81 Works

Data from: Modeling spatiotemporal abundance of mobile wildlife in highly variable environments using boosted GAMLSS hurdle models

Adam Smith, Benjamin Hofner, Juliet S. Lamb, Jason Osenkowski, Taber Allison, Giancarlo Sadoti, Scott McWilliams & Peter Paton
1. Modeling organism distributions from survey data involves numerous statistical challenges, including zero-inflation, overdispersion, and selection and incorporation of environmental covariates. In environments with high spatial and temporal variability, addressing these challenges often requires numerous assumptions regarding organism distributions and their relationships to biophysical features. These assumptions may limit the resolution or accuracy of predictions resulting from survey-based distribution models. 2. We propose an iterative modeling approach that incorporates a negative binomial hurdle, followed by...

Data from: Optimized fishing through periodically harvested closures

Paul G. Carvalho, Stacy D. Jupiter, Fraser A. Januchowski-Hartley, Jordan Goetze, Joachim Claudet, Rebecca Weeks, Austin Humphries & Crow White
1. Periodically harvested closures are a widespread, centuries-old form of fisheries management that protects fish between pulse harvests and can generate high harvest efficiency by reducing fish wariness of fishing gear. However, the ability for periodic closures to also support high fisheries yields and healthy marine ecosystems is uncertain, despite increased promotion of periodic closures for managing fisheries and conserving ecosystems in the Indo-Pacific. 2. We developed a bioeconomic fisheries model that considers changes in...

Data from: Hurricane effects on Neotropical lizards span geographic and phylogenetic scales

Colin Donihue, Alex Kowaleski, Jonathan Losos, Adam Algar, Simon Baeckens, Robert Buchkowski, Anne-Claire Fabre, Hannah Frank, Anthony Geneva, Graham Reynolds, James Stroud, Julián Velasco, Jason Kolbe, Luke Mahler & Anthony Herrel
Extreme climate events such as droughts, cold snaps, and hurricanes can be powerful agents of natural selection, producing acute selective pressures very different from the everyday pressures acting on organisms. However, it remains unknown whether these infrequent but severe disruptions are quickly erased by quotidian selective forces, or whether they have the potential to durably shape biodiversity patterns across regions and clades. Here, we show that hurricanes have enduring evolutionary impacts on the morphology of...

Data from: Lineage and latitudinal variation in Phragmites australis tolerance to herbivory: implications for invasion success

Jordan Croy, Laura Meyerson, Warwick Allen, Ganesh Bhattarai & James T. Cronin
Herbivores play a critical role in plant invasions either by facilitating or inhibiting species establishment and spread. However, relatively few studies with invasive plant species have focused on the role of plant tolerance and how it varies geographically to influence invasion success. We conducted a common garden study using two lineages (native and invasive) of the grass Phragmites australis that are prevalent in North American wetlands. Using 31 populations collected across a broad geographic range,...

Cryptic lineages respond differently to coral bleaching

Matías Gómez-Corrales & Carlos Prada
Coral cover is decreasing worldwide largely as a result of a rise in seawater temperatures that triggers coral bleaching and induces coral mortality. How coral reefs will respond to climate change will be a function of genetic variation and how it is partitioned within and among species. A critical initial step is to accurately delineate species and quantify their physiological potential to cope with heat stress. Cryptic species are morphologically similar but genetically distinct and...

Dietary vitamin E reaches the mitochondria in the flight muscle of zebra finches but only if they exercise

Clara Cooper-Mullin, Wales Carter, Ronald Amato, David Podlesak & Scott McWilliams
Whether dietary antioxidants are effective for alleviating oxidative costs associated with energy-demanding life events first requires they are successfully absorbed in the digestive tract and transported to sites associated with reactive species production (e.g. the mitochondria). Flying birds are under high energy and oxidative demands, and although birds commonly ingest dietary antioxidants in the wild, the bioavailability of these consumed antioxidants is poorly understood. We show for the first time that an ingested lipophilic antioxidant,...

Season, anthocyanin supplementation, and flight training have mixed effects on the antioxidant system of migratory European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris)

Abigail Frawley, Kristen J. DeMoranville, Katherine M. Carbeck, Lisa Trost, Amadeusz Bryła, Maciej Dzialo, Edyta T. Sadowska, Ulf Bauchinger, Barbara J. Pierce & Scott McWilliams
Migratory birds engage in two periods of endurance flight annually as they travel between summer breeding and overwintering grounds, and such endurance flights likely incur oxidative costs. These costs may differ between fall and spring migration, especially for females who must prepare for breeding and egg laying in spring. The objective of this study of a migratory bird was to test proposed hypotheses about how key components of the female’s antioxidant system differ in response...

