38 Works

Data from: Carryover effects and the evolution of polyphenism

David Pfennig, Sofia De La Serna Buzón & Ryan Martin
An individual’s early-life environment and phenotype often influence its traits and performance as an adult. We investigated whether such ‘carryover effects’ are associated with alternative, environmentally induced phenotypes (‘polyphenism’), and, if so, whether they influence polyphenism’s evolution. To do so, we studied spadefoot toads, Spea multiplicata, which have evolved a polyphenism consisting of two, dramatically different forms: a carnivore morph and an omnivore morph. We sampled both morphs from a fast-drying and a slow-drying pond...

Paracoccidioides genomes reveal divergence

Academic Matute
The fungus Paracoccidioides spp. is a prevalent human pathogen endemic to South America. The genus is composed of five species. In this report, we use 37 whole genome sequences to study the allocation of genetic variation in Paracoccidioides. We tested three genome-wide predictions of advanced speciation, namely, that all species should be reciprocally monophyletic, that species pairs should be highly differentiated along the whole genome, and that there should be low rates of interspecific gene...

Data from: A condition-dependent male sexual signal predicts adaptive predator-induced plasticity in offspring

Patrick Kelly
The possibility that sexual selection promotes adaptive evolution in variable environments remains controversial. In particular, where the scale of environmental variation results in parents and their offspring experiencing different environmental conditions, such variation is expected to break down associations between adult sexual traits and adaptive offspring traits. However, when adaptive offspring plasticity in nonsexual traits acts as an indirect benefit of mate choice, then mate choice for males that produce more plastic offspring could promote...

Fine particulate matter and neuroanatomic risk for Alzheimer’s disease in older women

Diana Younan, Xinhui Wang, Ramon Casanova, Ryan Barnard, Sarah Gaussoin, Santiago Saldana, Andrew Petkus, Daniel Beavers, Susan Resnick, JoAnn Manson, Marc Serre, William Vizuete, Victor Henderson, Bonnie Sachs, Joel Salinas, Margaret Gatz, Mark Espeland, Helena Chui, Sally Shumaker, Stephen Rapp & Jiu-Chiuan Chen
Objective: To examine whether late-life exposure to PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters <2.5-µm) contributes to progressive brain atrophy predictive of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) using a community-dwelling cohort of women (aged 71-89) with up to two brain MRI scans (MRI-1: 2005-6; MRI-2: 2010-11). Methods: AD pattern similarity (AD-PS) scores, developed by supervised machine learning and validated with MRI data from the AD Neuroimaging Initiative, was used to capture high-dimensional gray matter atrophy in brain areas...

Longitudinal white-matter abnormalities in sports-related concussion: a diffusion MRI study of the NCAA-DoD CARE Consortium

Yu-Chien Wu, Jaroslaw Harezlak, Nahla Elsaid, Zikai Lin, Qiuting Wen, Sourajit Mustafi, Larry Riggen, Kevin Koch, Andrew Nencka, Timothy Meier, Andrew Mayer, Yang Wang, Christopher Giza, John DiFiori, Kevin Guskiewicz, Jason Mihalik, Stephen LaConte, Stefan Duma, Steven Broglio, Andrew Saykin, Michael McCrea & Thomas McAllister
Objective To study longitudinal recovery trajectories of white-matter after sports-related concussion (SRC), we performed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) on collegiate athletes who sustained SRC. Methods Collegiate athletes (n=219, 82 concussed athletes, 68 contact-sport controls, and 69 non-contact-sport controls) were included from the Concussion Assessment, Research and Education (CARE) Consortium. The participants completed clinical assessments and DTI at four time points: 24-48-hours post-injury, asymptomatic state, seven days following return-to-play, and six-months post-injury. Tract-based spatial statistics were...

Data from: Exposure effects beyond the epithelial barrier: trans-epithelial induction of oxidative stress by diesel exhaust particulates in lung fibroblasts in an organotypic human airway model

Samantha Faber, Nicole McNabb, Pablo Ariel, Emily Aungst & Shaun McCullough
In vitro bronchial epithelial monoculture models have been pivotal in defining the adverse effects of inhaled toxicant exposures; however, they are only representative of one cellular compartment and may not accurately reflect the effects of exposures on other cell types. Lung fibroblasts exist immediately beneath the bronchial epithelial barrier and play a central role in lung structure and function, as well as disease development and progression. We tested the hypothesis that in vitro exposure of...

Data from: Identification of candidate loci for adaptive phenotypic plasticity in natural populations of spadefoot toads

Nicholas Levis, Emily Reed, David Pfennig & Martha Burford Reiskind
Phenotypic plasticity allows organisms to alter their phenotype in direct response to changes in the environment. Despite growing recognition of plasticity’s role in ecology and evolution, few studies have probed plasticity’s molecular bases—especially using natural populations. We investigated the genetic basis of phenotypic plasticity in natural populations of spadefoot toads (Spea multiplicata). Spea tadpoles normally develop into an ‘omnivore’ morph that is favored in long-lasting, low-density ponds. However, if tadpoles consume freshwater shrimp or other...

