426 Works

Archives and Special Collections Linked Data: Navigating between Notes and Nodes

Erin Blake, Itza A. Carbajal, Regine Heberlein, Sarah Horowitz, Jason Kovari, VANESSA LACEY, Cory Lampert, Holly Mengel, Cory Nimer, Maria Oldal, Merrilee Proffitt, Nathan Putnam, Arielle Rambo, Elizabeth Roke, Eric de Ruijter, Dan Santamaria, Karen Smith-Yoshimura, Weatherly Stephan, Bruce Washburn & Chela Weber

Data from: Multimodal mimicry of hosts in a radiation of parasitic finches

Gabriel Jamie, Steven M. Van Belleghem, Benedict G. Hogan, Silky Hamama, Collins Moya, Jolyon Troscianko, Mary Stoddard, Rebecca Kilner & Claire Spottiswoode
Brood parasites use the parental care of others to raise their young and sometimes employ mimicry to dupe their hosts. The brood-parasitic finches of the genus Vidua are a textbook example of the role of imprinting in sympatric speciation. Sympatric speciation is thought to occur in Vidua because their mating traits and host preferences are strongly influenced by their early host environment. However, this alone may not be sufficient to isolate parasite lineages, and divergent...

Data from: Variation in growth of Damaraland mole-rats is explained by competition rather than by functional specialization for different tasks

Markus Zöttl, Jack Thorley, David Gaynor, Nigel C. Bennett & Tim Clutton-Brock
In some eusocial insect societies, adaptation to the division of labour results in multimodal size variation among workers. It has been suggested that variation in size and growth among non-breeders in naked and Damaraland mole-rats may similarly reflect functional divergence associated with different cooperative tasks. However, it is unclear whether individual growth rates are multimodally distributed (as would be expected if variation in growth is associated with specialization for different tasks) or whether variation in...

Data from: Function and flexibility of object exploration in kea and New Caledonian crows

Megan L. Lambert, Martina Schiestl, Raoul Schwing, Alex H. Taylor, Gyula K. Gajdon, Katie E. Slocombe & Amanda M. Seed
A range of nonhuman animals frequently manipulate and explore objects in their environment, which may enable them to learn about physical properties and potentially form more abstract concepts of properties such as weight and rigidity. Whether animals can apply the information learned during their exploration to solve novel problems, however, and whether they actually change their exploratory behaviour to seek functional information about objects have not been fully explored. We allowed kea (Nestor notabilis) and...

Data from: Trait-dependent distributional shifts in fruiting of common British fungi

Alan C. Gange, Einar Heegaard, Lynne Boddy, Carrie Andrew, Paul Kirk, Rune Halvorsen, Thomas W. Kuyper, Claus Bässler, Jeffrey Diez, Jacob Heilman-Clausen, Klaus Høiland, Ulf Büntgen & Håvard Kauserud
Despite the dramatic phenological responses of fungal fruiting to recent climate warming, it is unknown whether spatial distributions of fungi have changed and to what extent such changes are influenced by fungal traits, such as ectomycorrhizal (ECM) or saprotrophic lifestyles, spore characteristics, or fruit body size. Our overall aim was to understand how climate and fungal traits determine whether and how species-specific fungal fruit body abundances have shifted across latitudes over time, using the UK...

Data from: Childhood adiposity and type 1 diabetes: a Mendelian randomization study

J. C. Censin, Christoph Nowak, Nicholas Cooper, Peter Bergsten, John A. Todd & Tove Fall
BACKGROUND: The incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is increasing globally. One hypothesis is that increasing childhood obesity rates may explain part of this increase, but, as T1D is rare, intervention studies are challenging to perform. The aim of this study was to assess this hypothesis with a Mendelian randomization approach that uses genetic variants as instrumental variables to test for causal associations. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We created a genetic instrument of 23 single nucleotide...

