27 Works

Data from: Applying generalised allometric regressions to predict live body mass of tropical and temperate arthropods

Esra H. Sohlström, Lucas Marian, Andrew D. Barnes, Noor F. Haneda, Stefan Scheu, Björn C. Rall, Ulrich Brose & Malte Jochum
1. The ecological implications of body size extend from the biology of individual organisms to ecosystem–level processes. Measuring body mass for high numbers of invertebrates can be logistically challenging, making length-mass regressions useful for predicting body mass with minimal effort. However, standardised sets of scaling relationships covering a large range in body length, taxonomic groups, and multiple geographical regions are scarce. 2. We collected 6212 arthropods from 19 higher-level taxa in both temperate and tropical...

Data from: Mitochondrial DNA (COI) analyses reveal that amphipod diversity is associated with environmental heterogeneity in deep-sea habitats

Matthew Knox, Ian Hogg, Conrad Pilditch, Anne-Nina Lörz, Paul Hebert, Dirk Steinke, Matthew A. Knox, Ian D. Hogg, Conrad A. Pilditch & Paul D. N. Hebert
The relationship between species diversity and environmental parameters is poorly understood for the mobile macrofauna of deep-sea habitats due to under-sampling and subsequent lack of accurate taxonomic information. To redress this, cytochrome oxidase c subunit I (COI) DNA sequences were used to estimate species diversity and to compare phoxocephalid amphipod assemblages among 20 stations encompassing a range of environmental conditions. Two regions, east (Chatham Rise) and west (Challenger Plateau) of New Zealand were sampled to...

Data from: Trade-offs in juvenile growth potential vs. shade tolerance among subtropical rainforest trees on soils of contrasting fertility

Kerrie M. Sendall, Christopher H. Lusk & Peter B. Reich
Plant adaptation to gradients of light availability involves a well-studied functional trade-off, as does adaptation to gradients of nutrient availability. However, little is known about how these two major trade-offs interact, and thus, it remains unclear whether and how the nature of the growth–shade tolerance trade-off differs on soils of contrasting fertility. We asked whether juvenile growth–shade tolerance trade-offs differed in slope and elevation between tree assemblages on nutrient-rich basalt and nutrient-poor rhyolite soils in...

Data for: Environmental and anthropogenic constraints on animal space use drive extinction risk worldwide

Myriam R. Hirt, Andrew D. Barnes, Alessandro Gentile, Laura J. Pollock, Benjamin Rosenbaum, Wilfried Thuiller, Marlee A. Tucker & Ulrich Brose
Animals require a certain amount of habitat to persist and thrive, and habitat loss is one of the most critical drivers of global biodiversity decline. While habitat requirements have been predicted by relationships between species traits and home range size, little is known about constraints imposed by environmental conditions and human impacts on a global scale. Our meta-analysis of 395 vertebrate species shows that global climate gradients in temperature and precipitation exert indirect effects via...

Data from: Putting vascular epiphytes on the traits map

Peter Hietz, Katrin Wagner, Flavio Nunes Ramos, Juliano Sarmento Cabral, Gerhard Zotz, Claudia Agudelo, Ana Maria Benavides, Manuel Cach Pérez, Catherine Cardelús, Nahelli Chilpa Galván, Lucas Costa, Rodolfo De Paula Oliveiras, Helena Einzmann, Rafael Farias, Valeria Guzmán Jacob, Michael Kessler, Catherine Kirby, Holger Kreft, Thorsten Krömer, Jamie Males, Samuel Monsalve Correa, Maria Moreno, Gunnar Petter, Casandra Reyes, Alfredo Saldaña … & Carrie Woods
Epiphyte trait data for the paper Hietz et al. 2021 Putting vascular epiphytes on the traits map. Journal of Ecology Plant functional traits impact the fitness and environmental niche of plants. Major plant functional types have been characterized by their trait spectrum, and the environmental and phylogenetic imprints on traits have advanced several ecological fields. Yet very few trait data on epiphytes, which represent almost 10% of vascular plants, are available. We collated >80,000 mostly...

