19 Works

Impact of shrub cover and wild ungulate browsing on the vegetation of restored mountain hay meadows

Gergely Pápay, Orsolya Kiss, Ádám Fehér, Gábor Szabó, Zita Zimmermann, Levente Hufnagel, Eszter S. Falusi, Ildikó Járdi, Dénes Saláta, László Szemethy, Károly Penksza & Krisztián Katona
Grasslands of middle mountain regions are among the most diverse habitats of the Carpathian Basin, but they are threatened by spontaneous succession leading to woody encroachment. It is a high priority of nature conservation to preserve these diverse habitats by suppressing the woody encroachment and to create new open habitat patches by scrub removal. The main goal of this study was to investigate the effect of shrub cover on plant species composition and vegetation in...

Single and mixed arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal species inocula have a different effect on the growth and oxidative stress defense in Lolium perenne exposed to phenol and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons

Monika Malicka, Franco Magurno, Posta Katalin, Damian Chmura & Zofia Piotrowska-Seget
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are ubiquitous mutualistic plant symbionts which promote plant growth and protect them from abiotic stresses. Studies on AMF-assisted phytoremediation have shown that AMF can increase plant tolerance to the presence of hydrocarbon contaminants by improving plant nutrition status and mitigating oxidative stress. This work aimed to evaluate the impact of single-species or mixed-species AMF inocula, obtained from the contaminated environment (Funneliformis caledonium, Diversispora varaderana, Claroideoglomus walkeri), on a growth, oxidative stress...

Inconsistent effects of agricultural practices on soil fungal communities across twelve European long‐term experiments

S. Emilia Hannula, D. P. Di Lonardo, B. T. Christensen, F.V. Crotty, A. Elsen, P.J. Erp, E.M. Hansen, G. H. Rubæk, M. Tits, Z. Toth & A. J. Termorshuizen
Cropping practices have a great potential to improve soil quality through changes in soil biota. Yet the effects of these soil improving cropping systems on soil fungal communities are not well known. Here, we analysed soil fungal communities using standardized measurements in 12 long‐term experiments and 20 agricultural treatments across Europe. We were interested in whether the same practices (i.e. tillage, fertilization, organic amendments and cover crops) applied across different sites have predictable and repeatable...

Data from: Phylogeny of Mycoplasma bovis isolates from Hungary based on multi locus sequence typing and multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis

Kinga M. Sulyok, Zsuzsa Kreizinger, Lilla Fekete, Szilárd Jánosi, Nóra Schweitzer, Ibolya Turcsányi, László Makrai, Károly Erdélyi & Miklós Gyuranecz
Background: Mycoplasma bovis is an important pathogen causing pneumonia, mastitis and arthritis in cattle worldwide. As this agent is primarily transmitted by direct contact and spread through animal movements, efficient genotyping systems are essential for the monitoring of the disease and for epidemiological investigations. The aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the multi locus sequence typing (MLST) and the multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) through the genetic characterization of M. bovis...

Phenotypic senescence and multilevel variation in different body sizes in a natural insect population

Kata Pásztor, Ádám Kőrösi, Ádám Gór & János Kis
Senescence seems to be universal in living organisms and plays a major role in life-history strategies. Phenotypic senescence, decline of body condition and/or performance with age, is a largely understudied component of senescence in natural insect populations, although it would be important to understand how and why insects age under natural conditions. We aimed a) to investigate how body mass and thorax width change with age in a natural population of the univoltine Clouded Apollo...

One year of conservation management is not sufficient for increasing the conservation value of abandoned fen meadows

Judit Bódis, Bence Fülöp, Vivien Lábadi, András Mészáros, Bálint Pacsai, Petra Svajda, Orsolya Valkó & András Kelemen
In Central Europe many grasslands are threatened by the abandonment of traditional land use, lead- ing to litter accumulation and encroachment of competitive grasses, woody and invasive species, ulti- mately causing the loss of biodiversity in the long run. Resumption of traditional management practices might reverse the negative effects of abandonment, but can be challenging in the current socio- economic context, especially in habitats providing poor-quality forage, such as fen meadows. Given the limited resources...

Long-term results of initial seeding, mowing and carbon amendment on the restoration of Pannonian sand grassland on old fields

Yesenia Belén Llumiquinga, Bruna Reis, Nora Saradi, Katalin Török, Katalin Szitár & Melinda Halassy
Cropland abandonment is an opportunity for semi-natural biodiverse ecosystems to develop through spontaneous succession or active restoration. Spontaneous recovery is limited by the dispersal and capacity of species to establish under the given environmental circumstances. This paper provides an evaluation of three restoration techniques to overcome dispersal and environmental limitations based on revisiting an experiment with the aim to restore Pannonian sand grasslands on old fields, 16 years after its start. Treatments were carried out...

