs: omnivores, which eat detritus, and carnivores, which specialize on shrimp. By contrast, where these two species occur together in sympatry (the...

Data from: The ability of Drosophila hybrids to locate food declines with parental divergence.

David A. Turissini, Aaron A. Comeault, Geoffrey Liu, Yuh Chwen G. Lee & Daniel R. Matute
Hybrids between two species are generally less fit than the parental species, and the mechanisms underlying their fitness reductions can manifest through different traits and at different life history stages. For example, hybrids can have physiological, behavioral, or ecological defects, resulting in postzygotic isolation between their parental species. However, mechanisms of postzygotic isolation other than sterility and inviability have remained largely uninvestigated. Isolated studies have found that other postzygotic defects are not only possible but...

Data from: Population structure and connectivity of the mountainous star coral, Orbicella faveolata, throughout the wider Caribbean region

John P. Rippe, Mikhail V. Matz, Elizabeth A. Green, Mónica Medina, Nida Z. Khawaja, Thanapat Pongwarin, Jorge H. Pinzón C., Karl D. Castillo & Sarah W. Davies
As coral reefs continue to decline worldwide, it becomes ever more necessary to understand the connectivity between coral populations to develop efficient management strategies facilitating survival and adaptation of coral reefs in the future. Orbicella faveolata is one of the most important reef-building corals in the Caribbean and has recently experienced severe population reductions. Here, we utilize a panel of nine microsatellite loci to evaluate the genetic structure of O. faveolata and to infer connectivity...

Data from: High throughput functional genomics identifies modulators of TCE metabolite genotoxicity and candidate susceptibility genes

Vanessa Y. De La Rosa, Jonathan Asfaha, Michael Fasullo, Alex Loguinov, Peng Li, Lee E. Moore, Nathaniel Rothman, Jun Nakamura, James A. Swenberg, Ghislaine Scelo, Luoping Zhang, Martyn T. Smith & Chris D. Vulpe
Trichloroethylene (TCE), an industrial chemical and environmental contaminant, is a human carcinogen. Reactive metabolites are implicated in renal carcinogenesis associated with TCE exposure, yet the toxicity mechanisms of these metabolites and their contribution to cancer and other adverse effects remain unclear. We employed an integrated functional genomics approach that combined functional profiling studies in yeast and avian DT40 cell models to provide new insights into the specific mechanisms contributing to toxicity associated with TCE metabolites....

Data from: Effects of grain size and niche breadth on species distribution modeling

Thomas Connor, Vanessa Hull, Andres Vina, Ashton Shortridge, Ying Tang, Jindong Zhang, Fang Wang & Jianguo Liu
Scale is a vital component to consider in ecological research, and spatial resolution or grain size is one of its key facets. Species distribution models (SDMs) are prime examples of ecological research in which grain size is an important component. Despite this, SDMs rarely explicitly examine the effects of varying the grain size of the predictors for species with different niche breadths. To investigate the effect of grain size and niche breadth on SDMs, we...

Data from: Plant spines deter herbivory by restricting caterpillar movement

Rupesh R. Kariyat, Sean B. Hardison, Consuelo M. De Moraes & Mark C. Mescher
The spines of flowering plants are thought to function primarily in defence against mammalian herbivores; however, we previously reported that feeding by Manduca sexta caterpillars on the leaves of horsenettle plants (Solanum carolinense) induces increased development of internode spines on new growth. To determine whether and how spines impact caterpillar feeding, we conducted assays with three Solanaceous plant species that vary in spine numbers (S. carolinense, S. atropurpureum and S. aethiopicum) and also manipulated spine...

Data from: Interactions among symbionts operate across scales to influence parasite epidemics

Fletcher W. Halliday, James Umbanhowar & Charles E. Mitchell
Parasite epidemics may be influenced by interactions among symbionts, which can depend on past events at multiple spatial scales. Within host individuals, interactions can depend on the sequence in which symbionts infect a host, generating priority effects. Across host individuals, interactions can depend on parasite phenology. To test the roles of parasite interactions and phenology in epidemics, we embedded multiple cohorts of sentinel plants, grown from seeds with and without a vertically transmitted symbiont, into...

