63 Works

Data from: The use of an unsupervised learning approach for characterizing latent behaviors in accelerometer data

Marianna Chimienti, Thomas Cornulier, Ellie Owen, Mark Bolton, Ian M. Davies, Justin M. J. Travis, Beth E. Scott & Justin M.J. Travis
The recent increase in data accuracy from high resolution accelerometers offers substantial potential for improved understanding and prediction of animal movements. However, current approaches used for analysing these multivariable datasets typically require existing knowledge of the behaviors of the animals to inform the behavioral classification process. These methods are thus not well-suited for the many cases where limited knowledge of the different behaviors performed exist. Here, we introduce the use of an unsupervised learning algorithm....

Data from: Bayesian inference reveals positive but subtle effects of experimental fishery closures on marine predator demographics

Richard B. Sherley, Barbara J. Barham, Peter J. Barham, Kate J. Campbell, Robert J.M. Crawford, Jennifer Grigg, Catharine Horswill, Alistair McInnes, Taryn L. Morris, Lorien Pichegru, Antje Steinfurth, Florian Weller, Henning Winker, Stephen C. Votier & Cat Horswill
Global forage-fish landings are increasing, with potentially grave consequences for marine ecosystems. Predators of forage fish may be influenced by this harvest, but the nature of these effects is contentious. Experimental fishery manipulations offer the best solution to quantify population-level impacts, but are rare. We used Bayesian inference to examine changes in chick survival, body condition and population growth rate of endangered African penguins Spheniscus demersus in response to eight years of alternating time-area closures...

Data from: A prioritised list of invasive alien species to assist the effective implementation of EU legislation

Carles Carboneras, Piero Genovesi, Montserrat Vila, Tim Blackburn, Martina Carrete, Miguel Clavero, Bram D'hondt, Jorge F. Orueta, Belinda Gallardo, Pedro Geraldes, Pablo González-Moreno, Richard D. Gregory, Wolfgang Nentwig, Jean-Yves Paquet, Petr Pysek, Wolfgang Rabitsch, Iván Ramírez, Riccardo Scalera, Jose Tella, Paul Walton, Robin Wynde & Tim M. Blackburn
1. Effective prevention and control of invasive species generally relies on a comprehensive, coherent and representative list of species that enables resources to be used optimally. European Union (EU) Regulation 1143/2014 on invasive alien species (IAS) aims to control or eradicate priority species, and to manage pathways to prevent the introduction and establishment of new IAS; it applies to species considered of Union concern and subject to formal risk assessment. So far, 49 species have...

Population size and breeding success of gentoo penguins on Signy Island from 1978 to 2020.

Michael Dunn, Stacey Adlard, Amanda Lynnes, Dirk Briggs, Derren Fox & Tim Morley
This dataset pertains to gentoo penguin breeding success at selected colonies on Signy island from 1978 to 2020. It comprises annual ground counts of occupied and incubating nests, eggs (proxy for breeding pairs), chicks hatched, and chicks expected to fledge. The GPS locations for surveyed sites are also included. From the 1996-1997 season onwards, this dataset conforms to CCAMLR data collection standards and contributes to the CCAMLR Ecosystem Monitoring Program (CEMP). Ecosystems component of BAS...

Population size and breeding success of chinstrap penguins on Signy Island from 1978 to 2020.

Michael Dunn, Stacey Adlard, Amanda Lynnes, Dirk Briggs, Derren Fox & Tim Morley
This dataset pertains to chinstrap penguin breeding success at selected colonies on Signy island from 1978 to 2020. It comprises annual ground counts of occupied and incubating nests, eggs (proxy for breeding pairs), chicks hatched, and chicks expected to fledge. The GPS locations for surveyed sites are also included. From the 1996-1997 season onwards, this dataset conforms to CCAMLR data collection standards and contributes to the CCAMLR Ecosystem Monitoring Program (CEMP). Ecosystems component of BAS...

Annual samples and measurements of diet composition of Adelie penguins at Signy Island, from 1997 to 2020.

Michael J Dunn, Claire Waluda, Stacey Adlard, Amanda Lynnes, Tim Morley & Derren Fox
This dataset captures information on the diet composition and mass of Adelie penguin stomach contents at Signy Island, from 1997 to 2020. The monitoring period occurred over four weeks each year and involved sampling adults returning to feed their chicks during the creche period. Sampling took place approximately every five days. Numbers of birds sampled on each occasion varied over the entire period of the dataset from a maximum of eight to a minimum of...