UNC-Chapel Hill Coronavirus Research

On the Books

Social context, but not individual personality, alters immigrant viability in a spider with mixed social structure

Jessica Purcell, Spencer Ingley, Jonathan Pruitt & Inon Scharf
Immigrant viability is a major determinant of the realized rate of gene flow across populations. For social organisms, the social context in which immigrants disperse across contrasting environments may have important implications for their viability post dispersal. Here, we use social spiders whose individual personalities as well as group personality compositions vary across sites to test whether the strength of selection against immigrants (i.e. mortality rates) differs depending on whether spiders are transplanted (1) as...

Add Health Wave V Documentation: Cardiovascular Measures

Eric A. Whistsel, Robert Angel, Rick O'Hara, Lixin Qu, Kathryn Carrier & Kathleen Mullan Harris
This document summarizes the rationale, equipment, measurement, protocol and data cleaning procedures for each of the cardiovascular measures collected at the Wave V home exam. It also documents how constructed variables were derived from the cardiovascular measures collected in the field. Whenever possible, data collection and methods in Wave V mirrored those of Wave IV to ensure comparability of data between waves. This document is one in a set of Wave V user guides. User...

Mutation of CFAP57, a protein required for the asymmetric targeting of a subset of inner dynein arms in Chlamydomonas, causes primary ciliary dyskinesia

Susan Dutcher, Ximena Bustamante-Marin, Amjad Horani, Mihaela Stoyanova, Wu-Lin Charng, Mathieu Bottier, Patrick Sears, Wei-Ning Yin, Leigh Anne Daniels, Hailey Bowen, Donald Conrad, Michael Knowles, Lawrence Ostrowski & Maimoona Zariwala
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is characterized by chronic airway disease, reduced fertility, and randomization of the left/right body axis. It is caused by defects of motile cilia and sperm flagella. We screened a cohort of affected individuals that lack an obvious axonemal defect for pathogenic variants using whole exome capture, next generation sequencing, and bioinformatic analysis assuming an autosomal recessive trait. We identified one subject with an apparently homozygous nonsense variant [(c.1762C>T), p.(Arg588*)] in the...

Data from: A stochastic model for predicting age and mass at maturity of insects

Geoffrey Legault & Joel Kingsolver
Variation in age and mass at maturity is commonly observed in populations, even among individuals with the same genetic and environmental backgrounds. Accounting for such individual variation with a stochastic model is important for estimating optimal evolutionary strategies and for understanding potential trade-offs among life history traits. However, most studies employ stochastic models that are either phenomenological or account for variation in only one life history trait. We propose a model based on the developmental...

Data from: An experimental investigation of how intraspecific competition and phenotypic plasticity can promote the evolution of novel, complex phenotypes

Nicholas Levis
Intraspecific competition has long been considered a key driver of evolutionary diversification, but whether it can also promote evolutionary innovation is less clear. We examined the interplay between competition and phenotypic plasticity in fueling the origins of a novel, complex phenotype––a distinctive carnivore morph found in spadefoot toad tadpoles (genus Spea) that specializes on fairy shrimp. We specifically sought to explore the possible origins of this phenotype by providing shrimp to Scaphiopus holbrookii tadpoles (the...

Temperature-dependent competitive outcomes between the fruit flies Drosophila santomea and D. yakuba

Aaron Comeault & Daniel Matute
We use these data to test whether temperature can indirectly affect the fitness of Drosophila santomea and D. yakuba by altering interspecific competitive outcomes. We show that, when raised in isolation, both D. santomea and D. yakuba display similar variation in relative fitness across temperatures of 18°C, 22°C, and 25°C. However, D. santomea has higher fitness than D. yakuba when experiencing interspecific competition at 18°C, while the inverse is true at 25°C. Patterns of fitness...

Growth, stress and acclimation responses to fluctuating temperatures in field and domesticated populations of Manduca sexta

Joel Kingsolver, Joel Kingsolver, Megan Moore, Christina Hill & Kate Augustine
Diurnal fluctuations in temperature are ubiquitous in terrestrial environments, and insects and other ectotherms have evolved to tolerate or acclimate to such fluctuations. Few studies have examined whether ectotherms acclimate to diurnal temperature fluctuations, or how natural and domesticated populations differ in their responses to diurnal fluctuations. We examine how diurnally fluctuating temperatures during development affect growth, acclimation and stress responses for two populations of Manduca sexta: a field population that typically experiences wide variation...

Data on assessing the effects of genetic divergence and morphology on Anolis lizard mating

Emmanuel D'Agostino, Colin Donihue, Jonathan Losos & Anthony Geneva
The brown anole (Anolis sagrei) is a widespread neotropical lizard found on many islands in the West Indies as well as the coast of Central America. Across their range, brown anole populations show extensive ecomorphological trait variation and substantial genetic divergence. It is unclear, however, whether this genetic and morphological divergence results in reproductive isolation between populations. We investigated variation in mating behavior across populations by analyzing four hours of video of each of 234...