Data from: A multivariate test of disease risk reveals conditions leading to disease amplification

Fletcher W. Halliday, Robert W. Heckman, Peter A. Wilfhart, Charles E. Mitchell & Peter A. Wilfahrt
Theory predicts that increasing biodiversity will dilute the risk of infectious diseases under certain conditions and will amplify disease risk under others. Yet, few empirical studies demonstrate amplification. This contrast may occur because few studies have considered the multivariate nature of disease risk, which includes richness and abundance of parasites with different transmission modes. By combining a multivariate statistical model developed for biodiversity–ecosystem–multifunctionality with an extensive field manipulation of host (plant) richness, composition and resource...

Data from: Flat and complex temperate reefs provide similar support for fish: evidence for a unimodal species-habitat relationship

Avery B. Paxton, Emily A. Pickering, Alyssa M. Adler, J. Christopher Taylor & Charles H. Peterson
Structural complexity, a form of habitat heterogeneity, influences the structure and function of ecological communities, generally supporting increased species density, richness, and diversity. Recent research, however, suggests the most complex habitats may not harbor the highest density of individuals and number of species, especially in areas with elevated human influence. Understanding nuances in relationships between habitat heterogeneity and ecological communities is warranted to guide habitat-focused conservation and management efforts. We conducted fish and structural habitat...

Data from: Inducible versus constitutive social immunity: examining effects of colony infection on glucose oxidase and defensin-1 production in honeybees

Margarita M. López-Uribe, Andrea Fitzgerald & Michael Simone-Finstrom
Honeybees use a variety of defence mechanisms to reduce disease infection and spread throughout the colony. Many of these defences rely on the collective action of multiple individuals to prevent, reduce or eradicate pathogens—often referred to as ‘social immunity’. Glucose oxidase (GOX) and some antimicrobial peptides (e.g. defensin-1 or Def1) are secreted by the hypopharyngeal gland of adult bees on larval food for their antiseptic properties. Because workers secrete these compounds to protect larvae, they...

Data from: Three-dimensional trajectories and network analyses of group behaviour within chimney swift flocks during approaches to the roost

Dennis J. Evangelista, Dylan D. Ray, Sathish K. Raja & Tyson L. Hedrick
Chimney swifts (Chaetura pelagica) are highly manoeuvrable birds notable for roosting overnight in chimneys, in groups of hundreds or thousands of birds, before and during their autumn migration. At dusk, birds gather in large numbers from surrounding areas near a roost site. The whole flock then employs an orderly, but dynamic, circling approach pattern before rapidly entering a small aperture en masse. We recorded the three-dimensional trajectories of ≈1 800 individual birds during a 30...

Data from: Using Pool-seq to search for genomic regions affected by hybrid inviability in the copepod T. californicus

Thiago G. Lima & Christopher S. Willett
The formation of reproductive barriers between allopatric populations involves the accumulation of incompatibilities that lead to intrinsic postzygotic isolation. The evolution of these incompatibilities is usually explained by the Dobzhansky-Muller model, where epistatic interactions that arise within the diverging populations, lead to deleterious interactions when they come together in a hybrid genome. These incompatibilities can lead to hybrid inviability, killing individuals with certain genotypic combinations, and causing the population’s allele frequency to deviate from Mendelian...

Data from: Genome sequences reveal cryptic speciation in the human pathogen Histoplasma capsulatum

Victoria E. Sepúlveda, Roberto Márquez, David A. Turissini, Willam E. Goldman & Daniel R. Matute
Histoplasma capsulatum is a pathogenic fungus that causes life-threatening lung infections. About 500,000 people are exposed to H. capsulatum each year in the United States, and over 60% of the U.S. population has been exposed to the fungus at some point in their life. We performed genome-wide population genetics and phylogenetic analyses with 30 Histoplasma isolates representing four recognized areas where histoplasmosis is endemic and show that the Histoplasma genus is composed of at least...

Data from: The rate of evolution of postmating-prezygotic reproductive isolation in Drosophila

David A Turissini, Joseph A. McGirr, Sonali S. Patel, Jean R. David & Daniel R. Matute
Reproductive isolation (RI) is an intrinsic aspect of species, as described in the Biological Species Concept. For that reason, the identification of the precise traits and mechanisms of RI, and the rates at which they evolve, is crucial to understanding how species originate and persist. Nonetheless, precise measurements of the magnitude of reproductive isolation are rare. Previous work has measured the rates of evolution of prezygotic and postzygotic barriers to gene flow, yet no systematic...

