38 Works

Data from: Identification of candidate loci for adaptive phenotypic plasticity in natural populations of spadefoot toads

Nicholas Levis
Phenotypic plasticity allows organisms to alter their phenotype in direct response to changes in the environment. Despite growing recognition of plasticity’s role in ecology and evolution, few studies have probed plasticity’s molecular bases—especially using natural populations. We investigated the genetic basis of phenotypic plasticity in natural populations of spadefoot toads (Spea multiplicata). Spea tadpoles normally develop into an ‘omnivore’ morph that is favored in long-lasting, low-density ponds. However, if tadpoles consume freshwater shrimp or other...

The genetic architecture and evolution of life history divergence among perennials in the Mimulus guttatus species complex

Jennifer Coughlan, Maya Wilson Brown & John Willis
Ecological divergence is a main source of trait divergence between closely related species. Despite its importance in generating phenotypic diversity, the genetic architecture of most ecologically relevant traits is poorly understood. Differences in elevation can impose substantial selection for phenotypic divergence of both complex, correlated suites of traits (such as life history), as well as novel adaptations. Here, we use the Mimulus guttatus species complex to assess if divergence in elevation is accompanied by trait...

Host energetics explain variation in parasite productivity across hosts and ecosystems

Rita Grunberg & David Anderson
Parasites are thought to play a role in ecosystem energetics, in part because some ecosystems harbor a substantial amount of parasite biomass. Nevertheless, the extent to which parasite biomass accurately reflects the flow of energy from hosts to parasites, and the linkages between their energetics, remain unclear. Here, we estimate parasite community energetics at the host and ecosystem-level and test predictions for parasite energetics using the metabolic theory of ecology. Across 27 host species, parasite...

Impact of the malaria comprehensive case management programme in Odisha, India

Anup Anvikar, M M Pradhan, Sreya Pradhan, Ambarish Dutta, Naman K Shah, Neena Valecha, Pyare L Joshi, Khageshwar Pradhan, Penny Grewal Daumerie, Jaya Banerji, Stephan Duparc, Kamini Mendis, Surya K. Sharma & Shiva Murugasampillay
Background The Comprehensive Case Management Project (CCMP), was a collaborative implementation research initiative to strengthen malaria early detection and complete treatment in Odisha State, India. Methods A two-arm quasi-experimental design was deployed across four districts in Odisha, representing a range of malaria endemicity: Bolangir (low transmission), Dhenkanal (moderate transmission), Angul (high transmission), and Kandhamal (hyper transmission). In each district, a control block received routine malaria control measures, whereas a CCMP block received a range of...

Biophysical properties governing septin assembly

Benjamin Woods, Ian Seim, Jessica Liu, Grace McLaughlin & Amy Gladfelter
Septin filaments build structures such as rings, lattices and gauzes that serve as platforms for localizing signaling and organizing cell membranes. How cells control the geometry of septin assemblies in poorly understood. We show here that septins are isodesmic polymers, in contrast to cooperative polymerization exhibited by F-actin and microtubules. We constructed a physical model to analyze and interpret how septin assemblies change in the presence of regulators in yeast extracts. Notably filaments differ in...

Pure species discriminate against hybrids in the Drosophila melanogaster species subgroup

Academic Matute, Antonio Serrato-Capuchina, Timothy D. Schwochert, Stephania Zhang, Baylee Marie Roy, David Peede, Caleigh Koppelman & Daniel Ricardo Matute
Introgression, the exchange of alleles between species, is a common event in nature. This transfer of alleles between species must happen through fertile hybrids. Characterizing the traits that cause defects in hybrids illuminate how and when gene flow is expected to occur. Inviability and sterility are extreme examples of fitness reductions but are not the only type of defects in hybrids. Some traits specific to hybrids are more subtle but are important to determine their...

