39 Works

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Fluxes from Terrestrial and Aquatic Environments in a High-Altitude Tropical Catchment

Diego Riveros-Iregui, Andrew Murray, Keridwen Whitmore, Chloe Schneider, Megan Raisle & Maribel Herrara

Moving Towards Global Solidarity for Global Health through Multilateral Governance in the Covid-19 Response

Judith Bueno de Mesquita & Benjamin Mason Meier

Data from: Genetic architecture influences when and how hybridization contributes to colonization

Bryan Reatini & Todd Vision
The role of genetic architecture in adaptation to novel environments has received considerable attention when the source of adaptation variation is de novo mutation. Relatively less is known when the source of adaptive variation is inter- or intraspecific hybridization. We model hybridization between divergent source populations and subsequent colonization of an unoccupied novel environment using individual-based simulations in order to understand the influence of genetic architecture on the timing of colonization and the mode of...

Interactive effects of previous and current thermal conditions on gene expression in Manduca sexta

Meggan A Alston, Jeeyun Lee, M. Elizabeth Moore, Joel G Kingsolver & Christopher S Willett
High temperatures can negatively impact performance and survival of organisms, particularly ectotherms. While an organism’s response to high temperature stress clearly depends on current thermal conditions, its response may also be affected by the temporal pattern and duration of past temperature exposures. We used RNA sequencing of Manduca sexta larvae fat body tissue to evaluate how diurnal temperature fluctuations during development affected gene expression both independently and in conjunction with subsequent heat stress. Additionally, we...

Data from: The effectiveness of pseudomagic traits in promoting divergence and enhancing local adaptation

Maria R. Servedio & Bürger Reinhard
The first file contains the code necessary to generate figures in the style of Fig 1 of the associated manuscript. These figures show the divergence between both ecological traits and mating traits by the strength of mating preference. Different panels correspond to different rates of recombination between these loci that control these types of traits. Files S1 and S2 are Mathematica versions of the corresponding files in the Supplementary Information of the paper.

Do Synthesis Centers Synthesize? A Semantic Analysis of Topical Diversity in Research

Edward Hackett, Erin Leahy, John Parker, Ismael Rafols, Stephanie Hampton, Ugo Corte, Diego Chavarro, John Drake, Bart Penders, Laura Sheble, Niki Vermeulen & Todd Vision
Synthesis centers are a form of scientific organization that catalyzes and supports research that integrates diverse theories, methods and data across spatial or temporal scales to increase the generality, parsimony, applicability, or empirical soundness of scientific explanations. Synthesis working groups are a distinctive form of scientific collaboration that produce consequential, high-impact publications. But no one has asked if synthesis working groups synthesize: are their publications substantially more diverse than others, and if so, in what...

Code for: Same-sex sexual behaviour and selection for indiscriminate mating

Brian Lerch & Maria Servedio
File provides Mathematica code to replicate the analyses of "Same-sex sexual behaviour and selection for indiscriminate mating" by Lerch and Servedio. All figures from the manuscript (and its supplement) can be obtained by running the code. Comments for the code is provided for the "Additive death" section with other sections presented in parallel.

Supplemental materials for: Peri- and post-pubertal estrogen exposures of female mice optimize uterine responses later in life

Sylvia Hewitt, Marleny Carmona, Grace Foley, Lauren Donoghue, Sydney Lierz, Wipawee Winuthayanon & Kenneth Korach
At birth, all female mice, including those that either lack estrogen receptor α (ERα-knockout) or that express mutated forms of ERα (AF2ERKI), have a hypoplastic uterus. However, uterine growth and development that normally accompanies pubertal maturation does not occur in ERα-knockout or AF2ERKI mice, indicating ERα mediated estrogen signaling is essential for this process. Mice that lack Cyp19 (aromatase, ArKO mice), an enzyme critical for estrogen (E2) synthesis, are unable to make E2, and lack...

Psychedelics: from pharmacology to phenomenology. An interview with David Nichols.

David Nichols, Leor Roseman & Christopher Timmermann
In this interview, David Nichols – the acknowledged psychedelic pharmacologist - discusses a range of topics about psychedelic research and its relevance for consciousness science. He covers novel findings about psychedelics and their key mechanisms at the receptor level, while debunking old myths and criticize unproven speculations. At the pharmacological level, Nichols expands on two findings that suggest that receptors are not simply on/off switches. The first finding is of a lid shaped structure which...