Data from: Odd-paired controls frequency doubling in Drosophila segmentation by altering the pair-rule gene regulatory network

Erik Clark & Michael Akam
The Drosophila embryo transiently exhibits a double segment periodicity, defined by the expression of seven "pair-rule" genes, each in a pattern of seven stripes. At gastrulation, interactions between the pair-rule genes lead to frequency doubling and the patterning of fourteen parasegment boundaries. In contrast to earlier stages of Drosophila anteroposterior patterning, this transition is not well understood. By carefully analysing the spatiotemporal dynamics of pair-rule gene expression, we demonstrate that frequency-doubling is precipitated by multiple...

Data from: Experimental evidence that primate trichromacy is well suited for detecting primate social colour signals

Chihiro Hiramatsu, Amanda D. Melin, William L. Allen, Constance Dubuc & James P. Higham
Primate trichromatic colour vision has been hypothesized to be well tuned for detecting variation in facial coloration, which could be due to selection on either signal wavelengths or the sensitivities of the photoreceptors themselves. We provide one of the first empirical tests of this idea by asking whether, when compared with other visual systems, the information obtained through primate trichromatic vision confers an improved ability to detect the changes in facial colour that female macaque...

Data from: DNA methylation and gene expression changes derived from assisted reproductive technologies can be decreased by reproductive fluids

Sebastian Canovas, Elena Ivanova, Raquel Romar, Soledad García-Martínez, Cristina Soriano-Úbeda, Francisco Alberto A. García-Vázquez, Heba Saadeh, Simon Andrews, Gavin Kelsey & Pilar Coy
The number of children born since the origin of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) exceeds 5 million. The majority seem healthy, but a higher frequency of defects has been reported among ART-conceived infants, suggesting an epigenetic cost. We report the first whole-genome DNA methylation datasets from single pig blastocysts showing differences between in vivo and in vitro produced embryos. Blastocysts were produced in vitro either without (C-IVF) or in the presence of natural reproductive fluids (Natur-IVF)....

Data from: Urban development, land sharing and land sparing: the importance of considering restoration

Lydia Collas, Rhys E. Green, Alexander Ross, Josie H. Wastell & Andrew Balmford
1. At present, there is limited knowledge of how best to reconcile urban development with biodiversity conservation, and in particular whether populations of wild species would be greater under low-density housing (with larger gardens), or high-density housing (allowing more area to be left as undeveloped green spaces). The land sharing/sparing framework – originally developed in the context of farming – can be applied to address this question. 2. We sampled the abundance of trees in...

Data from: Why on earth did I buy that? A study of regretted appliance purchases

Thomas Roberts, Aimie Hope, Alexandra Skelton, A. Skelton, A. Hope & T. Roberts
If targets to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and thereby tackle climate change are to be achieved, it will be necessary to reduce both embodied energy costs (e.g. in terms of producing and manufacturing the products and services that society consumes) and operational energy costs. Reducing the number of purchases that people regret could be a first step in changing the overall dynamic of consumption patterns. This research looks at some potentially adverse effects of consumption...

Data from: Habitat disturbance selects against both small and large species across varying climates

Heloise Gibb, Nathan J. Sanders, Robert R. Dunn, Xavier Arnan, Heraldo L. Vasconcellos, David A. Donoso, Alan N. Andersen, Rogerio R. Silva, Tom R. Bishop, Crisanto Gomez, Blair F. Grossman, Kalsum M. Yusah, Sarah H. Luke, Renata Pacheco, Jessica Pearce-Duvet, Javier Retana, Melanie Tista, Catherine L. Parr, S. H. Luke, R. R. Dunn, J. Pearce-Duvet, C. Gomez, M. Tista, C. L. Parr, T. R. Bishop … & K. M. Yusah
Global extinction drivers, including habitat disturbance and climate change, are thought to affect larger species more than smaller species. However, it is unclear if such drivers interact to affect assemblage body size distributions. We asked how these two key global change drivers differentially affect the interspecific size distributions of ants, one of the most abundant and ubiquitous animal groups on earth. We also asked whether there is evidence of synergistic interactions and whether effects are...

