81 Works

Data from: Insecticides promote viral outbreaks by altering herbivore competition

Huipeng Pan, Evan L. Preisser, Dong Chu, Shaoli Wang, Qingjun Wu, Yves Carrière, Xuguo Zhou & Youjun Zhang
While the management of biological invasions is often characterized by a series of single-species decisions, invasive species exist within larger food webs. These biotic interactions can alter the impact of control/eradication programs and may cause suppression efforts to inadvertently facilitate invasion spread and impact. We document the rapid replacement of the invasive Bemisia MEAM1 cryptic species by the cryptic MED species throughout China, and demonstrate that MED is more tolerant of insecticides and a better...

Essential amino acid requirements of granivorous and omnivorous songbirds and the provision of natural foods

Lillie Langlois & Scott McWilliams
Wild birds must consume certain amounts of protein and an appropriate balance of amino acids while inhabiting environments where foods often differ in the quantity and quality of available protein. The requirements for amino acids are well documented for domestic bird species but are largely unknown for wild birds, which makes it impossible to reliably assess the nutritional adequacy of foods eaten by wild birds. We measured the maintenance requirements for three essential amino acids...

Interrogating genomic data in the phylogenetic placement of treeshrews reveals potential sources of conflict

Alexander Knyshov, Yana Hrytsenko, Robert Literman & Rachel S. Schwartz
The position of some taxa on the Tree of Life remains controversial despite the increase in genomic data used to infer phylogenies. While analyzing large datasets alleviates stochastic errors, it does not prevent systematic errors in inference, caused by both biological (e.g., incomplete lineage sorting, hybridization) and methodological (e.g., incorrect modeling, erroneous orthology assessments) factors. In this study, we systematically investigated factors that could result in these controversies, using the treeshrew (Scandentia, Mammalia) as a...

Data from: Influence of natural and novel organic carbon sources on denitrification in forest, degraded urban, and restored streams

Tamara A. Newcomer, Sujay S. Kaushal, Paul M. Mayer, Amy R. Shields, Elizabeth A. Canuel, Peter M. Groffman & Arthur J. Gold
Organic carbon is important in regulating ecosystem function, and its source and abundance may be altered by urbanization. We investigated shifts in organic carbon quantity and quality associated with urbanization and ecosystem restoration, and its potential effects on denitrification at the riparian–stream interface. Field measurements of streamwater chemistry, organic carbon characterization, and laboratory-based denitrification experiments were completed at two forested, two restored, and two unrestored urban streams at the Baltimore Long-Term Ecological Research site, Maryland,...

Fruit syndromes in Viburnum: correlated evolution of color, nutritional content, and morphology in bird-dispersed fleshy fruits

Miranda Sinnott-Armstrong, Chong Lee, Wendy Clement & Michael Donoghue
Premise A key question in plant dispersal via animal vectors is where and why fruit colors vary between species and how color relates to other fruit traits. To better understand the factors shaping the evolution of fruit color diversity, we tested for the existence of syndromes of traits (color, morphology, and nutrition) in the fruits of Viburnum. We placed these results in a larger phylogenetic context and reconstructed ancestral states to assess how Viburnum fruit...

Collaborative Research: Diatoms, Food Webs and Carbon Export - Leveraging NASA EXPORTS to Test the Role of Diatom Physiology in the Biological Carbon Pump

Janice Jones
This project focuses on a group of microscopic single-celled photosynthetic organisms in the ocean called diatoms. Diatoms float in the surface ocean as part of a group of organisms collectively called phytoplankton. There are thousands of different species of diatoms distributed across the global ocean. A famous oceanographer Henry Bigelow once said "All fish is diatoms" reflecting the importance of diatoms as the base of the food chain that supports the world's largest fisheries. Despite...