Predicting the impact of patient and private provider behaviour on diagnostic delay for pulmonary tuberculosis patients in India: A simulation modelling approach

Sarang Deo, Simrita Singh, Neha Jha, Nimalan Arinaminpathy & Puneet Dewan
Background TB incidence in India continues to be high due, in large part, to long delays experienced by patients before successful diagnosis and treatment initiation, especially in the private sector. This diagnostic delay is driven by patients’ inclination to switch between different type of providers and providers’ inclination to delay ordering of accurate diagnostic tests relevant to TB. Our objective is to quantify the impact of changes in these behavioural characteristics of providers and patients...

Genetic diversity and thermal performance in invasive and native populations of African fig flies

Aaron Comeault, Jeremy Wang, Silas Tittes, Kristin Isbell, Spencer Ingley, Allen Hurlbert & Daniel Matute
During biological invasions, invasive populations can suffer losses of genetic diversity that are predicted to negatively impact their fitness/performance. Despite examples of invasive populations harboring lower diversity than conspecific populations in their native range, few studies have linked this lower diversity to a decrease in fitness. Using genome sequences, we show that invasive populations of the African fig fly, Zaprionus indianus, have less genetic diversity than conspecific populations in their native range and that diversity...

Data for: Genetic architecture modulates diet induced hepatic mRNA and miRNA expression profiles

Excel Que, Kristen L. James, Alisha R. Coffey, Tangi L. Smallwood, Jody Albright, M. Nazmul Huda, Daniel Pomp, Praveen Sethupathy & Brian J. Bennett
Genetic approaches in model organisms have consistently demonstrated that molecular traits such as gene expression are under genetic regulation, similar to clinical traits. The resulting expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) have revolutionized our understanding of genetic regulation and identified numerous candidate genes for clinically-relevant traits. More recently, these analyses have been extended to other molecular traits such as protein abundance, metabolite levels, and miRNA expression. Here we performed global hepatic eQTL and miRNA expression quantitative...

Compensating for climate change-induced cue-environment mismatches: evidence for contemporary evolution of a photoperiodic reaction norm in Colias butterflies

Matthew Nielsen & Joel Kingsolver
Anthropogenic climate change alters seasonal conditions without altering photoperiod and can thus create a cue-environment mismatch for organisms that use photoperiod as a cue for seasonal plasticity. We investigated whether evolution of the photoperiodic reaction norm has compensated for this mismatch in Colias eurytheme. This butterfly’s wing melanization has a thermoregulatory function and changes seasonally. In 1971, Hoffmann quantified how larval photoperiod determines adult wing melanization. We recreated his experiment 47 years later using a...

Evolving constraints and rules in Harmonic Grammar

Elliott Moreton

pot-1::mCherry transgene images from: Gametes deficient for Pot1 telomere binding proteins alter levels of telomeric foci for multiple generations

Evan Lister-Shimauchi
These images are raw data associated with the figures for the Communications Biolgoy manuscript "Gametes deficient for Pot1 telomere binding proteins alter levels of telomeric foci for multiple generations" (Lister-Shimauchi et. al., 2020). Subjects are C. elegans containing a pot-1::mCherry transgene. Some also contain a mNeonGreen::pot-2 transgene. Most subjects are early stage embryos.

How biomechanics, path-planning and sensing enable gliding flight in a natural environment

Tyson Hedrick & Pranav Khandelwal
Gliding animals traverse cluttered aerial environments when performing ecologically relevant behaviours. However, it is unknown how gliders execute collision-free flight over varying distances to reach their intended target. We quantified complete glide trajectories amid obstacles in a naturally behaving population of gliding lizards inhabiting a rainforest reserve. In this cluttered habitat, the lizards used glide paths with fewer obstacles than alternatives of similar distance. Their takeoff direction oriented them away from obstacles in their path...

Comparison of the costs of HPV testing through Community health campaigns versus Home-based testing in rural western Kenya: A micro-costing study

Easter Olwanda, James Khan, Yujung Choi, Jessica Islam & Megan Huchko
Objectives: To estimate the cost of HPV-based screening through Community health campaigns (CHCs) and home-based testing. Setting: Community health campaigns (CHCs) and home-based testing in six communities in rural western Kenya. Participants: CHCs and home-based screening reached 2297 and 1002 women aged 25 to 65 years respectively. Outcome measures: Outcome measures were overall cost per woman screened achieved through the CHCs and home-based testing, and the cost per woman for each activity comprising the screening...

