474 Works

Genetic variance for behavioural ‘predictability’ of stress response

Pamela M. Prentice, Alastair J. Wilson, Thomas M. Houslay & Jullien G. A. Martin
Genetic factors underpinning phenotypic variation are required if natural selection is to result in adaptive evolution. However, evolutionary and behavioural ecologists typically focus on variation among individuals in their average trait values, and seek to characterise genetic contributions to this. As a result, less attention has been paid to if and how genes could contribute towards within-individual variance, or trait “predictability”. In fact, phenotypic ‘predictability’ can vary among individuals, and emerging evidence from livestock genetics...

Genetic dissection of assortative mating behavior

Richard M. Merrill, Pasi Rastas, Simon H. Martin, Maria C. Melo, Sarah Barker, John Davey, W. Owen McMillan & Chris D. Jiggins
The evolution of new species is made easier when traits under divergent ecological selection are also mating cues. Such ecological mating cues are now considered more common than previously thought, but we still know little about the genetic changes underlying their evolution, or more generally about the genetic basis for assortative mating behaviors. Both tight physical linkage and the existence of large effect preference loci will strengthen genetic associations between behavioral and ecological barriers, promoting...

Data from: Disentangling serology to elucidate henipa‐ and filovirus transmission in Madagascar fruit bats

Cara E. Brook, Hafaliana C. Ranaivoson, Christopher C. Broder, Andrew A. Cunningham, Jean-Michel Heraud, Alison J. Peel, Louise Gibson, James L. N. Wood, C. Jessica Metcalf & Andrew P. Dobson
Bats are reservoirs for emerging human pathogens, including Hendra and Nipah henipaviruses and Ebola and Marburg filoviruses. These viruses demonstrate predictable patterns in seasonality and age structure across multiple systems; previous work suggests that they may circulate in Madagascar's endemic fruit bats, which are widely consumed as human food. We aimed to (a) document the extent of henipa‐ and filovirus exposure among Malagasy fruit bats, (b) explore seasonality in seroprevalence and serostatus in these bat...

Data from: Single-cell virus sequencing of influenza infections that trigger innate immunity

Alistair B. Russell, Elizaveta Elshina, Jacob R. Kowalsky, Aartjan J. W. Te Velthuis & Jesse D. Bloom
Influenza-infected cells vary widely in their expression of viral genes, and only occasionally activate innate immunity. Here we develop a new method to assess how the genetic variation in viral populations contributes to this heterogeneity. We do this by determining the transcriptome and full-length sequences of all viral genes in single cells infected with a nominally "pure" stock of influenza virus. Most cells are infected by virions with defects, some of which increase the frequency...

Data from: Quantifying Susceptibility of Marine Invertebrate Biocomposites to Dissolution in Reduced pH

Matthew Chadwick, Elizabeth M. Harper, Anaëlle Lemasson, John I. Spicer & Lloyd S. Peck
Ocean acidification threatens many ecologically and economically important marine calcifiers. The increase in shell dissolution under the resulting reduced pH is an important and increasingly recognised threat. The biocomposites that make up calcified hardparts have a range of taxon-specific compositions and microstructures, and it is evident that these may influence susceptibilities to dissolution. Here, we show how dissolution (thickness loss) under both ambient and predicted end-century pH (≈7.6) varies between seven different bivalve mollusc and...

Data from: Systemic neurotransmitter responses to clinically approved and experimental neuropsychiatric drugs

Hamid R. Noori, Lewis H. Mervin, Vahid Bokharaie, Özlem Durmus, Lisamon Egenrieder, Stefan Fritze, Britta Gruhlke, Guilia Reinhardt, Hans-Hendrik Schabel, Sabine Staudenmaier, Nikos K. Logothetis, Andreas Bender & Rainer Spanagel
Neuropsychiatric disorders are the third leading cause of global disease burden. Current pharmacological treatment for these disorders is inadequate, with often insufficient efficacy and undesirable side effects. One reason for this is that the links between molecular drug action and neurobehavioral drug effects are elusive. We use a big data approach from the neurotransmitter response patterns of 258 different neuropsychiatric drugs in rats to address this question. Data from experiments comprising 110,674 rats are presented...