Data from: A nonrandom subset of olfactory genes is associated with host preference in the fruit fly Drosophila orena

Aaron A. Comeault, Antonio Serrato-Capuchina, David A. Turissini, Patrick J. McLaughlin, Jean R. David & Daniel R. Matute
Specialization onto different host plants has been hypothesized to be a major driver of diversification in insects, and traits controlling olfaction have been shown to play a fundamental role in host preferences. A diverse set of olfactory genes control olfactory traits in insects, and it remains unclear whether specialization onto different hosts is likely to involve a nonrandom subset of these genes. Here, we test the role of olfactory genes in a novel case of...

Data from: Candidate genes mediating magnetoreception in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

Robert R. Fitak, Benjamin R. Wheeler, David A. Ernst, Kenneth J. Lohmann & Sonke Johnsen
Diverse animals use Earth's magnetic field in orientation and navigation, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms that underlie magnetoreception. Recent studies have focused on two possibilities: (i) magnetite-based receptors; and (ii) biochemical reactions involving radical pairs. We used RNA sequencing to examine gene expression in the brain of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after exposure to a magnetic pulse known to disrupt magnetic orientation behaviour. We identified 181 differentially expressed genes, including increased expression...

Data from: The evolution of post-pairing male mate choice

Nan Lyu, Maria R. Servedio, Huw Lloyd & Yue-Hua Sun
An increasing number of empirical studies in animals have demonstrated male mate choice. However, little is known about the evolution of post-pairing male choice, specifically that which occurs by differential allocation of male parental care in response to female signals. We use a population genetic model to examine whether such post-pairing male mate choice can evolve when males face a trade-off between parental care and extra-pair copulations (EPCs). Specifically, we assume that males allocate more...

Data from: Oyster reefs as carbon sources and sinks

F. Joel Fodrie, Antonio B. Rodriguez, Rachel K. Gittman, Jonathan H. Grabowski, Niels L. Lindquist, Charles H. Peterson, Michael F. Piehler, Justin T. Ridge & Niels. L. Lindquist
Carbon burial is increasingly valued as a service provided by threatened vegetated coastal habitats. Similarly, shellfish reefs contain significant pools of carbon and are globally endangered, yet considerable uncertainty remains regarding shellfish reefs' role as sources (+) or sinks (−) of atmospheric CO2. While CO2 release is a by-product of carbonate shell production (then burial), shellfish also facilitate atmospheric-CO2 drawdown via filtration and rapid biodeposition of carbon-fixing primary producers. We provide a framework to account...

Data from: Life stage and species identity affect whether habitat subsidies enhance or simply redistribute consumer biomass

Danielle A. Keller, Rachel K. Gittman, Rachel K. Bouchillon & F. Joel Fodrie
1. Quantifying the response of mobile consumers to changes in habitat availability is essential for determining the degree to which population-level productivity is habitat limited rather than regulated by other, potentially density-independent factors. 2. Over landscape scales, this can be explored by monitoring changes in density and foraging as habitat availability varies. As habitat availability increases, densities may: (1) decrease (unit-area production decreases; weak habitat limitation); (2) remain stable (unit-area production remains stable; habitat limitation);...

Data from: Automated integration of trees and traits: a case study using paired fin loss across teleost fishes

Laura M. Jackson, Pasan C. Fernando, Josh S. Hanscom, James P. Balhoff & Paula M. Mabee
Data synthesis required for large-scale macroevolutionary studies is challenging with the current tools available for integration. Using a classic question regarding the frequency of paired fin loss in teleost fishes as a case study, we sought to create automated methods to facilitate the integration of broad-scale trait data with a sizable species-level phylogeny. Similar to the evolutionary pattern previously described for limbs, pelvic and pectoral fin reduction and loss are thought to have occurred independently...

Registration Year

  • 2017

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of North Carolina
  • University of California, Berkeley
  • North Carolina State University
  • Lund University
  • University of Cambridge
  • Harvard University
  • Uppsala University
  • Case Western Reserve University
  • University of South Dakota
  • Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self Organization