Data from: Trait-based variation in host contribution to pathogen transmission across species and resource supplies

Miranda Welsh, James Cronin & Charles Mitchell
Two key knowledge gaps currently limit the development of more predictive and general models of pathogen transmission: (1) the physiological basis of heterogeneity in host contribution to pathogen transmission (reservoir potential) remains poorly understood, and (2) a general means of integrating the ecological dynamics of host communities has yet to emerge. If the traits responsible for differences in reservoir potential also modulate host community dynamics, these traits could be used to predict pathogen transmission as...

Paternally inherited P-element copy number affects the magnitude of hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila simulans and D. melanogaster

Daniel Matute, Antonio Serrato-Capuchina, Jeremy Wang, Eric Earley, David Peede & Kristin Isbell
Transposable elements (TEs) are repetitive regions of DNA that are able to self-replicate and reinsert themselves throughout host genomes. Since the discovery of TEs, a prevalent question has been whether increasing TE copy number has an effect on the fitness of their hosts. P-elements (PEs) in Drosophila are a well-studied TE that has strong phenotypic effects. When a female without PEs (M) is crossed to a male with them (P), the resulting females are often...

Add Health Wave V Documentation: Cardiovascular Measures

Eric A. Whistsel, Robert Angel, Rick O'Hara, Lixin Qu, Kathryn Carrier & Kathleen Mullan Harris
This document summarizes the rationale, equipment, measurement, protocol and data cleaning procedures for each of the cardiovascular measures collected at the Wave V home exam. It also documents how constructed variables were derived from the cardiovascular measures collected in the field. Whenever possible, data collection and methods in Wave V mirrored those of Wave IV to ensure comparability of data between waves. This document is one in a set of Wave V user guides. User...

DMT in the Mammalian Brain: A Critical Appraisal

Charles D. Nicholas & David E. Nichols
Recently, a publication from Dean et al. reported that N,N-dimethyl tryptamine (DMT) is synthesized in the rat brain cortex, present at levels similar to other monoamine neurotransmitters, and significantly increases in concentration at death. They further promoted the theory that DMT may serve as the causative agent for “near death experiences”, which have been compared to peak psychedelic experiences. The publication certainly is interesting and suggests additional directions to explore scientifically but does not meet...

Data from: Differing thermal sensitivities in a host-parasitoid interaction: high, fluctuating developmental temperatures produce dead wasps and giant caterpillars

M. Elizabeth Moore, Christina A. Hill & Joel G. Kingsolver
1. Insect parasitoids, and the arthropod hosts they consume during development, are important ecological players in almost all environments across the globe. As ectothermic organisms, both parasitoid and host are strongly impacted by environmental temperature. If thermal tolerances differ between host insect and parasitoid, then the outcome of their interaction will be determined by the ambient temperature. As mean temperatures continue to rise and extreme temperatures become more frequent, we must determine the effect of...

Growth, stress and acclimation responses to fluctuating temperatures in field and domesticated populations of Manduca sexta

Joel Kingsolver, Joel Kingsolver, Megan Moore, Christina Hill & Kate Augustine
Diurnal fluctuations in temperature are ubiquitous in terrestrial environments, and insects and other ectotherms have evolved to tolerate or acclimate to such fluctuations. Few studies have examined whether ectotherms acclimate to diurnal temperature fluctuations, or how natural and domesticated populations differ in their responses to diurnal fluctuations. We examine how diurnally fluctuating temperatures during development affect growth, acclimation and stress responses for two populations of Manduca sexta: a field population that typically experiences wide variation...

Data from: An experimental investigation of how intraspecific competition and phenotypic plasticity can promote the evolution of novel, complex phenotypes

Nicholas Levis
Intraspecific competition has long been considered a key driver of evolutionary diversification, but whether it can also promote evolutionary innovation is less clear. We examined the interplay between competition and phenotypic plasticity in fueling the origins of a novel, complex phenotype––a distinctive carnivore morph found in spadefoot toad tadpoles (genus Spea) that specializes on fairy shrimp. We specifically sought to explore the possible origins of this phenotype by providing shrimp to Scaphiopus holbrookii tadpoles (the...

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