P-elements strengthen reproductive isolation within the Drosophila simulans species complex

Antonio Serrato-Capuchina, Emmanuel R. R. D'Agostino, David Peede, Baylee Marie Roy, Kristin Isbell, Jeremy Wang & Daniel Matute
Determining mechanisms that underlie reproductive isolation is key to understanding how species boundaries are maintained in nature. Transposable elements (TEs) are ubiquitous across eukaryotic genomes. However, the role of TEs in modulating the strength of reproductive isolation between species is poorly understood. Several species of Drosophila have been found to harbor P-elements (PEs), yet only D. simulans is known to be currently polymorphic for their presence in wild populations. PEs can cause reproductive isolation between...

Deep ancestral introgression shapes evolutionary history of dragonflies and damselflies

Anton Suvorov, Celine Scornavacca, M. Stanley Fujimoto, Paul Bodily, Mark Clement, Keith Crandall, Michael Whiting, Daniel Schrider & Seth Bybee
Introgression is arguably one of the most important biological processes in the evolution of groups of related species, affecting at least 10% of the extant species in the animal kingdom. Introgression reduces genetic divergence between species, and in some cases can be highly beneficial, facilitating rapid adaptation to ever-changing environmental pressures. Introgression also significantly impacts inference of phylogenetic species relationships where a strictly binary tree model cannot adequately explain reticulate net-like species relationships. Here we...

The economics of direct nitrogen reduction technologies

Gal Hochman

Implications of Asymmetry Risk for Portfolio Analysis and Asset Pricing

Fousseni Chabi-Yo, Dietmar Leisen & Eric Renault
Asymmetric shocks are common in markets; securities' payoffs are not normally distributed and exhibit skewness. This paper studies the portfolio holdings of heterogeneous agents with preferences over mean, variance and skewness, and derives equilibrium prices. A three funds separation theorem holds, adding a skewness portfolio to the market portfolio; the pricing kernel depends linearly only on the market return and its squared value. Our analysis extends Harvey and Siddique's (2000) conditional mean-variance-skewness asset pricing model...

Supplement to: Global impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on stroke care and intravenous thrombolysis

Raul Nogueira, Muhammed Qureshi, Mohamad Abdalkader, Sheila Martins, Hiroshi Yamagami, Zhongming Qiu, Ossama Mansour, Anvitha Sathya, Anna Czlonkowska, Georgios Tsivgoulis, Diana Aguiar De Sousa, Jelle Demeestere, Robert Mikulik, Peter Vanacker, James Siegler, Janika Korv, Jose Biller, Conrad Liang, Navdeep Sangha, Alicia Zha, Alexandra Czap, Christine Holmstedt, Tanya Turan, George Ntaios, Konark Malhotra … & Thanh Nguyen
Objective: The objectives of this study were to measure the global impact of the pandemic on the volumes for intravenous thrombolysis (IVT), IVT transfers, and stroke hospitalizations over 4 months at the height of the pandemic (March 1 to June 30, 2020) compared with two control 4-month periods. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, observational, retrospective study across 6 continents, 70 countries, and 457 stroke centers. Diagnoses were identified by their ICD-10 codes and/or classifications in...

Data from: Diabetes mellitus, glycemic traits, and cerebrovascular disease: A Mendelian randomization study

Marios Georgakis, Eric Harshfield, Rainer Malik, Nora Franceschini, Claudia Langenberg, Nicholas Wareham, Hugh Markus & Martin Dichgans
Objective: We employed Mendelian randomization (MR) to explore the effects of genetic predisposition to type 2 diabetes (T2D), hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and β-cell dysfunction on risk of stroke subtypes and related cerebrovascular phenotypes. Methods: We selected instruments for genetic predisposition to T2D (74,124 cases, 824,006 controls), HbA1c levels (n=421,923), fasting glucose levels (n=133,010), insulin resistance (n=108,557), and β-cell dysfunction (n=16,378) based on published genome-wide association studies. Applying two-sample MR, we examined associations with ischemic stroke...

Frequent paternal mitochondrial inheritance and rapid haplotype frequency shifts in copepod hybrids

Christopher Willett & Jeeyun Lee
Mitochondria are assumed to be maternally inherited in most animal species, and this foundational concept has fostered advances in phylogenetics, conservation, and population genetics. Like other animals, mitochondria were thought to be solely maternally inherited in the marine copepod Tigriopus californicus, which has served as a useful model for studying mitonuclear interactions, hybrid breakdown, and environmental tolerance. However, we present PCR, Sanger sequencing, and Illumina Nextera sequencing evidence that extensive paternal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) transmission...