Basic income as a tool to support aggregate demand

Askar Akaev, Alexander Petryakov, Nauryz Baizakov & Zoltán Zéman
The developed economies of the world are now facing new challenges, the main of which are: the degree of human participation in the production process, in which it will not be an “appendage” of new intelligent systems; prevention of further social and economic polarization of society; development of new economic tools to mitigate the negative effects of extensive digitalization of production and services. This paper shows that conditional basic income as a macroeconomic policy tool...

Data from: Knowledge co-production with traditional herders on cattle grazing behaviour for better management of species-rich grasslands

Zsolt Molnar, András Kelemen, Róbert Kun, Csaba Vadász, János Máté, László Sáfián, Fred Provenza, Sandra Díaz, Hossein Barani, Marianna Biró & András Máté
The research gap between rangeland/livestock science and conservation biology/vegetation ecology has led to a lack of evidence needed for grazing-related conservation management. Connecting scientific understanding with traditional ecological knowledge of local livestock keepers could help bridge this research and knowledge gap. 1. We studied the grazing behaviour (plant selection and avoidance) of beef cattle (ca. 33 000 bites) on species-rich lowland pastures in Central Europe and traditional herding practices. We also did >450 outdoor interviews...

Data from: Megaphylogeny resolves global patterns of mushroom evolution

Torda Varga, Krisztina Krizsán, Csenge Földi, Bálint Dima, Marisol Sánchez-García, Santiago Sánchez-Ramírez, Gergely J. Szöllősi, János G. Szarkándi, Viktor Papp, László Albert, William Andreopoulos, Claudio Angelini, Vladimír Antonín, Kerrie W. Barry, Neale L. Bougher, Peter Buchanan, Bart Buyck, Viktória Bense, Pam Catcheside, Mansi Chovatia, Jerry Cooper, Wolfgang Dämon, Dennis Desjardin, Péter Finy, József Geml … & László G. Nagy
Mushroom-forming fungi (Agaricomycetes) have the greatest morphological diversity and complexity of any group of fungi. They have radiated into most niches and fulfill diverse roles in the ecosystem, including wood decomposers, pathogens or mycorrhizal mutualists. Despite the importance of mushroom-forming fungi, large-scale patterns of their evolutionary history are poorly known, in part due to the lack of a comprehensive and dated molecular phylogeny. Here, using multigene and genome-based data, we assemble a 5,284-species phylogenetic tree...

Data from: A new multistage dynamic model for biological control exemplified by the host–parasitoid system Spodoptera exigua–Chelonus oculator

József Garay, Zoltán Sebestyén, Zoltán Varga, Manuel Gámez, Alejandro Torres, José E. Belda & Tomás Cabello
Over the last few decades, important advances have been made in our understanding of host-parasitoid relations and their applications to biological pest control. Not only has the number of agent species increased, but new manipulation techniques for natural enemies have also been empirically introduced, particularly in greenhouse crops. This makes biocontrol more complex, requiring a new mathematical modelling approach appropriate for the optimization of the release of agents. We developed a temperature- and stage-dependent dynamic...

Preliminary assessment of cavity-nesting Hymenopterans in a low-intensity agricultural landscape in Transylvania

Károly Lajos, Imre Demeter, Róbert Mák, Adalbert Balog & Miklós Sárospataki
In this study our aim was to assess several traits of cavity-nesting Hymenopteran taxa in a low-intensity agricultural landscape in Transylvania. The study took place between May and August 2018 at eight study sites in the hilly-mountainous central part of Romania, where the majority of the landscape is used for extensive farming or forestry. During the processing of the trap-nest material, we recorded several traits regarding the nests of different cavity-nesting Hymenopteran taxa and the...

Population responses of wild bees to oilseed rape neonicotinoid seed treatments in Hungary, Germany and the UK

B.A. Woodcock, J.M. Bullock, R.F. Shore, M.S. Heard, M.G. Pereira, J. Redhead, L. Ridding, H. Dean, D. Sleep, P.A. Henrys, J. Peyton, S. Hulmes, L. Hulmes, M. Sárospataki, C. Saure, B. Raffa, D. Vaskor, Á Bihlay & R.F. Pywell
This dataset describes the effects of three neonicotinoid seed treatments (clothianidin, thiamethoxam and a control) applied to winter sown oilseed rape in Hungary, Germany and the UK on wild pollinators. This dataset focuses on two wild pollinator model systems, specifically the solitary bee Osmia bicornis and bumblebee Bombus terrestris. The data describes population responses in terms of reproductive cell production (O. bicornis), numbers of different developmental stages in colonies (B. terrestris) as well as the...