Flight training and dietary antioxidants have mixed effects on the oxidative status of multiple tissues in a female migratory songbird

Abigail Frawley, Kristen DeMoranville, Katherine Carbeck, Lisa Trost, Amadeusz Bryła, Maciej Dzialo, Edyta Sadowska, Ulf Bauchinger, Barbara Pierce & Scott McWilliams
Birds, like other vertebrates, rely on a robust antioxidant system to protect themselves against oxidative imbalance caused by energy-intensive activities such as flying. Such oxidative challenges may be especially acute for females during spring migration, since they must pay the oxidative costs of flight while preparing for reproduction; however, little previous work has examined how the antioxidant system of female spring migrants responds to dietary antioxidants and the oxidative challenges of regular flying. We fed...

Changes in selection pressure can facilitate hybridization during biological invasion in a Cuban lizard

Dan Bock, Simon Baeckens, Jessica Pita-Aquino, Zachary Chejanovski, Sozos Michaelides, Pavitra Muralidhar, Oriol Lapiedra, Sungdae Park, Douglas Menke, Anthony Geneva, Jonathan Losos & Jason Kolbe
Hybridization is among the evolutionary mechanisms most frequently hypothesized to drive the success of invasive species, in part because hybrids are common in invasive populations. One explanation for this pattern is that biological invasions coincide with a change in selection pressures that limit hybridization in the native range. To investigate this possibility, we studied the introduction of the brown anole (Anolis sagrei) in the southeastern United States. We find that native populations are highly genetically...

Mammals adjust diel activity across gradients of urbanization

Travis Gallo, Mason Fidino, Brian Gerber, Adam Ahlers, Julia Angstmann, Max Amaya, Amy Concilio, David Drake, Danielle Gray, Elizabeth Lehrer, Maureen Murray, Travis Ryan, Colleen St. Clair, Carmen Salsbury, Heather Sander, Theodore Stankowich, Jaque Williamson, Amy Belaire, Kelly Simone & Seth Magle
Time is a fundamental component of ecological processes. How animal behavior changes over time has been explored through well-known ecological theories like niche partitioning and predator-prey dynamics. Yet, changes in animal behavior within the shorter 24-hour light-dark cycle have largely gone unstudied. Understanding if an animal can adjust their temporal activity to mitigate or adapt to environmental change has become a recent topic of discussion and is important for effective wildlife management and conservation. While...

Dataset and codes for: Partitioning the apparent temperature sensitivity between autotrophic and heterotrophic protists

Bingzhang Chen, David Montagnes, Qing Wang, Hongbin Liu & Susanne Menden-Deuer
Conventional analyses suggest the metabolism of heterotrophs is thermally more sensitive than that of autotrophs, implying that warming leads to pronounced trophodynamic imbalances. However, these analyses inappropriately combine within- and across-taxa trends. We present a novel mathematic framework to separate these, revealing that the higher temperature sensitivity of heterotrophs is mainly caused by within-taxa responses which account for 92% of the difference between autotrophic and heterotrophic protists. This dataset contains both the datasets and R...

Data from: Predation risk perception, food density and conspecific cues shape foraging decisions in a tropical lizard

Maximilian Drakeley, Oriol Lapiedra & Jason J. Kolbe
When foraging, animals can maximize their fitness if they are able to tailor their foraging decisions to current environmental conditions. When making foraging decisions, individuals need to assess the benefits of foraging while accounting for the potential risks of being captured by a predator. However, whether and how different factors interact to shape these decisions is not yet well understood, especially in individual foragers. Here we present a standardized set of manipulative field experiments in...

Data from: Effects of roads and land use on frog distributions across spatial scales and regions in the eastern and central United States

David M. Marsh, Bradley J. Cosentino, Kara S. Jones, Joseph J. Apodaca, Karen H. Beard, Jane M. Bell, Christine Bozarth, Derrick Carper, Julie F. Charbonnier, Andreia Dantas, Elizabeth Forys, Miran Foster, Jaquelyn General, Kristen S. Genet, Macie Hanneken, Kyle R. Hess, Shane A. Hill, Faisal Iqbal, Nancy E. Karraker, Eran S. Kilpatrick, Tom A. Langen, James Langford, Kathryn Lauer, Alison J. McCarthy, Joseph Neale … & Mohammad Tasleem
Aim: Understanding the scales over which land use affects animal populations is critical for conservation planning, and it can provide information about the mechanisms that underlie correlations between species distributions and land use. We used a citizen-science database of anuran surveys to examine the relationship between road density, land use, and the distribution of frogs and toads across spatial scales and regions of the United States. Location: Eastern and Central United States Methods: We compiled...