A genomic perspective on the evolutionary diversification of turtles

Simone Gable, Michael Byars, Robert Literman & Marc Tollis
To examine phylogenetic heterogeneity in turtle evolution, we collected thousands of high-confidence single-copy orthologs from 19 genome assemblies representative of extant turtle diversity and estimated a phylogeny with multispecies coalescent and concatenated partitioned methods. We also collected next-generation sequences from 26 turtle species and assembled millions of biallelic markers to reconstruct phylogenies based on annotated regions from the western painted turtle (Chrysemys picta bellii) genome (coding regions, introns, untranslated regions, intergenic, and others). We then...

Data From: Antibiotic treatment ameliorates the impact of stony coral tissue loss disease (SCTLD) on coral communities

Graham Forrester, Laura Arton & Argel Horton
Stony coral tissue loss disease has spread widely in the Caribbean and causes substantial changes to coral community composition because of its broad host range and high fatality rate. To reduce SCTLD impacts, intervention programs throughout the region have divers treating corals with antibiotics. We assessed the effect of antibiotic treatment in the British Virgin Islands by comparing coral communities at 13 treated sites to those at 13 untreated sites. The prevalence of white syndromes...

An improved earthquake catalog during the 2018 Kilauea eruption from combined onshore and offshore seismic arrays

XiaoZhuo Wei, Yang Shen, Jacqueline Caplan‐Auerbach & Julia K. Morgan
The Island of Hawai'i was formed by repeated eruptions of basalts at an oceanic hotspot. Kilauea, the youngest among the subaerial volcanoes of the island, erupted intensely in 2018. The eruption provided an opportunity to look into the mechanisms that operate at the volcano and associated earthquake activities, as it was recorded simultaneously, for the first time, by onshore and offshore seismometers. We used most of the publicly available seismic data during the eruption period,...

Data from: Dietary antioxidants and flight exercise in female birds affect allocation of nutrients to eggs: how carry-over effects work

Megan M. Skrip, Navindra P. Seeram, Tao Yuan, Hang Ma & Scott R. McWilliams
Physiological challenges during one part of the annual cycle can carry over and affect performance at a subsequent phase, and antioxidants could be one mediator of trade-offs between phases. We performed a controlled experiment with zebra finches to examine how songbirds use nutrition to manage trade-offs in antioxidant allocation between endurance flight and subsequent reproduction. Our treatment groups included (1) a non-supplemented, non-exercised group (control group) fed a standard diet with no exercise beyond that...

Data from: Hurricane-induced selection on the morphology of an island lizard

Colin M. Donihue, Anthony Herrel, Anne-Claire Fabre, Ambika Kamath, Anthony J. Geneva, Thomas W. Schoener, Jason J. Kolbe & Jonathan B. Losos
Hurricanes are catastrophically destructive. Beyond their toll on human life and livelihoods, hurricanes have massive and often long-lasting effects on ecological systems. Despite many examples of mass mortality events following hurricanes, hurricane-induced natural selection has never been demonstrated. Immediately after we finished a survey of Anolis scriptus, a common, small-bodied lizard found throughout the Turks and Caicos archipelago, our study populations were battered by Hurricanes Irma and Maria. Shortly thereafter, we revisited the populations to...

Data from: Migratory shorebird adheres to Bergmann’s Rule by responding to environmental conditions through the annual lifecycle

Daniel Gibson, Angela D. Hornsby, Mary B. Brown, Jonathan B. Cohen, Lauren R. Dinan, James D. Fraser, Meryl J. Friedrich, Cheri L. Gratto-Trevor, Kelsi L. Hunt, Matthew Jeffery, Joel G. Jorgensen, Peter W. C. Paton, Samantha G. Robinson, Jen Rock, Michelle L. Stantial, Chelsea E. Weithman & Daniel H. Catlin
The inverse relationship between body size and environmental temperature is a widespread ecogeographic pattern. However, the underlying forces that produce this pattern are unclear in many taxa. Expectations are particularly unclear for migratory species, as individuals may escape environmental extremes and reorient themselves along the environmental gradient. In addition, some aspects of body size are largely fixed while others are environmentally flexible and may vary seasonally. Here, we used a long‐term dataset that tracked multiple...