Post-restoration grassland management overrides the effects of restoration methods in propagule-rich landscapes

Csaba Tölgyesi, Csaba Vadász, Róbert Kun, András Csathó, Zoltán Bátori, Alida Hábenczyus, László Erdős & Péter Török
Grassland restoration is gaining momentum worldwide to tackle the loss of biodiversity and associated ecosystem services. Restoration methods and their effects on ecological community reassembly have been extensively studied across various grassland types, while the importance of post-restoration management has so far received less attention. Grassland management is an important surrogate for natural disturbances, which most ancient grasslands have co-evolved with. Thus, without the reintroduction of management-related disturbance, restoration targets are unlikely to be achieved...

Data from: Avian brood parasitism and ectoparasite richness – scale-dependent diversity interactions in a three-level host-parasite system

Zoltán Vas, Tibor István Fuisz, Péter Fehérvári, Jenő Reiczigel & Lajos Rózsa
Brood parasitic birds, their foster species and their ectoparasites form a complex co-evolving system composed of three hierarchical levels. However, effects of hosts’ brood parasitic life-style on the evolution of their louse (Phthiraptera: Amblycera, Ischnocera) lineages have never been tested. We present two phylogenetic analyses of ectoparasite richness of brood parasitic clades. Our hypothesis was that brood parasitic life-style affects louse richness negatively across all avian clades due to the lack of vertical transmission routes....

Data from: Natural and anthropogenic influences on the population structure of white-tailed eagles in the Carpathian Basin and Central Europe

Edina Nemesházi, Szilvia Kövér, Frank E. Zachos, Zoltán Horváth, Gábor Tihanyi, Attila Mórocz, Tibor Mikuska, István Hám, Ivan Literák, Suvi Ponnikas, Tadeusz Mizera & Krisztián Szabó
European populations of the white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) suffered a drastic decline during the 20th century. In many countries, only a few dozen breeding pairs survived or the species disappeared completely. By today, the populations have recovered, naturally or through restocking (e.g. in Scotland or the Czech Republic). In the Carpathian Basin, which is now a stronghold in southern Europe for the species in the southern part of the distribution range with more than 500...

Dietary flexibility promotes range expansion: the case of golden jackals in Eurasia

József Lanszki, Matthew W. Hayward, Nathan Ranc & Andrzej Zalewski
Aim: Exploring the drivers of the successful ongoing expansion of the golden jackal across Europe is essential to understand the species’ trophic ecology. We analysed which climatic and environmental factors affected the dietary composition of golden jackals and compared these drivers in the species’ historic and recently colonised distribution ranges. Location: Eurasia. Taxon: golden jackal (Canis aureus). Methods: Using 40 published data sets, we modelled the diet composition using 13 food categories based on the...

Worldwide evidence of a unimodal relationship between productivity and plant species richness

Lauchlan H. Fraser, Jason Pither, Anke Jentsch, Marcelo Sternberg, Martin Zobel, Diana Askarizadeh, Sandor Bartha, Carl Beierkuhnlein, Jonathan A. Bennett, Alex Bittel, Bazartseren Boldgiv, Ilsi I. Boldrini, Edward Bork, Leslie Brown, Marcelo Cabido, James Cahill, Cameron N. Carlyle, Giandiego Campetella, Stefano Chelli, Ofer Cohen, Anna-Maria Csergo, Sandra Diaz, Lucas Enrico, David Ensing, Alessandra Fidelis … & Szilárd Szentes
The search for predictions of species diversity across environmental gradients has challenged ecologists for decades. The humped-back model (HBM) suggests that plant diversity peaks at intermediate productivity; at low productivity few species can tolerate the environmental stresses, and at high productivity a few highly competitive species dominate. Over time the HBM has become increasingly controversial, and recent studies claim to have refuted it. Here, by using data from coordinated surveys conducted throughout grasslands worldwide and...

Data from: White plumage color as an honest indicator: feather macrostructure links reflectance with reproductive effort and success

Miklós Laczi, Mónika Jablonszky, Gábor Markó, Gergely Nagy, Gyula Szabó, Sándor Zsebők, János Török & Gergely Hegyi
The structural condition of feathers may generally have a decisive role in shaping the color properties of the plumage. However, the information content of structurally mediated color differences is poorly known. This makes it particularly hard to determine the meaning of color variation in pigment-free white plumage patches. The white wing patch of the collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis) is an important sexual trait, and changes in its reflectance are partly due to macrostructural condition. We...

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