Annual arrival dates for chinstrap penguins on Signy Island at onset of breeding season, from 1996 to 2020.

Michael J Dunn, Stacey Adlard, Amanda Lynnes, Dirk Briggs, Derren Fox & Tim Morley
This dataset comprises the annual count of chinstrap penguins arriving to Signy Island each breeding season, from 1996 to 2020. Penguins arriving at the beach in mid to late November (the austral summer) were counted. This monitoring contributes to the CCAMLR (Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources) Ecosystem Monitoring Program (CEMP) and is part of the annual seabird Long Term Monitoring carried out by the British Antarctic Survey at Signy Island. Ecosystems...

Population size and breeding success of Adelie penguins on Signy Island from 1978 to 2020.

Michael J Dunn, Stacey Adlard, Amanda Lynnes, Dirk Briggs, Derren Fox & Tim Morley
This dataset pertains to Adelie penguin breeding success at selected colonies on Signy island from 1978 to 2020. It comprises annual ground counts of occupied and incubating nests, eggs (proxy for breeding pairs), chicks hatched, and chicks expected to fledge. The GPS locations for surveyed sites are also included. From the 1996-1997 season onwards, this dataset conforms to CCAMLR data collection standards and contributes to the CCAMLR Ecosystem Monitoring Program (CEMP). Ecosystems component of BAS...

Data from: A comprehensive large-scale assessment of fisheries bycatch risk to threatened seabird populations

Thomas A. Clay, Cleo Small, Geoffrey N. Tuck, Deborah Pardo, Ana P.B. Carneiro, Andrew G. Wood, John P. Croxall, Glenn T. Crossin & Richard A. Phillips
1. Incidental mortality (bycatch) in fisheries remains the greatest threat to many large marine vertebrates and is a major barrier to fisheries sustainability. Robust assessments of bycatch risk are crucial for informing effective mitigation strategies, but are hampered by missing information on the distributions of key life-history stages (adult breeders and non-breeders, immatures and juveniles). 2. Using a uniquely comprehensive biologging dataset (1697 tracks, 790 individuals), we assessed spatial overlap of four threatened seabird populations...

Data from: Using molecular and crowd-sourcing methods to assess breeding ground diet of a migratory brood parasite of conservation concern

Lowell Mills, Jeremy D. Wilson, Anke Lange, Karen Moore, Barry Henwood, Hazel Knipe, Dominique Chaput & Charles Tyler
Breeding ground food availability is critical to the survival and productivity of adult birds. The common cuckoo Cuculus canorus is a brood-parasitic Afro-Palearctic migrant bird exhibiting long-term (breeding) population declines in many European countries. Variation in population trend between regions and habitats suggests breeding ground drivers such as adult food supply. However, cuckoo diet has not been studied in detail since before the most significant population declines in Europe began in the mid-1980s. 20th century...

Data from: Inter-specific variation in the potential for upland rush management advocated by agri-environment schemes to increase breeding wader densities

Leah Kelly, David Douglas, Mike Shurmer & Karl Evans
Encroachment of rush Juncus spp. in the United Kingdom uplands poses a threat to declining wader populations due to taller, denser swards that can limit foraging and breeding habitat quality for some species. Rush management via cutting, implemented through agri-environment schemes (AESs), could thus increase wader abundance, but there is insufficient assessment and understanding of how rush management influences upland waders. Across two upland regions of England [South West Peak (SWP) and Geltsdale nature reserve,...

Tree and shrub vegetation surveys in Monks Wood National Nature Reserve, Cambridgeshire, England, 2005-2006

R.K. Broughton, P.E. Bellamy & S.A Hinsley
Vegetation surveys from 35 transects in 2005 and 34 transects in 2006, focusing on tree and shrub abundance and sizes, in Monks Wood National Nature Reserve (Cambridgeshire, England). The transects were located in occupied territories of Marsh Tits, and also unoccupied areas of the wood used as controls, in order to sample the birds' habitat. However, the surveys also provide representative and widespread sampling of the overall woodland. The surveys include all woody tree and...

Data from: Resource stability and geographic isolation are associated with genome divergence in western Palearctic crossbills

Thomas L. Parchman, Pim Edelaar, Kathryn Uckele, Eduardo T. Mezquida, Daniel Alonso, Joshua P. Jahner, Ron W. Summers & Craig W. Benkman
While many conifers produce annually variable seed crops, serotinous species (which hold seeds in cones for multiple years) represent unusually stable food resources for seed predators. Such stability is conducive to residency and potentially population divergence of consumers as exemplified by the Cassia crossbill (Loxia sinesciuris) in North America. We used genotyping-by-sequencing to test whether three Mediterranean subspecies of common crossbills (L. curvirostra) associated with the serotinous Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis) were more genetically distinct...