Data from: Evolution of longevity improves immunity in Drosophila

Daniel K. Fabian, Kathrin Garschall, Peter Klepsatel, Gonçalo Santos-Matos, Élio Sucena, Martin Kapun, Bruno Lemaitre, Robert Arking, Christian Schloetterer & Thomas Flatt
Much has been learned about the genetics of aging from studies in model organisms, but still little is known about naturally occurring alleles that contribute to variation in longevity. For example, analysis of mutants and transgenes has identified insulin signaling as a major regulator of longevity, yet whether standing variation in this pathway underlies microevolutionary changes in lifespan and correlated fitness traits remains largely unclear. Here we have analyzed the genomes of a set of...

Data from: The consequences of land sparing for birds in the United Kingdom

Anthony Lamb, Tom Finch, James W. Pearce-Higgins, Malcolm Ausden, Andrew Balmford, Claire Feniuk, Graham Hirons, Dario Massimino & Rhys E. Green
1. Land sparing has been proposed as a strategy to reconcile biodiversity conservation with agricultural production, with empirical studies on five continents indicating that most species would benefit if food demand was met through high-yield farming combined with the protection or restoration of natural habitat. 2. Most such studies come from landscapes covered by large areas of natural habitat and without a long history of intense human modification. However, much of Europe, consists of human-dominated...

Data from: Evolution at two time frames: polymorphisms from an ancient singular divergence event fuel contemporary parallel evolution

Steven M. Van Belleghem, Carl Vangestel, Katrien De Wolf, Zoë De Corte, Markus Möst, Pasi Rastas, Luc De Meester & Frederik Hendrickx
When environments change, populations may adapt surprisingly fast, repeatedly and even at microgeographic scales. There is increasing evidence that such cases of rapid parallel evolution are fueled by standing genetic variation, but the source of this genetic variation remains poorly understood. In the saltmarsh beetle Pogonus chalceus, short-winged ‘tidal’ and long-winged ‘seasonal’ ecotypes have diverged in response to contrasting hydrological regimes and can be repeatedly found along the Atlantic European coast. By analyzing genomic variation...

Data from: Development of G: a test in an amphibious fish

Joseph M. Styga, Thomas M. Houslay, Alastair J. Wilson & Ryan L. Earley
Heritable variation in, and genetic correlations among, traits determine the response of multivariate phenotypes to natural selection. However, as traits develop over ontogeny, patterns of genetic (co)variation and integration captured by the G matrix may also change. Despite this, few studies have investigated how genetic parameters underpinning multivariate phenotypes change as animals pass through major life history stages. Here, using a self-fertilizing hermaphroditic fish species, mangrove rivulus (Kryptolebias marmoratus), we test the hypothesis that G...

A time-series of strains in response to wind measured on 19 trees in Danum Valley, Malaysia

Toby Jackson
Strain data measured on the trunks of 19 trees in the Danum Valley, Malaysia. It also contains wind speed data measured using anemometers attached to emergent trees nearby. This data can be used to extract the fundamental swaying frequencies of these trees, and to quantify the relationship between wind speed and bending strain and so estimate wind damage risk. This data would be useful for anyone studying the interaction between wind and trees. The tallest...

Correlated and geographically predictable Neanderthal and Denisovan legacies are difficult to reconcile with a simple model based on inter-breeding.

William Amos
Although the presence of archaic hominin legacies in humans is taken for granted, little attention has been given as to how the data fit with how humans colonised the world. Here I show that Neanderthal and Denisovan legacies are strongly correlated and that, like heterozygosity, distance from Africa predicts legacy size. Simulations confirm that, once created, legacy size is extremely stable: it may reduce through admixture with lower legacy populations but cannot increase detectably through...

