531 Works

Supporting data for ‘DFENS: Diffusion chronometry using Finite Elements and Nested Sampling’

Euan Mutch, John Maclennan, Oliver Shorttle, John Rudge & David Neave
This is supporting data for the manuscript entitled 'DFENS: Diffusion chronometry using Finite Elements and Nested Sampling' by E. J. F. Mutch, J. Maclennan, O. Shorttle, J. F. Rudge and D. Neave. Preprint here: https://doi.org/10.1002/essoar.10503709.1 Data Set S1. ds01.csv Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) profile data of olivine crystals used in this study. Standard deviations are averaged values of standard deviations from counting statistics and repeat measurements of secondary standards. Data Set S2. ds02.csv Plagioclase compositional...

HadCM3 and HadGEM3 LIG model outputs: A sea ice-free Arctic

Maria Vittoria Guarino & Louise Sime
The HadGEM3 (HadGEM3-GC3.1 or HadGEM3-GC3.1-N96ORCA1) PI simulation was initialized using the standard CMIP6 protocol using constant 1850 GHGs, ozone, solar, tropospheric aerosol, stratospheric volcanic aerosol and land-use forcing. The PI spin-up was 700 model-years, which allowed the land and oceanic masses to attain approximate steady state. The HadGEM3 LIG (Last Interglacial) simulation was initialized from the end of the spin-up phase of the equivalent pre-industrial (PI) simulation. After initialization, the LIG was run for 350...

Sunflower seed predation rates in Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function in Tropical Agriculture (BEFTA) plots, Kandista and Ujun Tanjung estates, Indonesia

A. E. Eycott, E.C. Turner, S. H. Luke & A. D. Advento
Data comprise sunflower seed predation rates (i.e. number of seeds remaining) after 24 hours under different treatments in 18 experimental plots plots established in 2013 as part of the Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function in Tropical Agriculture (BEFTA) programme. Eighteen plots were examined across three estates – plots in Ujung Tanjung and Kandista estates were planted in 1987 to 1992 and are mature or over-mature oil palm, while Libo plots were replanted in 2014. Plots were...

Coastal Biodiversity and Ecosystem Service Sustainability (CBESS) projected area of vegetation in saltmarsh habitats

B.R. Evans, I. Möller & T. Spencer
The dataset contains estimates of the projected area of vegetation derived from the analysis of side-on photographs through the vegetation canopy and recorded for survey quadrats at six UK saltmarsh sites. Three of the sites were in Morecambe Bay, North West England and three of the sites were in Essex, South East England, each of these sites consisted of a saltmarsh area and adjacent mudflat area. Each site comprised 22 quadrats in the vegetated area...

Derived global responses of annual river flow to catchment forestation through time, between 1900 and 2018

L. Bentley & D.A. Coomes
This dataset reports the responses of annual river flow to forestation in 43 catchments and contains 770 data points. Data shows the change in river flow following forestation at annual time scales, along control river flow measurements and associated metadata from primary and secondary sources. Data collection, processing and interpretation were performed by Laura Bentley and David A. Coomes between January 2018 and October 2019. Forestation was defined as a change in land cover from...

Coastal Biodiversity and Ecosystem Service Sustainability (CBESS) global positioning system (GPS) locations of survey quadrats in saltmarsh and mudflat habitats

B.R. Evans, T. Spencer & I. Möller
The dataset details global positioning system (GPS) locations recorded for survey quadrats at six UK saltmarsh sites. Three of the sites were in Morecambe Bay, North West England and three of the sites were in Essex, South East England, each of these sites consisted of a salt marsh area and adjacent mudflat area. Each site comprised 22 quadrats on the unvegetated mudflat and 22 quadrats on the salt marsh. The locations indicated by this dataset...