Data from: Bird and bat species' global vulnerability to collision mortality at wind farms revealed through a trait-based assessment

Chris B. Thaxter, Graeme M. Buchanan, Carr Jamie, Stuart H.M. Butchart, Tim Newbold, Rhys E. Green, Joseph A. Tobias, Wendy B. Foden, Sue O'Brien & James W. Pearce-Higgins
Mitigation of anthropogenic climate change involves deployments of renewable energy worldwide, including wind farms, which can pose a significant collision risk to volant animals. Most studies into the collision risk between species and wind turbines, however, have taken place in industrialized countries. Potential effects for many locations and species therefore remain unclear. To redress this gap, we conducted a systematic literature review of recorded collisions between birds and bats and wind turbines within developed countries....

A framework for mapping the distribution of seabirds by integrating tracking, demography and phenology

Ana P. B. Carneiro, Elizabeth J. Pearmain, Steffen Oppel, Thomas A. Clay, Richard A. Phillips, Anne-Sophie Bonnet-Lebrun, Ross M. Wanless, Edward Abraham, Yvan Richard, Joel Rice, Jonathan Handley, Tammy E. Davies, Ben J. Dilley, Peter G. Ryan, Cleo Small, Javier Arata, John P. Y. Arnould, Elizabeth Bell, Leandro Bugoni, Letizia Campioni, Paulo Catry, Jaimie Cleeland, Lorna Deppe, Graeme Elliott, Amanda Freeman … & Maria P. Dias
1. The identification of geographic areas where the densities of animals are highest across their annual cycles is a crucial step in conservation planning. In marine environments, however, it can be particularly difficult to map the distribution of species, and the methods used are usually biased towards adults, neglecting the distribution of other life-history stages even though they can represent a substantial proportion of the total population. 2. Here we develop a methodological framework for...

Proactive conservation to prevent habitat losses to agricultural expansion

David Williams, Michael Clark, Graeme M. Buchanan, G. Francesco Ficetola, Carlo Rondinini & David Tilman
The projected loss of millions of square kilometres of natural ecosystems to meet future demand for food, animal feed, fibre, and bioenergy crops is likely to massively escalate threats to biodiversity. Reducing these threats requires a detailed knowledge of how and where they are likely to be most severe. We developed a geographically explicit model of future agricultural land clearance based on observed historic changes and combine the outputs with species-specific habitat preferences for 19,859...

Hotspots in the grid: Avian sensitivity and vulnerability to collision risk from energy infrastructure interactions in Europe and North Africa

Jethro George Gauld, João P. Silva, Philip W. Atkinson, Paul Record, Marta Acácio, Volen Arkumarev, Julio Blas, Willem Bouten, Niall Burton, Inês Catry, Jocelyn Champagnon, Elizabeth A. Masden, Gary D. Clewley, Mindaugas Dagys, Olivier Duriez, Klaus‐Michael Exo, Wolfgang Fiedler, Andrea Flack, Guilad Friedemann, Johannes Fritz, Clara García-Ripollés, Stefan Garthe, Dimitri Giunchi, Atanas Grozdanov, Roi Harel … & Victoria Saravia
1. Wind turbines and power lines can cause bird mortality due to collision or electrocution. The biodiversity impacts of energy infrastructure (EI) can be minimised through effective landscape-scale planning and mitigation. The identification of high-vulnerability areas is urgently needed to assess potential cumulative impacts of EI while supporting the transition to zero-carbon energy. 2. We collected GPS location data from 1,454 birds from 27 species susceptible to collision within Europe and North Africa and identified...

What is our power to detect device effects in animal tracking studies?

Ian Cleasby
The use of bio-logging devices to track animal movement continues to grow as technological advances and device miniaturisation allow researchers to study animal behaviour in unprecedented detail. Balanced against the remarkable data that bio-loggers can provide is a need to understand the impact of devices on animal behaviour and welfare. Recent meta-analyses have demonstrated impacts of device attachment on animal behaviour, but there is concern about the frequency and clarity with which device effects are...

Data from: Are agri-environment schemes successful in delivering conservation grazing management on saltmarsh?