Data from: Macronutrient intake and simulated infection threat independently affect life history traits of male decorated crickets

Kristin Duffield, Kylie Hampton, Thomas Houslay, James Rapkin, John Hunt, Ben Sadd & Scott Sakaluk
Nutritional geometry has advanced our understanding of how macronutrients (e.g., proteins and carbohydrates) influence the expression of life history traits and their corresponding trade-offs. For example, recent work has revealed that reproduction and immune function in male decorated crickets are optimized at very different protein:carbohydrate (P:C) dietary ratios. However, it is unclear how an individual’s macronutrient intake interacts with its perceived infection status to determine investment in reproduction or other key life history traits. Here,...

An interpolated biogeographic framework for tropical Africa using plant species distributions and the physical environment

Cicely Marshall, Jan Wieringa & William Hawthorne
Aim: Existing phytogeographic frameworks for tropical Africa lack either spatial completeness, unit definitions smaller than the regional scale, or a quantitative approach. We investigate whether physical environmental variables can be used to interpolate floristically defined vegetation units, presenting an interpolated, hierarchical, quantitative phytogeographic framework for tropical Africa, which is compared to previously defined regions. Location: Tropical mainland Africa 24°N to 24°S. Taxon: 31,046 vascular plant species and infraspecific taxa. Methods: We calculate a betasim dissimilarity...

Max Weber and Anglophone Historiography

Richard Bourke
The distinguished ancient historian Moses Finley is reported to have planned at the end of his life to re-read the writings of Max Weber, half a century after he first encountered his corpus. This level of engagement is surely exceptional among anglophone historians. It is a notorious fact that, beginning with R. H. Tawney, historians in Britain and the United States have subjected Weber’s work to skewed interpretations or familiarised themselves with only a fraction...

The percentage of total agricultural area under maize, rice, wheat, vegetables, pulses and fruit production, by country, subject to water scarcity in 2050 as estimated from a multi-model ensemble

N. Fitton, P. Alexander, N. Arnell, B. Bajzelj, K. Calvin, J. Doelman, J.S. Gerber, P. Havlik, T. Hasegawa, M. Herrero, T. Krisztin, H. Van Meijl, T. Powell, R. Sands, E. Stehfest, P.C. West & P. Smith
Projections of global changes in water scarcity with the current extent of maize, rice, wheat, vegetables, pulses and fruit production commodities were combined to identify the potential country level vulnerabilities of cropland land to water scarcity in 2050. The data relate to an analysis of the impact changes in water availability will have on maize, rice, wheat, vegetables, pulses and fruit production commodities availability in 2050.

Data from: BCI training to move a virtual hand reduces phantom limb pain: a randomized crossover trial

Takufumi Yanagisawa, Ryohei Fukuma, Ben Seymour, Masataka Tanaka, Koichi Hosomi, Okito Yamashita, Haruhiko Kishima, Yukiyasu Kamitani & Youichi Saitoh
Objective: To determine whether training with a brain–computer interface (BCI) to control an image of a phantom hand, which moves based on cortical currents estimated from magnetoencephalographic signals, reduces phantom limb pain. Methods: Twelve patients with chronic phantom limb pain of the upper limb due to amputation or brachial plexus root avulsion participated in a randomized single-blinded crossover trial. Patients were trained to move the virtual hand image controlled by the BCI with a real...

Populations of high-value predators reflect the traits of their prey dataset

Cayetano Gutierrez Canovas, Thomas Worthington, David Noble, Daniel Perkins, Ian Vaughan, Guy Woodward, Steve Ormerod & Isabelle Durance
The extent to which prey traits combine to influence the abundance of predators is still poorly understood, particularly for mixed predators in sympatry and in aquatic ecosystems. In this study, we characterise prey use and distribution in iconic bird (grey wagtails and Eurasian dippers) and fish species (brown trout and Atlantic salmon) to assess whether prey traits could predict populations of these four riverine predators. Specifically, we hypothesised that: (i) Prey key traits would predict...