Data from: Developmental timing of extreme temperature events (heat waves) disrupts host-parasitoid interactions

M. Elizabeth Moore, Joel Kingsolver & Christina Hill
1. When thermal tolerances differ between interacting species, extreme temperature events (heat waves) will alter the ecological outcomes. The parasitoid wasp Cotesia congregata suffers high mortality when reared throughout development at temperatures that are non-stressful for its host, Manduca sexta. However, the effects of short-term heat stress during parasitoid development are unknown in this host-parasitoid system. 2. Here, we investigate how duration of exposure, daily maximum temperature, and the developmental timing of heat waves impact...

G-Quadruplex Structure Improves the Immunostimulatory Effects of CpG Oligonucleotides

Kazuaki Hoshi, TOMOHIKO YAMAZAKI, Yuuki Sugiyama, Kaori Tsukakoshi, Wakako Tsugawa, Koji Sode & Kazunori Ikebukuro
Single-strand oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) containing unmethylated cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) are recognized by the toll-like receptor 9, a component of the innate immunity. Therefore, they could act as immunotherapeutic agents. Chemically modified CpG ODNs containing a phosphorothioate backbone instead of phosphodiester (PD) were developed as immunotherapeutic agents resistant to nuclease degradation. However, they cause adverse side effects, and so there is a necessity to generate novel CpG ODNs. In the present study, we designed a nuclease-resistant nonmodified CpG...

Data from: Poor endometrial proliferation after clomiphene is associated with altered estrogen action

Leah Hawkins Bressler, Marc Fritz, San-Pin Wu, Lingwen Yuan, Suzanna Kafer, Tianyuan Wang, Francesco DeMayo & Steven Young
Context: Suboptimal endometrial thickening is associated with lower pregnancy rates and occurs in some infertile women treated with clomiphene. Objective: To examine cellular and molecular differences in the endometrium of women with suboptimal versus optimal endometrial thickening following clomiphene. Design: Translational prospective cohort study from 2018-2020. Setting: University-affiliated clinic. Patients or Participants: Reproductive age women with unexplained infertility treated with 100mg of clomiphene cycle days 3-7 who developed optimal (≥8mm; n=6, controls) or suboptimal (<6mm;...

Responses of Manduca sexta larvae to heat waves

Joel Kingsolver, Joel Kingsolver, Megan Elizabeth Moore, Kate E. Augustine & Christina A Hill
Climate change is increasing the frequency of heat waves and other extreme weather events experienced by organisms. How does the number and developmental timing of heat waves affect survival, growth and development of insects? Do heat waves early in development alter performance later in development? We addressed these questions using experimental heat waves with larvae of the Tobacco Hornworm, Manduca sexta. The experiments used diurnally fluctuating temperature treatments differing in the number (0-3) and developmental...

Data and code for analysis of effects of climate change on kangaskhan and summary of simulations from Warren et al. 2020

Dan Warren, Alex Dornburg, Katerina Zapfe & Teresa Iglesias
Species distribution models (SDMs) are frequently used to predict the effects of climate change on species of conservation concern. Biases inherent in the process of constructing SDMs and transferring them to new climate scenarios may result in undesirable conservation outcomes. We explore these issues and demonstrate new methods to estimate biases induced by the design of SDM studies. We present these methods in the context of estimating the effects of climate change on Australia’s only...

Patterns of hybrid seed inviability in perennials of the Mimulus guttatus sp. complex reveal a potential role of parental conflict in reproductive isolation

Jennifer Coughlan, John Willis & Maya Wilson Brown
Genomic conflicts may play a central role in the evolution of reproductive barriers. Theory predicts that early-onset hybrid inviability may stem from conflict between parents for resource allocation to offspring. Here we describe M. decorus; a group of cryptic species within the M. guttatus species complex that are largely reproductively isolated by hybrid seed inviability (HSI). HSI between M. guttatus and M. decorus is common and strong, but populations of M. decorus vary in the...