Lucy R. Mason, Alastair Feather, Nick Godden, Chris C. Vreugdenhil & Jennifer Smart
1.Grasslands occur around the globe and, in temperate regions, their natural management by fire, drought and wild herbivores has largely been replaced by grazing with domestic livestock. Successful management for agriculture is not always suitable for conservation and can have a detrimental effect on biodiversity. Conservation grazing of saltmarshes, delivered through agri‐environment schemes, may provide a solution to counteract biodiversity loss by providing farmers with financial incentives to graze these internationally important coastal wetlands more...

Data from: Demographic history of a recent invasion of house mice on the isolated Island of Gough

Melissa M. Gray, Daniel Wegmann, Ryan J. Haasl, Michael A. White, Sofia I. Gabriel, Jeremy B. Searle, Richard J. Cuthbert, Peter G. Ryan & Bret A. Payseur
Island populations provide natural laboratories for studying key contributors to evolutionary change, including natural selection, population size, and the colonization of new environments. The demographic histories of island populations can be reconstructed from patterns of genetic diversity. House mice (Mus musculus) inhabit islands throughout the globe, making them an attractive system for studying island colonization from a genetic perspective. Gough Island, in the central South Atlantic Ocean, is one of the remotest islands in the...

Gradients in richness and turnover of a forest passerine’s diet prior to breeding: a mixed model approach applied to faecal metabarcoding data

Jack Shutt, James Nicholls, Urmi Trivedi, Malcolm Burgess, Graham Stone, Jarrod Hadfield & Albert Phillimore
Little is known about the dietary richness and variation of generalist insectivorous species, including birds, due primarily to difficulties in prey identification. Using faecal metabarcoding we provide the most comprehensive analysis of a passerine’s diet to date, identifying the relative magnitudes of biogeographic, habitat and temporal trends in the richness and turnover in diet of Cyanistes caeruleus (blue tit) along a 39-site, 2° latitudinal transect in Scotland. Faecal samples were collected during 2014-15 from adult...

Optimising nature conservation outcomes for a given region-wide level of food production

Tom Finch, Rhys Green, Dario Massimino, Will Peach & Andrew Balmford
The land sharing-sparing framework aims to quantify the trade-off between food production and biodiversity conservation, but it has been criticised for offering, for reasons of simplicity, an unrealistically limited set of different land uses. Here, we develop the framework to evaluate a much larger suite of land-use strategies in which the areas and yields of three land-use compartments, natural habitat, high-yield farmland, and lower-yield farmland, are varied simultaneously. For two regions of England, we use...

Diurnal timing of nonmigratory movement by birds: the importance of foraging spatial scales

Julie Mallon, Marlee Tucker, Annalea Beard, , Keith Bildstein, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, John Brzorad, Evan Buechley, Javier Bustamante, Carlos Carrapato, José Castillo-Guerrero, Elizabeth Clingham, Mark Desholm, Christopher DeSorbo, Robert Domenech, Hayley Douglas, Olivier Duriez, Peter Enggist, Nina Farwig, Wolfgang Fiedler, Anna Gagliardo, Clara García-Ripollés, Juan Antonio Gil, Morgan Gilmour, Roi Harel … & Bill Fagan
Timing of activity can reveal an organism’s efforts to optimize foraging either by minimizing energy loss through passive movement or by maximizing energetic gain through foraging. Here, we assess whether signals of either of these strategies are detectable in the timing of activity of daily, local movements by birds. We compare the similarities of timing of movement activity among species using six temporal variables: start of activity relative to sunrise, end of activity relative to...

Data from: Nest fidelity is driven by multi-scale information in a long-lived seabird

Alexandre Robert, Vítor H. Paiva, Mark Bolton, Frédéric Jiguet & Joël Bried
Although the reproductive success of most organisms depends on factors acting at several spatial scales, little is known about how organisms are able to synthesize multi-scale information to optimize reproduction. Using longitudinal data from a long-lived seabird, Monteiro's storm-petrel, we show that average breeding success is strongly related to oceanic conditions at the population level, and we postulate that (i) individuals use proximal information (their own reproduction outcome in year t) to assess the qualities...

Data from: The consequences of land sparing for birds in the United Kingdom

Anthony Lamb, Tom Finch, James W. Pearce-Higgins, Malcolm Ausden, Andrew Balmford, Claire Feniuk, Graham Hirons, Dario Massimino & Rhys E. Green
1. Land sparing has been proposed as a strategy to reconcile biodiversity conservation with agricultural production, with empirical studies on five continents indicating that most species would benefit if food demand was met through high-yield farming combined with the protection or restoration of natural habitat. 2. Most such studies come from landscapes covered by large areas of natural habitat and without a long history of intense human modification. However, much of Europe, consists of human-dominated...

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