Data from: Oral microbiomes from hunter-gatherers and traditional farmers reveal shifts in commensal balance and pathogen load linked to diet

Florent Lassalle, Matteo Spagnoletti, Matteo Fumagalli, Liam Shaw, Mark Dyble, Catherine Walker, Mark G. Thomas, Andrea Bamberg Migliano & Francois Balloux
Maladaptation to modern diets has been implicated in several chronic disorders. Given the higher prevalence of disease such as dental caries and chronic gum diseases in industrialized societies, we sought to investigate the impact of different subsistence strategies on oral health and physiology, as documented by the oral microbiome. To control for confounding variables such as environment and host genetics, we sampled saliva from three pairs of populations of hunter-gatherers and traditional farmers living in...

Code lists for: \"Risk of adverse mental health outcomes in women with history of breast cancer: a matched population-based cohort study in the United Kingdom (1988-2018)\"

Helena Carreira & Garth Funston
A set of read codes associated with a paper titled "Risk of adverse mental health outcomes in women with history of breast cancer: a matched population-based cohort study in the United Kingdom (1988-2018)".

Thick adherent diamond films on AlN with low thermal barrier resistance - data

Soumen Mandal, Chao Yuan, Fabien Massabuau, James W Pomeroy, Jerome Cuenca, Henry A Bland, Evan L Thomas, David Wallis, Tim Batten, Rachel Oliver, Martin Kuball & Oliver A Williams
This dataset is the study of thick adherent diamond layers on AlN. The txt files can be opened and analysed using any plotting software. The work describes growth of >100μm thick diamond layer adherent on aluminium nitride. While thick films failed to adhere on untreated AlN films, hydrogen/nitrogen plasma treated AlN films retained the thick diamond layers. Clear differences in zeta potential measurement confirms the surface modification due to hydrogen/nitrogen plasma treatment. Areal Raman maps...

Data from: Variability in commercial demand for tree saplings affects the probability of introducing exotic forest diseases

Vasthi Alonso Chavez, Christopher A. Gilligan & Frank Van Den Bosch
1. Several devastating forest pathogens are suspected or known to have entered the UK through imported planting material. The nursery industry is a key business of the tree trade network. Variability in demand for trees makes it difficult for nursery owners to predict how many trees to produce in their nursery. When in any given year, the demand for trees is larger than the production, nursery owners buy trees from foreign sources to match market...

Data from: The early-life environment and individual plasticity in life history

Ornela De Gasperin, Ana Duarte, Sinead English, Alfredo Attisano & Rebecca M. Kilner
We tested whether the early-life environment can influence the extent of individual plasticity in a life history trait. We asked: can the early-life environment explain why, in response to the same adult environmental cue, some individuals invest more than others in current reproduction? And can it additionally explain why investment in current reproduction trades off against survival in some individuals, but is positively correlated with survival in others? We addressed these questions using the burying...

Data from: Routine habitat switching alters the likelihood and persistence of infection with a pathogenic parasite

David R. Daversa, Andrea Manica, Jaime Bosch, Jolle W. Jolles & Trenton W. J. Garner
1.Animals switch habitats on a regular basis, and when habitats vary in suitability for parasitism, routine habitat switching alters the frequency of parasite exposure and may affect post-infection parasite proliferation. However, the effects of routine habitat switching on infection dynamics are not well understood. 2.We performed infection experiments, behavioural observations, and field surveillance to evaluate how routine habitat switching by adult alpine newts (Ichthyosaura alpestris) influences infection dynamics of the pathogenic parasite, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd)....

Data from: Reproduction triggers adaptive increases in body size in female mole-rats

Jack Thorley, Nathan Katlein, Katy Goddard, Markus Zoettl & Tim Clutton-Brock
In social mole-rats, breeding females are larger and more elongated than nonbreeding female helpers. The status-related morphological divergence is thought to arise from modifications of skeletal growth following the death or removal of the previous breeder and the transition of their successors from a nonbreeding to a breeding role. However, it is not clear what changes in growth are involved, whether they are stimulated by the relaxation of reproductive suppression or by changes in breeding...