Bivalve facilitation mediates seagrass recovery from physical disturbance in a temperate estuary

Sarah Donaher & Rachel Gittman
This dataset describes two experiments done in seagrass beds in Back Sound, North Carolina. Experiment 1 was located in a large contiguous shallow seagrass bed near Cape Lookout, NC (34.668121, -76.509455) and Experiment 2 was located in the Rachel Carson Estuarine Reserve, Beaufort, NC (34.698799, -76.595439). Experiment 1 was a clam-addition/control experiment, and 2018/2019 summer growth rates, 2018/2019 summer biomass cores, and 2018/2019 epiphytic load on Zostera marina and Halodule wrightii were sampled. Experiment 2...

Langa 18-39y Diet Survey: Taxed and Untaxed Beverages Replication Dataset

Michael Essman

Data from: Phylogenomic species delimitation dramatically reduces species diversity in an Antarctic adaptive radiation

Elyse Parker, Alex Dornburg, Carl Struthers, Christopher Jones & Thomas Near
Application of genetic data to species delimitation often builds confidence in delimitations previously hypothesized using morphological, ecological, and geographic data and frequently yields recognition of previously-undescribed cryptic diversity. However, a recent critique of genomic data-based species delimitation approaches is that they have the potential to conflate population structure with species diversity, resulting in taxonomic oversplitting. The need for an integrative approach to species delimitation, in which molecular, morphological, ecological, and geographic lines of evidence are...

Female mate preferences do not predict male sexual signals across populations

Gina Calabrese & Karin Pfennig
New species can arise when female preferences and male sexual signals diverge across populations and thereby reduce mating between populations. Under this hypothesized mechanism for speciation, mate preferences and male signals should be correlated, but divergent, across populations. We evaluated this prediction using spadefoot toads (Spea multiplicata). We measured a sexually-selected male signal (call rate) for which female preferences are known to vary across populations in response to hybridization risk. Contrary to expectation, we found...

Transparent soil microcosms for live-cell imaging and non-destructive stable isotope probing of soil microorganisms

Elizabeth Shank, Kriti Sharma, Marton Palatinszky, Georgi Nikolov & David Berry
Microscale processes are critically important to soil ecology and biogeochemistry yet are difficult to study due to soil’s opacity and complexity. To advance the study of soil processes, we constructed transparent soil microcosms that enable the visualization of microbes via fluorescence microscopy and the non-destructive measurement of microbial activity and carbon uptake in situ via Raman microspectroscopy. We assessed the polymer Nafion and the crystal cryolite as optically transparent soil substrates. We demonstrated that both...

Prevalence of Ranavirus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, B. salamandrivorans, and Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola in Amphibians and Reptiles of North Carolina, USA

Thomas Lentz, Stephanie Thi, Andrew Duncan, Adam Miranda, Jeffrey Beane, Daniel Dombrowski, Brenna Forester, Christopher Akcali, Nathan Shepard, , Alvin Braswell, Lori Williams, Charles Lawson, Christopher Jenkins, Joseph Pechmann, Jacqueline Blake, Melissa Hooper, Keenan Freitas, Ann Somers & Bryan Stuart
The viral pathogen Ranavirus (Rv) and the fungal pathogens Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), B. salamandrivorans (Bsal), and Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola (Oo) infect amphibians and reptiles. In recent years, there has been increased interest in reporting the occurrences of these pathogens. North Carolina, USA has a rich diversity of amphibians and reptiles, and is notably the most species-rich U.S. state in salamanders. We assessed prevalence of Rv, Bd, Bsal, and Oo in a broad taxonomic and geographic representation...

Registration Year

  • 2021
    38

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  • Dataset
    31
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    4
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    1
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    1
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    1

Affiliations

  • University of North Carolina
    23
  • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
    18
  • North Carolina State University
    4
  • Duke University
    3
  • University of Wisconsin-Madison
    2
  • Bank of Canada
    2
  • Emory University School of Medicine
    1
  • Texas A&M University System
    1
  • Michigan Technological University
    1
  • New York University Langone Medical Center
    1