Data from: Global population genetic dynamics of a highly migratory, apex predator shark

Andrea M. Bernard, Kevin A. Feldheim, Michael R. Heithaus, Sabine P. Wintner, Bradley M. Wetherbee & Mahmood S. Shivji
Knowledge of genetic connectivity dynamics in the world's large-bodied, highly migratory, apex predator sharks across their global ranges is limited. One such species, the tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier), occurs worldwide in warm temperate and tropical waters, uses remarkably diverse habitats (nearshore to pelagic) and possesses a generalist diet that can structure marine ecosystems through top-down processes. We investigated the phylogeography and the global population structure of this exploited, phylogenetically enigmatic shark by using 10 nuclear...

Data from: Individual and non-additive effects of exotic sap-feeders on root functional and mycorrhizal traits of a shared conifer host

Robert N. Schaeffer, Claire M. Wilson, Laura Radville, Mauri Barrett, Elizabeth Whitney, Sofia Roitman, Esther R. Miller, Benjamin E. Wolfe, Carol S. Thornber, Colin M. Orians & Evan L. Preisser
Forest pests drive tree mortality through disruption of functional traits linked to nutrient acquisition, growth, and reproduction. The impacts of attack by individual or multiple aboveground herbivores on root functional traits critical to tree health have received little attention. This is especially true for exotic herbivores, organisms often found in disturbed forests. We excavated whole-root systems from eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) individuals experimentally infested with hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA: Adelges tsugae) and elongate hemlock scale...

Data from: Assessing bottom-trawling impacts based on the longevity of benthic invertebrates

Jan Geert Hiddink, Simon Jennings, Marija Sciberras, Stefan Bolam, Giulia Cambie, Robert McConnaughey, Tessa Mazor, Ray Hilborn, Jeremy Collie, C. Roland Pitcher, Ana Parma, Petri Suuronen, Michel Kaiser, Adriaan Rijnsdorp, Jeremy S. Collie, Michel J. Kaiser, Adriaan D. Rijnsdorp & Robert A. McConnaughey
1. Bottom trawling is the most widespread human activity directly affecting seabed habitats. Assessment and effective management of the effects of bottom trawling at the scale of fisheries requires an understanding of differences in sensitivity of biota to trawling. Responses to disturbance are expected to depend on the intrinsic rate of increase of populations (r), which is expected to be linearly related to the reciprocal of longevity. 2. We examine the relationship between the longevity...

Data from: Predator-driven natural selection on risk-taking behavior in anole lizards

Oriol Lapiedra, Thomas W. Schoener, Manuel Leal, Jonathan B. Losos & Jason J. Kolbe
Biologists have long debated the role of behavior in evolution, yet understanding of its role as a driver of adaptation is hampered by the scarcity of experimental studies of natural selection on behavior in nature. After showing that individual Anolis sagrei lizards vary consistently in risk-taking behaviors, we experimentally established populations on eight small islands either with or without Leiocephalus carinatus, a major ground predator. We found that selection predictably favors different risk-taking behaviors under...

Data from: Nutrient pollution disrupts key ecosystem functions on coral reefs

Nyssa J. Silbiger, Craig E. Nelson, Kristina Remple, Jessica K. Sevilla, Zachary A. Quinlan, Hollie M. Putnam, Michael D. Fox & Megan J. Donahue
There is a long history of examining the impacts of nutrient pollution and pH on coral reefs. However, little is known about how these two stressors interact and influence coral reef ecosystem functioning. Using a six-week nutrient addition experiment, we measured the impact of elevated nitrate (NO3) and phosphate (PO43) on net community calcification (NCC) and net community production (NCP) rates of individual taxa and combined reef communities. Our study had four major outcomes: 1)...

Data from: Archipelagic genetics in a widespread Caribbean anole

Robert Graham Reynolds, Tanner R. Strickland, Jason J. Kolbe, Bryan G. Falk, Gad Perry, Liam J. Revell & Jonathan B. Losos
Aim We examine the influence of fluctuating sea levels in a land-bridge archipelago on the apportioning of intraspecific genetic diversity and divergence in the widespread Puerto Rican crested anole (Anolis cristatellus). We compare three alternative scenarios for genetic diversification in an archipelagic species that contrast the relative influences of periodic isolation versus island connectedness driven by fluctuating sea levels. Our approach combines information from geography and population genetics to assess the influence of island size,...