Oak-associated biodiversity in the UK (OakEcol)

R.J. Mitchell, P.E. Bellamy, C.J. Ellis, R.L. Hewison, N.G. Hodgetts, G.R. Iason, N.A. Littlewood, S. Newey, J.A. Stockan & A.F.S. Taylor
This dataset contains a list of all known birds, bryophytes, fungi, invertebrates, lichens and mammals that use oak (Quercus petraea and Quercus robur) in the UK. In total 2300 species are listed in the dataset. For each species we provide a level of association with oak, ranging from obligate (only found on oak) to cosmopolitan (found on a wide range of other tree species). Data on the ecology of each oak associated species is provided:...

Coastal Biodiversity and Ecosystem Service Sustainability (CBESS) global positioning system (GPS) locations for instruments and features associated with wave monitoring and sedimentation-erosion table installations in saltmarsh and mudflat habitats

B.R. Evans, I. Möller & T. Spencer
The dataset details global positioning system (GPS) locations recorded for instruments and locations of interest associated with equipment installed for the monitoring of wave energy, surface elevation changes and sedimentation at five UK saltmarsh sites. Two of the sites were in Morecambe Bay, North West England and three of the sites were in Essex, South East England, each of these sites consisted of a salt marsh area and adjacent mudflat area. Rod Sedimentation-Erosion Tables (rSETs)...

Foraging behaviour of Parus major held in temporary captivity

R Thorogood, H Kokko & J Mappes
The data set describes foraging decisions by great tits (Parus major), held in temporary captivity. Data were collected from birds caught from forest at the University of Jyväskylä Research Station, Konnevesi (62°37.7'N 026°17'E), Finland, and were collected during the winter of 2013-2014. Birds were presented with (1) two different coloured plastic cups, or (2) two different artificial prey (almond pieces inside a paper packet and printed with a black and white symbol). One symbol was...

Data from: Macrobenthic assemblage structure in a cool-temperate intertidal dwarf-eelgrass bed in comparison to those in lower latitudes.

Richard S. K. Barnes & M. D. Farnon Ellwood
The evolution and ecology of latitudinal patterns in marine macrofaunal biodiversity and assemblage structure are contentious. With the aim of investigating the occurrence of such patterns in intertidal dwarf-eelgrass beds (Nanozostera spp.), those at cool-temperate Scolt Head Island, UK (latitude 52°N), were examined and compared to equivalent systems in warm-temperate Knysna, South Africa (34°S), and subtropical Moreton Bay, Australia (27°S); systems that had earlier been examined using identical methodology. The Scolt Head bed supported the...

Data from: Insect adhesion on rough surfaces: analysis of adhesive contact of smooth and hairy pads on transparent micro-structured substrates

Yanmin Zhou, Adam Robinson, Ullrich Steiner & Walter Federle
Insect climbing footpads are able to adhere to rough surfaces, but the details of this capability are still unclear. To overcome experimental limitations of randomly rough, opaque surfaces, we fabricated transparent test substrates containing square arrays of 1.4 µm diameter pillars, with variable height (0.5 and 1.4 µm) and spacing (from 3 to 22 µm). Smooth pads of cockroaches (Nauphoeta cinerea) made partial contact (limited to the tops of the structures) for the two densest...

Data from: The stable isotope ecology of mycalesine butterflies: implications for plant-insect co-evolution

Erik Van Bergen, Henry S. Barlow, Oskar Brattström, Howard Griffiths, Ullasa Kodandaramaiah, Colin P. Osborne & Paul M. Brakefield
One of the most dramatic examples of biome shifts in the geological record is the rapid replacement of C3 vegetation by C4 grasses in (sub-) tropical regions during the Late Miocene–Pliocene. Climate-driven biome shifts of this magnitude are expected to have a major impact on diversification and ecological speciation, especially in grazing taxa. Mycalesine butterflies are excellent candidates to explore the evolutionary impact of these C3/C4 shifts on insect grazer communities. Mycalesine butterflies feed on...

Data from: Does coevolution with a shared parasite drive hosts to partition their defences among species?