Data from: Living in two worlds: evolutionary mechanisms act differently in the native and introduced ranges of an invasive plant

Wen-Yong Guo, Carla Lambertini, Petr Pyšek, Laura A. Meyerson & Hans Brix
Identifying the factors that influence spatial genetic structure among populations can provide insights into the evolution of invasive plants. In this study, we used the common reed (Phragmites australis), a grass native in Europe and invading North America, to examine the relative importance of geographic, environmental (represented by climate here) and human effects on population genetic structure and its changes during invasion. We collected samples of P. australis from both the invaded North American and...

Data from: Common evolutionary trends underlie the four-bar linkage systems of sunfish and mantis shrimp

Yinan Hu, Nathan Nelson-Maney, Philip S.L. Anderson & Philip S. L. Anderson
Comparative biomechanics offers an opportunity to explore the evolution of disparate biological systems that share common underlying mechanics. Four-bar linkage modelling has been applied to various biological systems such as fish jaws and crustacean appendages to explore the relationship between biomechanics and evolutionary diversification. Mechanical sensitivity states that the functional output of a mechanical system will show differential sensitivity to changes in specific morphological components. We document similar patterns of mechanical sensitivity in two disparate...

Data from: Biogeography of a plant invasion: genetic variation and plasticity in latitudinal clines for traits related to herbivory

Ganesh P. Bhattarai, Laura A. Meyerson, Jack Anderson, David Cummings, Warwick J. Allen & James T. Cronin
The juxtaposition of plant-species invasions with latitudinal gradients in herbivore pressure is an important yet mostly unexplored issue in invasion biology. Latitudinal clines in defense and palatability to herbivores are expected to exist in native plant species but the evolution of these clines may lag behind for invasive plant species resulting in non-parallel latitudinal clines that may impact invasion success. Our study focused on a native and European invasive lineages of the common reed Phragmites...

Data from: Episodic disturbance from boat anchoring is a major contributor to, but does not alter the trajectory of, long-term coral reef decline

Graham E. Forrester, Rebecca L. Flynn, Linda M. Forrester & Lianna L. Jarecki
Isolating the relative effects of episodic disturbances and chronic stressors on long-term community change is challenging. We assessed the impact of an episodic disturbance associated with human visitation (boat anchoring) relative to other drivers of long-term change on coral reefs. A one-time anchoring event at Crab Cove, British Virgin Islands, in 2004 caused rapid losses of coral and reef structural complexity that were equal to the cumulative decline over 23 years observed at an adjacent...

Data from: Pythons, parasites and pests: anthropogenic impacts on Sarcocystis (Sarcocystidae) transmission in a multi-host system

Anne Devan-Song, Sonja Luz, Abraham Mathew, Mary-Ruth Low & David P. Bickford
Parasites are essential components of ecosystems and can be instrumental in maintaining host diversity and populations; however, their role in trophic interactions has often been overlooked. Three apicomplexan parasite species of Sarcocystis (S. singaporensis, S. zamani, and S. villivillosi) use the reticulated python as their definitive hosts and several species within the Rattus genus as intermediate hosts, and they form a system useful for studying interactions between host–parasite and predator–prey relationships, as well as anthropogenic...

Data from: Post Permo-Triassic terrestrial vertebrate recovery southwestern United States

David A. Tarailo & David E. Fastovsky
Recovery of marine biodiversity following the Permo-Triassic extinction is thought to have been delayed relative to other mass extinctions. Terrestrial vertebrate biodiversity is said to have taken as much as 15 Myr longer to recover than the marine. The present study tests, at the scale of an individual fossil community, whether a disparity in biodiversity existed in the American Southwest, between the Moenkopi Formation, containing an early Middle Triassic (Anisian) terrestrial tetrapod fauna, and the...