Data from: Dietary antioxidants attenuate the endocrine stress response during long-duration flight of a migratory bird

Stefania Casagrande, Kristen Demoranville, Lisa Trost, Barbara Pierce, Amadeusz Bryla, Maciej Dzialo, Edyta Sadowska, Ulf Bauchinger & Scott McWilliams
Glucocorticoids (GCs) are metabolic hormones that promote catabolic processes, which release stored energy and support high metabolic demands such as during prolonged flights of migrating birds. Dietary antioxidants (e.g., anthocyanins) support metabolism by quenching excess reactive oxygen species produced during aerobic metabolism, and also by activating metabolic pathways that, similar to GCs’ function, release stored energy, although the extent of complementarity between GCs and dietary antioxidants is not well known. If anthocyanins complement GCs functions,...

Selection of indicators for assessing and managing the impacts of bottom trawling on seabed habitats

Jan Geert Hiddink, Michel Kaiser, Marija Sciberras, Robert McConnaughey, Tessa Mazor, Ray Hilborn, Jeremy Collie, C. Roland Pitcher, Ana Parma, Petri Suuronen, Adriaan Rijnsdorp & Simon Jennings
1. Bottom-trawl fisheries are the most-widespread source of anthropogenic physical disturbance to seabed habitats. Development of fisheries-, conservation- and ecosystem-based management strategies requires the selection of indicators of the impact of bottom trawling on the state of benthic biota. Many indicators have been proposed, but no rigorous test of a range of candidate indicators against 9 commonly-agreed criteria (concreteness, theoretical basis, public awareness, cost, measurement, historical data, sensitivity, responsiveness, specificity) has been performed. 2. Here,...

Genomics of new ciliate lineages provides insight into the evolution of obligate anaerobiosis - single gene datasets for phylogenomic analysis of anaerobic ciliates (SAL, Ciliophora), protein datasets for mitochondrial pathways prediction, and mitochondrial genomes

Johana Rotterova, Eric Salomaki, Tomas Panek, William Bourland, David Zihala, Petr Taborsky, Virginia Edgcomb, Roxanne Beinart, Martin Kolisko & Ivan Cepicka
Oxygen plays a crucial role in energetic metabolism of most eukaryotes. Yet, adaptations to low oxygen concentrations leading to anaerobiosis have independently arisen in many eukaryotic lineages, resulting in a broad spectrum of reduced and modified mitochondrial organelles (MROs). In this study, we present the discovery of two new class-level lineages of free-living marine anaerobic ciliates, Muranotrichea, cl. nov. and Parablepharismea, cl. nov., that, together with the class Armophorea, form a major clade of obligate...

Collaborative research: Quantifying the biological, chemical, and physical linkages between chemosynthetic communities and the surrounding deep sea

Oliver Ashford
The deep ocean supplies food, energy, novel drugs and materials, and plays essential roles in the global cycling of carbon, the nutrient replenishment for shallow waters, and the maintenance of biodiversity. Despite the crucial contribution of the deep sea to the larger functioning of global marine ecosystems, there is only a cursory understanding of this vast region and the connectivity among its communities and the rest of the oceans. Cold seeps, active areas of the...

Avian point-counts from Rhode Island and Connecticut used to test species distribution models

Valerie Steen, Morgan Tingley, Peter Paton & Chris Elphick
Spatial-biases are a common feature of presence-absence data from citizen scientists. Spatial thinning can mitigate errors in species distribution models (SDMs) that use these data. When detections or non-detections are rare, however, SDMs may suffer from class imbalance or low sample size of the minority (i.e. rarer) class. Poor predictions can result, the severity of which may vary by modeling technique. To explore the consequences of spatial bias and class imbalance in presence-absence data, we...

The effects of dietary linoleic acid and hydrophilic antioxidants on basal, peak, and sustained metabolism in flight trained European Starlings

Wales Carter, Kristen DeMoranville, Barbara Pierce & Scott McWilliams
Dietary micronutrients have the ability to strongly influence animal physiology and ecology. For songbirds, dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and antioxidants are hypothesized to be particularly important micronutrients because of their influence on an individual’s capacity for aerobic metabolism and recovery from extended bouts of exercise. However, the influence of specific fatty acids and hydrophilic antioxidants on whole-animal performance remain largely untested. We used diet manipulations to directly test the effects of dietary PUFA, specifically...

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