Data from: Differing thermal sensitivities in a host-parasitoid interaction: high, fluctuating developmental temperatures produce dead wasps and giant caterpillars

M. Elizabeth Moore, Christina A. Hill & Joel G. Kingsolver
1. Insect parasitoids, and the arthropod hosts they consume during development, are important ecological players in almost all environments across the globe. As ectothermic organisms, both parasitoid and host are strongly impacted by environmental temperature. If thermal tolerances differ between host insect and parasitoid, then the outcome of their interaction will be determined by the ambient temperature. As mean temperatures continue to rise and extreme temperatures become more frequent, we must determine the effect of...

DMT in the Mammalian Brain: A Critical Appraisal

Charles D. Nicholas & David E. Nichols
Recently, a publication from Dean et al. reported that N,N-dimethyl tryptamine (DMT) is synthesized in the rat brain cortex, present at levels similar to other monoamine neurotransmitters, and significantly increases in concentration at death. They further promoted the theory that DMT may serve as the causative agent for “near death experiences”, which have been compared to peak psychedelic experiences. The publication certainly is interesting and suggests additional directions to explore scientifically but does not meet...

Data for: Genetic architecture modulates diet induced hepatic mRNA and miRNA expression profiles

Excel Que, Kristen L. James, Alisha R. Coffey, Tangi L. Smallwood, Jody Albright, M. Nazmul Huda, Daniel Pomp, Praveen Sethupathy & Brian J. Bennett
Genetic approaches in model organisms have consistently demonstrated that molecular traits such as gene expression are under genetic regulation, similar to clinical traits. The resulting expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) have revolutionized our understanding of genetic regulation and identified numerous candidate genes for clinically-relevant traits. More recently, these analyses have been extended to other molecular traits such as protein abundance, metabolite levels, and miRNA expression. Here we performed global hepatic eQTL and miRNA expression quantitative...

Psychedelics: from pharmacology to phenomenology. An interview with David Nichols.

David Nichols, Leor Roseman & Christopher Timmermann
In this interview, David Nichols – the acknowledged psychedelic pharmacologist - discusses a range of topics about psychedelic research and its relevance for consciousness science. He covers novel findings about psychedelics and their key mechanisms at the receptor level, while debunking old myths and criticize unproven speculations. At the pharmacological level, Nichols expands on two findings that suggest that receptors are not simply on/off switches. The first finding is of a lid shaped structure which...

Genetic diversity and thermal performance in invasive and native populations of African fig flies

Aaron Comeault, Jeremy Wang, Silas Tittes, Kristin Isbell, Spencer Ingley, Allen Hurlbert & Daniel Matute
During biological invasions, invasive populations can suffer losses of genetic diversity that are predicted to negatively impact their fitness/performance. Despite examples of invasive populations harboring lower diversity than conspecific populations in their native range, few studies have linked this lower diversity to a decrease in fitness. Using genome sequences, we show that invasive populations of the African fig fly, Zaprionus indianus, have less genetic diversity than conspecific populations in their native range and that diversity...

Predicting the impact of patient and private provider behaviour on diagnostic delay for pulmonary tuberculosis patients in India: A simulation modelling approach

Sarang Deo, Simrita Singh, Neha Jha, Nimalan Arinaminpathy & Puneet Dewan
Background TB incidence in India continues to be high due, in large part, to long delays experienced by patients before successful diagnosis and treatment initiation, especially in the private sector. This diagnostic delay is driven by patients’ inclination to switch between different type of providers and providers’ inclination to delay ordering of accurate diagnostic tests relevant to TB. Our objective is to quantify the impact of changes in these behavioural characteristics of providers and patients...

Compensating for climate change-induced cue-environment mismatches: evidence for contemporary evolution of a photoperiodic reaction norm in Colias butterflies

Matthew Nielsen & Joel Kingsolver
Anthropogenic climate change alters seasonal conditions without altering photoperiod and can thus create a cue-environment mismatch for organisms that use photoperiod as a cue for seasonal plasticity. We investigated whether evolution of the photoperiodic reaction norm has compensated for this mismatch in Colias eurytheme. This butterfly’s wing melanization has a thermoregulatory function and changes seasonally. In 1971, Hoffmann quantified how larval photoperiod determines adult wing melanization. We recreated his experiment 47 years later using a...

Paternally inherited P-element copy number affects the magnitude of hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila simulans and D. melanogaster

Daniel Matute, Antonio Serrato-Capuchina, Jeremy Wang, Eric Earley, David Peede & Kristin Isbell
Transposable elements (TEs) are repetitive regions of DNA that are able to self-replicate and reinsert themselves throughout host genomes. Since the discovery of TEs, a prevalent question has been whether increasing TE copy number has an effect on the fitness of their hosts. P-elements (PEs) in Drosophila are a well-studied TE that has strong phenotypic effects. When a female without PEs (M) is crossed to a male with them (P), the resulting females are often...

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  • University of North Carolina
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