Eleanor M. Caves, Martin Stevens & Claire N. Spottiswoode
When mimicry imposes costs on models, selection may drive the model's phenotype to evolve away from its mimic. For example, brood parasitism often drives hosts to diversify in egg appearance among females within a species, making mimetic parasitic eggs easier to detect. However, when a single parasite species exploits multiple host species, parasitism could also drive host egg evolution away from other co-occurring hosts, to escape susceptibility to their respective mimics. This hypothesis predicts that...

Data from: Developmental plasticity for male secondary sexual traits in a group of polyphenic tropical butterflies

Andrew J. Balmer, Paul M. Brakefield, Oskar Brattström & Erik Van Bergen
Many organisms alter their investment in secondary sexual traits to optimise the fitness trade-off between reproduction and survival. Though seasonal variation in the expression of sexual traits is evident (e.g. conspicuous breeding plumage in birds), little attention has been given to short-lived organisms that inhabit relatively stable environments throughout their own lifetime but are exposed to strong environmental variation across generations. Some insects have evolved seasonal polyphenism to cope with intergenerational variation in environmental selection,...

Data from: The value of an egg: resource reallocation in ladybirds (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) infected with male-killing bacteria

Lori J Lawson-Handley, Sherif Elnagdy & Michael E N Majerus
Male-killing bacteria (MKs) are thought to persist in host populations by vertical transmission, and conferring direct and/or indirect fitness benefits to their hosts. Here, we test the role of indirect fitness benefits accrued from resource reallocation in species that engage in sibling egg cannibalism. We found that a single-egg meal significantly increased larval survival in 12 ladybird species, but the value of an egg (to survival) differed substantially between species. Next we tested the impact...

Data from: Is bigger better? The relationship between size and reproduction in female Asian elephants

J. A. H. Crawley, H. S. Mumby, S. N. Chapman, M. Lahdenperä, K. U. Mar, W. Htut, A. Thura Soe, H. H. Aung & V. Lummaa
The limited availability of resources is predicted to impose trade-offs between growth, reproduction and self-maintenance in animals. However, although some studies have shown that early reproduction suppresses growth, reproduction positively correlates with size in others. We use detailed records from a large population of semi-captive elephants in Myanmar to assess the relationships between size (height and weight), reproduction and survival in female Asian elephants, a species characterized by slow, costly life history. Although female height...

Data from: Ecological and genetic factors influencing the transition between host-use strategies in sympatric Heliconius butterflies

Richard M. Merrill, Russell E. Naisbit, James Mallet & Chris D. Jiggins
Shifts in host-plant use by phytophagous insects have played a central role in their diversification. Evolving host-use strategies will reflect a trade-off between selection pressures. The ecological niche of herbivorous insects is partitioned along several dimensions, and if populations remain in contact, recombination will break down associations between relevant loci. As such, genetic architecture can profoundly affect the coordinated divergence of traits and subsequently the ability to exploit novel habitats. The closely related species Heliconius...

Data from: Establishing a community-wide DNA barcode library as a new tool for arctic research

H. Wirta, G. Várkonyi, C. Rasmussen, R. Kaartinen, N. M. Schmidt, P. D. N. Hebert, M. Barták, G. Blagoev, H. Disney, S. Ertl, P. Gjelstrup, D. J. Gwiazdowicz, L. Huldén, J. Ilmonen, J. Jakovlev, M. Jaschhof, J. Kahanpää, T. Kankaanpää, P. H. Krogh, R. Labbee, C. Lettner, V. Michelsen, S. A. Nielsen, T. R. Nielsen, L. Paasivirta … & T. Roslin
DNA sequences offer powerful tools for describing the members and interactions of natural communities. In this study, we establish the to-date most comprehensive library of DNA barcodes for a terrestrial site, including all known macroscopic animals and vascular plants of an intensively studied area of the High Arctic, the Zackenberg Valley in Northeast Greenland. To demonstrate its utility, we apply the library to identify nearly 20 000 arthropod individuals from two Malaise traps, each operated...