Data from: Biomechanical and leaf-climate relationships: a comparison of ferns and seed plants

Daniel J. Peppe, Casee R. Lemons, Dana L. Royer, Scott L. Wing, Ian J. Wright, Christopher H. Lusk & Chazelle H. Rhoden
Premise of the study: Relationships of leaf size and shape (physiognomy) with climate have been well characterized for woody non-monocotyledonous angiosperms (dicots), allowing the development of models for estimating paleoclimate from fossil leaves. More recently, petiole width of seed plants has been shown to scale closely with leaf mass. By measuring petiole width and leaf area in fossils, leaf mass per area (MA) can be estimated and an approximate leaf life span inferred. However, little...

Data from: Long-term, high frequency in situ measurements of intertidal mussel bed temperatures using biomimetic sensors

Brian Helmuth, Francis Choi, Allison Matzelle, Jessica L. Torossian, Scott L. Morella, K. A. S. Mislan, Lauren Yamane, Denise Strickland, P. Lauren Szathmary, Sarah Gilman, Alyson Tockstein, Thomas J. Hilbish, Michael T. Burrows, Anne Marie Power, Elizabeth Gosling, Nova Mieszkowska, Christopher D. G. Harley, Michael Nishizaki, Emily Carrington, Bruce Menge, Laura Petes, Melissa M. Foley, Angela Johnson, Megan Poole, Mae M. Noble … & Gerardo Zardi
At a proximal level, the physiological impacts of global climate change on ectothermic organisms are manifest as changes in body temperatures. Especially for plants and animals exposed to direct solar radiation, body temperatures can be substantially different from air temperatures. We deployed biomimetic sensors that approximate the thermal characteristics of intertidal mussels at 71 sites worldwide, from 1998-present. Loggers recorded temperatures at 10–30 min intervals nearly continuously at multiple intertidal elevations. Comparisons against direct measurements...

Data from: Early singers attend to conspecific but not heterospecific behavioural cues at dawn

Leah Hodgson, Joseph R. Waas & Jennifer R. Foote
During the dawn chorus songbirds initiate singing activities just prior to sunrise. Environmental factors affect the timing of the dawn chorus, but relatively little is known about how behavioural cues influence chorus timing. We assessed whether early playback of conspecific and heterospecific song influenced chorus start times in two early-singing temperate species, hermit thrush (Catharus guttatus) and veery (C. fuscescens). We used arrays of GPS time-synchronized recorders to record the dawn chorus at 30 locations....

The impacts of trampling and ground disturbances on Antarctic soils

Pablo Tejedo & Tanya O'Neill
Antarctic soils are particularly vulnerable to disturbance due to their biological and physical properties and naturally slow recovery rates that are suppressed by low temperatures and sometimes low moisture availability. As most human activities are concentrated in relatively small scattered ice-free areas, the potential for adverse human impacts is great. Antarctic soils provide habitat for fauna and flora which are regionally important and, in some cases, include endemic representatives. Thus, protection of this component of...

Data from: A conifer–angiosperm divergence in the growth vs shade tolerance trade-off underlies the dynamics of a New Zealand warm-temperate rain forest

Christopher H. Lusk, Murray A. Jorgensen & Peter J. Bellingham
1. A central tenet of forest ecology is that succession and regeneration dynamics are driven by an interspecific trade-off between juvenile growth rates in high light and shade tolerance. There is evidence, however, that a single trade-off axis may fail to explain the dynamics of mixed conifer-angiosperm rainforests in the southern hemisphere, especially in New Zealand. 2. We tested for growth vs shade tolerance trade-offs by measuring juvenile growth of five podocarps and five broadleaved...

Data from: Constraints on trait combinations explain climatic drivers of biodiversity: the importance of trait covariance in community assembly

John M. Dwyer & Daniel C. Laughlin
Trade-offs maintain diversity and structure communities along environmental gradients. Theory indicates that if covariance among functional traits sets a limit on the number of viable trait combinations in a given environment, then communities with strong multidimensional trait constraints should exhibit low species diversity. We tested this prediction in winter annual plant assemblages along an aridity gradient using multilevel structural equation modelling. Univariate and multivariate functional diversity measures were poorly explained by aridity, and were surprisingly...