Data from: Moving from frugivory to seed dispersal: incorporating the functional outcomes of interactions in plant-frugivore networks

Benno I. Simmons, William J. Sutherland, Lynn V. Dicks, Jörg Albrecht, Nina Farwig, Daniel Garcia, Pedro Jordano & Juan P. González-Varo
1.There is growing interest in understanding the functional outcomes of species interactions in ecological networks. For many mutualistic networks, including pollination and seed dispersal networks, interactions are generally sampled by recording animal foraging visits to plants. However, these visits may not reflect actual pollination or seed dispersal events, despite these typically being the ecological processes of interest. 2.Frugivorous animals can act as seed dispersers, by swallowing entire fruits and dispersing their seeds, or as pulp...

Data from: Anisotropic growth is achieved through the additive mechanical effect of material anisotropy and elastic asymmetry

Firas Bou Daher, Yuanjie Chen, Behruz Bozorg, Jack Clough, Henrik Jönsson, Siobhan A. Braybrook, Firas Bou Daher & Siobhan A Braybrook
Fast directional growth is a necessity for the young seedling; after germination, it needs to quickly penetrate the soil to begin its autotrophic life. In most dicot plants, this rapid escape is due to the anisotropic elongation of the hypocotyl, the columnar organ between the root and the shoot meristems. Anisotropic growth is common in plant organs and is canonically attributed to cell wall anisotropy produced by oriented cellulose fibers. Recently, a mechanism based on...

Data from: Multiple stages of tree seedling recruitment are altered in tropical forests degraded by selective logging

Rajeev Pillay, Fangyuan Hua, Bette A. Loiselle, Henry Bernard & Robert J. Fletcher
Tropical forest degradation is a global environmental issue. In degraded forests, seedling recruitment of canopy trees is vital for forest regeneration and recovery. We investigated how selective logging, a pervasive driver of tropical forest degradation, impacts canopy tree seedling recruitment, focusing on an endemic dipterocarp Dryobalanops lanceolata in Sabah, Borneo. During a mast-fruiting event in intensively logged and nearby unlogged forest, we examined four stages of the seedling recruitment process: seed production, seed predation, and...

Data from: Of puzzles and pavements: a quantitative exploration of leaf epidermal cell shape

Róza V. Vőfély, Joseph Gallagher, Grace D. Pisano, Madelaine Bartlett & Siobhan A. Braybrook
Epidermal cells of leaves are diverse: tabular pavement cells, trichomes, and stomatal complexes. Pavement cells from the monocot Zea mays (maize) and the eudicot Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) have highly undulate anticlinal walls. The molecular basis for generating these undulating margins has been extensively investigated in these species. This has led to two assumptions: first, that particular plant lineages are characterized by particular pavement cell shapes; and second, that undulatory cell shapes are common enough to...

Data from: Human variation in the shape of the birth canal is significant and geographically structured

Lia Betti & Andrea Manica
The human birth canal shows a tight fit with the size of the neonate, which can lead to obstetric complications. This is not the case in other apes, and has been explained as the outcome of conflicting evolutionary pressures for bipedal locomotion and parturition of a highly-encephalised fetus. Despite the suggested evolutionary constraints on the female pelvis, we show that women are, in fact, extremely variable in the shape of the bony birth canal, with...

Data from: Killer whales (Orcinus orca) in Iceland show weak genetic structure among diverse isotopic signatures and observed movement patterns

Sara B. Tavares, Filipa I.P. Samarra, Sonia Pascoal, Jeff A. Graves, Patrick J.O. Miller, Filipa I. P. Samarra & Patrick J. O. Miller
Local adaption through ecological niche specialization can lead to genetic structure between and within populations. In the Northeast Pacific, killer whales (Orcinus orca) of the same population have uniform specialized diets that are non-overlapping with other sympatric, genetically divergent and socially isolated killer whale ecotypes. However, killer whales in Iceland show intra-population variation of isotopic niches and observed movement patterns: some individuals appear to specialise on herring and follow it year-round while others feed upon...

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