Towards genetic modification of plant-parasitic nematodes: Delivery of macromolecules to male germlines and expression of exogenous mRNA in second stage juveniles

Sebastian Eves-Van Den Akker, Olaf Kranse & Helen Beasley
Plant-parasitic nematodes are a current and future threat to food security, causing an estimated 100 billion USD in crop losses each year. The most problematic are the obligate sedentary endoparasites (primarily root knot nematodes and cyst nematodes). Progress in understanding their biology is held back by a lack of tools for functional genetics. Forward genetics is largely restricted to studies of natural variation in populations, and reverse genetics is entirely reliant on RNA interference. There...

Integrating stakeholders’ perspectives and spatial modelling to develop scenarios of future land use and land cover change in northern Tanzania

Rebecca Kariuki, Linus Munishi, Colin Courtney-Mustaphi, Claudia Capitani, Anna Shoemaker, Paul Lane & Rob Marchant
Rapid rates of land use and land cover change (LULCC) in eastern Africa and limited instances of genuinely equal partnerships involving scientists, communities and decision makers challenge the development of robust pathways toward future environmental and socioeconomic sustainability. We use a participatory modelling tool, Kesho, to assess the biophysical, socioeconomic, cultural and governance factors that influenced past (1959-1999) and present (2000-2018) LULCC in northern Tanzania and to simulate four scenarios of land cover change to...

Supplemental material for: NINDS consensus diagnostic criteria for Traumatic Encephalopathy Syndrome

Douglas Katz, Charles Bernick, David Dodick, Jesse Mez, Megan Mariani, Charles Adler, Michael Alosco, Laura Balcer, Sarah Banks, William Barr, David Brody, Robert Cantu, Kristen Dams-O'Connor, Yonas Geda, Barry Jordan, Thomas McAllister, Elaine Peskind, Ronald Petersen, Jennifer Wether, Ross Zafonte, Eimear Foley, Debra Babcock, Walter Koroshetz, Ann McKee, Martha Shenton … & Robert Stern
Objective: To develop evidence-informed, expert consensus research diagnostic criteria for Traumatic Encephalopathy Syndrome (TES), the clinical disorder associated with neuropathologically diagnosed Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE). Methods: A panel of 20 expert clinician-scientists in neurology, neuropsychology, psychiatry, neurosurgery, and physical medicine and rehabilitation, from 11 academic institutions, participated in a modified Delphi procedure to achieve consensus, initiated at the First NINDS Consensus Workshop to Define the Diagnostic Criteria for TES, April, 2019. Prior to consensus, panelists...

Data from: A molecular phylogeny of forktail damselflies (genus Ischnura) reveals a dynamic macroevolutionary history of female colour polymorphisms

Rachel Blow, Beatriz Willink & Erik Svensson
Colour polymorphisms are popular study systems among biologists interested in evolutionary dynamics, genomics, sexual selection and sexual conflict. In many damselflies, such as in the globally distributed genus Ischnura (forktails), female colour polymorphisms occur in some species. Female-polymorphic species contain two or three female morphs, one of which is male-coloured (androchrome or male mimic) and co-exists with sexually dimorphic (heterochrome) females. These female colour polymorphisms are considered to be maintained by frequency-dependent sexual conflict, but...

Fish avoid visually noisy environments where prey targeting is reduced

Joanna Attwell, Christos Ioannou, Chris Reid & James Herbert-Read
The environment contains different forms of ecological no­­­ise that can reduce the ability of animals to detect information. Here we ask whether animals adapt their behaviour to either exploit or avoid areas of their environment with increased dynamic visual noise. Three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) were immersed into environments with a simulated form of naturally occurring visual noise – moving light bands that form on underwater substrates caused by the refraction of light through surface waves....

Separating planetary reflex Doppler shifts from stellar variability in the wavelength domain (code)

Andrew Collier Cameron, E. B. Ford, S. Shahaf & A. Mortier

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