Data from: Convergence of soil nitrogen isotopes across global climate gradients

Joseph M. Craine, Andrew J. Elmore, Lixin Wang, Laurent Augusto, W. Troy Baisden, E. N. J. Brookshire, Michael D. Cramer, Niles J. Hasselquist, Erik A. Hobbie, Ansgar Kahmen, Keisuke Koba, J. Marty Kranabetter, Michelle C. Mack, Erika Marin-Spiotta, Jordan R. Mayor, Kendra K. McLauchlan, Anders Michelsen, Gabriela B. Nardoto, Rafael S. Oliveira, Steven S. Perakis, Pablo L. Peri, Carlos A. Quesada, Andreas Richter, Louis A. Schipper, Bryan A. Stevenson … & Bernd Zeller
Quantifying global patterns of terrestrial nitrogen (N) cycling is central to predicting future patterns of primary productivity, carbon sequestration, nutrient fluxes to aquatic systems, and climate forcing. With limited direct measures of soil N cycling at the global scale, syntheses of the 15N:14N ratio of soil organic matter across climate gradients provide key insights into understanding global patterns of N cycling. In synthesizing data from over 6000 soil samples, we show strong global relationships among...

Cultural Landscapes in Aotearoa New Zealand - Decolonisation and challenges

Nicola Short & Carolyn Hill
The first place to be inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage list as a cultural landscape was Tongariro National Park in Aotearoa New Zealand. Despite this early acknowledgement in the international arena there is a weak theoretical understanding of cultural landscapes in Aotearoa, both in the legislative environment and management regimes (Short 2020). The current state of cultural landscapes in Aotearoa can be seen as an expression of the colonial systems and perspectives which dominate...

Phylogenetic study of the New Caledonian endemic genus Adenodaphne (Lauraceae) confirms its synonymy with Litsea

Jérôme Munzinger, Gordon McPherson, Stacey Meyer & Chrissen Gemmill
The genus Adenodaphne is currently considered endemic to New Caledonia, but its distinction from Litsea is questionable based on morphological similarity. An earlier phylogenetic analysis (ITS) including one species of Adenodaphne and two Asian species of Litsea did support their close relationship but did not permit resolution of their generic boundary. We sampled the four species of Adenodaphne currently recognized (11 accessions) and 11 of the 13 endemic species of Litsea currently recognized, plus one...

Data from: Targeted gene enrichment and high-throughput sequencing for environmental biomonitoring: a case study using freshwater macroinvertebrates

Eddy J. Dowle, Xavier Pochon, Jonathan C. Banks, Karen Shearer & Susanna A. Wood
Recent studies have advocated biomonitoring using DNA techniques. In this study, two high-throughput sequencing (HTS)-based methods were evaluated: amplicon metabarcoding of the cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (COI) mitochondrial gene and gene enrichment using MYbaits (targeting nine different genes including COI). The gene-enrichment method does not require PCR amplification and thus avoids biases associated with universal primers. Macroinvertebrate samples were collected from 12 New Zealand rivers. Macroinvertebrates were morphologically identified and enumerated, and their biomass...

Data from: Changes in the location of biodiversity–ecosystem function hot spots across the seafloor landscape with increasing sediment nutrient loading

Simon F. Thrush, Judi E. Hewitt, Casper Kraan, A. M. Lohrer, Conrad A. Pilditch & Emily Douglas
Declining biodiversity and loss of ecosystem function threatens the ability of habitats to contribute ecosystem services. However, the form of the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem function (BEF) and how relationships change with environmental change is poorly understood. This limits our ability to predict the consequences of biodiversity loss on ecosystem function, particularly in real-world marine ecosystems that are species rich, and where multiple ecosystem functions are represented by multiple indicators. We investigated spatial variation...

Data from: The role of vicariance and dispersal on New Zealand's estuarine biodiversity: the case of Paracorophium (Crustacea: Amphipoda)

Matthew A. Knox, Ian D. Hogg & Conrad A. Pilditch
To investigate the role of vicariance and dispersal on New Zealand’s estuarine biodiversity, we examined variability in mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene sequences for the amphipod genus Paracorophium. Individuals from the two nominate endemic species (P. excavatum and P. lucasi) were collected from sites throughout the North and South Islands. Sequence divergences of 12.8% were detected among the species. However, divergences of up to 11.7% were also observed between well supported clades, suggesting...