National Family Violence Survey, 1976

Murray A. Straus & Richard J. Gelles
This study was conducted in 1976 at the University of New Hampshire. 2,134 respondents were interviewed in a nationwide sample of 960 males and 1,183 females. The purpose of the study was to ascertain methods of conflict resolution within the family. Information was gathered regarding the following areas: resolution of conflicts between spouses and between parents and children, including detailed information on the development of conflicts resulting in violence, resolution of conflicts in respondent's childhood...

Multi-state diel occupancy model

Kimberly Rivera, Brian Gerber, Mason Fidino, Seth Magle, Zach Farris & Asia Murphy
Current methods to model species habitat use through space and diel time are limited. Development of such models is critical when considering rapidly changing habitats where species are forced to adapt to anthropogenic change, often by shifting their diel activity across space. We use an occupancy modeling framework to specify the multi-state diel occupancy model (MSDOM), which can evaluate species diel activity against continuous response variables which may impact diel activity within and across seasons...

Data from: Modeling spatiotemporal abundance of mobile wildlife in highly variable environments using boosted GAMLSS hurdle models

Adam Smith, Benjamin Hofner, Juliet S. Lamb, Jason Osenkowski, Taber Allison, Giancarlo Sadoti, Scott McWilliams & Peter Paton
1. Modeling organism distributions from survey data involves numerous statistical challenges, including zero-inflation, overdispersion, and selection and incorporation of environmental covariates. In environments with high spatial and temporal variability, addressing these challenges often requires numerous assumptions regarding organism distributions and their relationships to biophysical features. These assumptions may limit the resolution or accuracy of predictions resulting from survey-based distribution models. 2. We propose an iterative modeling approach that incorporates a negative binomial hurdle, followed by...

Data from: City slickers: poor performance does not deter Anolis lizards from using artificial substrates in human-modified habitats

Jason J. Kolbe, Andrew C. Battles & Kevin J. Avilés-Rodríguez
1. As animals move through their environments they encounter a variety of substrates, which have important effects on their locomotor performance. Habitat modification can alter the types of substrates available for locomotion. In particular, many types of artificial substrates have been added to urban areas, but effects of these novel surfaces on animal locomotion are little-known. 2. In this study, we assessed locomotor performance of two Anolis lizard species (A. cristatellus and A. stratulus) on...

Data from: Migrating songbirds on stopover prepare for, and recover from, oxidative challenges posed by long-distance flight

Megan M. Skrip, Ulf Bauchinger, Wolfgang Goymann, Leonida Fusani, Massimiliano Cardinale, Rebecca R. Alan & Scott R. McWilliams
Managing oxidative stress is an important physiological function for all aerobic organisms, particularly during periods of prolonged high metabolic activity, such as long-distance migration across ecological barriers. However, no previous study has investigated the oxidative status of birds at different stages of migration and whether that oxidative status depends on the condition of the birds. In this study, we compared (1) energy stores and circulating oxidative status measures in (a) two species of Neotropical migrants...

Data from: Experimental evolution: assortative mating and sexual selection, independent of local adaptation, lead to reproductive isolation in the nematode Caenorhabditis remanei

Dean M. Castillo, Melissa K. Burger, Curtis M. Lively & Lynda F. Delph
Using experimental evolution, we investigated the contributions of ecological divergence, sexual selection, and genetic drift to the evolution of reproductive isolation in Caenorhabditis remanei. The nematodes were reared on two different environments for 100 generations. They were assayed for fitness on both environments after 30, 64, and 100 generations, and hybrid fitnesses were analyzed after 64 and 100 generations. Mating propensity within and between populations was also analyzed. The design allowed us to determine whether...

Data from: Mechanisms of biotic resistance across complex life cycles

Marc Rius, Elaine E. Potter, John J. Stachowicz & J. David Aguirre
1. Biotic resistance is the ability of communities to inhibit the establishment, spread or impact of novel species. However, the interactions that underlie biotic resistance depend heavily on the contexts in which species interact. Consequently, studies of biotic resistance that consider single processes, patches, species or life-history stages may provide an incomplete picture of the capacity for communities to resist invasion. 2. Many organisms have multiphasic life cycles, where individuals can occupy distinct niches at...

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