Data from: Antagonistic effect of helpers on breeding male and female survival in a cooperatively breeding bird

Matthieu Paquet, Claire Doutrelant, Ben J. Hatchwell, Claire N. Spottiswoode & Rita Covas
1. Cooperatively breeding species are typically long lived and hence, according to theory, are expected to maximize their lifetime reproductive success through maximizing survival. Under these circumstances, the presence of helpers could be used to lighten the effort of current reproduction for parents to achieve higher survival. 2. In addition, individuals of different sexes and ages may follow different strategies, but whether male and female breeders and individuals of different ages benefit differently from the...

Data from: Salient eyes deter conspecific nest intruders in wild jackdaws (Corvus monedula)

Gabrielle L. Davidson, Nicola S. Clayton & Alex Thornton
Animals often respond fearfully when encountering eyes or eye-like shapes. Although gaze aversion has been documented in mammals when avoiding group-member conflict, the importance of eye coloration during interactions between conspecifics has yet to be examined in non-primate species. Jackdaws (Corvus monedula) have near-white irides, which are conspicuous against their dark feathers and visible when seen from outside the cavities where they nest. Because jackdaws compete for nest sites, their conspicuous eyes may act as...

Data from: Biomechanics of shear-sensitive adhesion in climbing animals: peeling, pre-tension and sliding-induced changes in interface strength

David Labonte & Walter Federle
Many arthropods and small vertebrates use adhesive pads for climbing. These biological adhesives have to meet conflicting demands: attachment must be strong and reliable, yet detachment should be fast and effortless. Climbing animals can rapidly and reversibly control their pads' adhesive strength by shear forces, but the mechanisms underlying this coupling have remained unclear. Here, we show that adhesive forces of stick insect pads closely followed the predictions from tape peeling models when shear forces...

Data from: Tree-centric mapping of forest carbon density from airborne laser scanning and hyperspectral data

Michele Dalponte & David A. Coomes
Forests are a major component of the global carbon cycle, and accurate estimation of forest carbon stocks and fluxes is important in the context of anthropogenic global change. Airborne laser scanning (ALS) data sets are increasingly recognized as outstanding data sources for high-fidelity mapping of carbon stocks at regional scales. We develop a tree-centric approach to carbon mapping, based on identifying individual tree crowns (ITCs) and species from airborne remote sensing data, from which individual...

Data from: Sharp acoustic boundaries across an altitudinal avian hybrid zone despite asymmetric introgression

Wouter Halfwerk, Caroline Dingle, Dusan M. Brinkhuizen, Jelmer W. Poelstra, Jan Komdeur & Hans Slabbekoorn
Birdsong is a sexually selected trait that could play an important evolutionary role when related taxa come into secondary contact. Many songbird species however learn their songs through copying one or more tutors, which complicates the evolutionary outcome of such contact. Two subspecies of a presumed vocal learner, the grey-breasted wood-wren (Henicorhina leucophrys), replace each other altitudinally across the western slope of the Ecuadorian Andes. These subspecies are morphologically very similar, but show striking differences...

Data from: Validating methods for estimating endocranial volume in individual red deer (Cervus elaphus)

Corina J. Logan & Tim H. Clutton-Brock
Comparing brain sizes is a key method in comparative cognition and evolution. Brain sizes are commonly validated by interspecific comparisons involving animals of varying size, which does not provide a realistic index of their accuracy for intraspecific comparisons. Intraspecific validation of methods for measuring brain size should include animals of the same age and sex to ensure that individual differences can be detected in animals of similar size. In this study we compare three methods...

Data from: Riparian reserves help protect forest bird communities in oil palm dominated landscapes

Simon L. Mitchell, David P. Edwards, Henry Bernard, David Coomes, Tommaso Jucker, Zoe G. Davies & Matthew J. Struebig
1. Conversion of forest to oil palm agriculture is a significant and continuing threat to tropical biodiversity. Despite this, little is known about the value of riparian reserves in oil palm and how these conservation set-asides might best be managed to maintain biodiversity. 2. We characterised bird communities of 28 sites in an oil palm-forest mosaic in Sabah, Malaysia using 6104 encounters from 840 point counts. Sites included oil palm riparian reserves of various vegetation...

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