Data from: Ancient landscapes of the Namib Desert harbour high levels of genetic variability and deeply divergent lineages for Collembola

Gemma Collins, Ian Hogg, Janine Baxter, Gillian Maggs-Kölling & Don Cowan
Aim To assess spatial patterns of genetic and species-level diversity for Namib Desert Collembola using mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences. Location Namib Desert gravel plains Taxon Collembola (springtails) Methods A total of 77 soil samples was collected along a NE-SW (60 km) and E-W (160 km) transects from within a 4000 km2 area of the Namib Desert gravel plains. We extracted 434 springtails from the 37 samples which contained Collembola...

Quantifying uncertainty within an ecologically-coupled lake hydrodynamic model: Lake Wairarapa case study

Mat Allan
The present study investigated uncertainty within an ecologically coupled 1-D hydrodynamic model of Lake Wairarapa and uncertainty of total chlorophyll a (TCHLA) estimation. This uncertainty was compared and resulted from both model history matching or model parametrization (within lake) and uncertainty generated from inflowing nitrate concentrations derived from prior and posterior catchment modelling. The study indicated that catchment model calibration effort has significant implications for lake modelling uncertainty. The posterior catchment model scenario led to...

Improving self-awareness and engagement through group coaching

Anna Sutton & Cecile Crobach

Data from: Tree mortality across biomes is promoted by drought intensity, lower wood density and higher specific leaf area

Sarah Greenwood, Paloma Ruiz-Benito, Jordi Martínez-Vilalta, Francisco Lloret, Thomas Kitzberger, Craig D. Allen, Rod Fensham, Daniel C. Laughlin, Jens Kattge, Gerhard Bonisch, Nathan J. B. Kraft & Alistair S. Jump
Drought events are increasing globally, and reports of consequent forest mortality are widespread. However, due to a lack of a quantitative global synthesis, it is still not clear whether drought-induced mortality rates differ among global biomes and whether functional traits influence the risk of drought-induced mortality. To address these uncertainties, we performed a global meta-analysis of 58 studies of drought-induced forest mortality. Mortality rates were modelled as a function of drought, temperature, biomes, phylogenetic and...

Climate influences the value of a plant structural defence against browsing

Christopher H. Lusk, Susan K. Wiser & Daniel C. Laughlin
The circumstances that select for plant anti-herbivore defences are not well understood. In New Zealand, the “divaricate” cage-like architecture of many woody plants may have arisen as a defence against avian browsing; it also has some ability to deter browsing by introduced deer. Its prominence on alluvial soils in frosty and droughty areas led us to hypothesize that structural defences are of most value where fertile soils coincide with climatic constraints that prevent plants from...

Data from: Machine learning identifies ecological selectivity patterns across the end-Permian mass extinction

William Foster, Georgy Ayzel, Jannes Münchmeyer, Tabea Rettelbach, Niklas Kitzmann, Terry Isson, Maria Mutti & Martin Aberhan
The end-Permian mass extinction occurred alongside a large swathe of environmental changes that are often invoked as extinction mechanisms, even when a direct link is lacking. One way to elucidate the cause(s) of a mass extinction is to investigate extinction selectivity as it can reveal critical information on organismic traits as key determinants of extinction and survival. Here we show that machine learning algorithms, specifically gradient boosted decision trees, can be used to identify determinants...

Social selection is density dependent but makes little contribution to total selection in New Zealand giraffe weevils

David Fisher, Rebecca Le Grice & Christina Painting
Social selection occurs when traits of interaction partners influence an individual’s fitness and can alter total selection strength. However, we have little idea of what factors influence social selection’s strength. Further, social selection only contributes to overall selection when there is phenotypic assortment, but simultaneous estimates of social selection and phenotypic assortment are rare. Here we estimated social selection on body size in a wild population of New Zealand giraffe weevils (Lasiorhynchus barbicornis). We measured...

Data from: The genomic ancestry, landscape genetics, and invasion history of introduced mice in New Zealand

Andrew J. Veale, James C. Russell & Carolyn M. King
The house mouse (Mus musculus) provides a fascinating system for studying both the genomic basis of reproductive isolation, and the patterns of human- mediated dispersal. New Zealand has a complex history of mouse invasions, and the living descendants of these invaders have genetic ancestry from all three subspecies, although most are primarily descended from M. m. domesticus. We used the GigaMUGA genotyping array (~135,000 loci) to describe the genomic ancestry of 161 mice, sampled from...

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