474 Works

Data from: The plastic fly: the effect of sustained fluctuations in adult food supply on life history traits

Joost Van Den Heuvel, Jelle Zandveld, Maarten Mulder, Paul M. Brakefield, Thomas B. L. Kirkwood, Daryl P. Shanley & Bas J. Zwaan
Many adult traits in Drosophila melanogaster show phenotypic plasticity, and the effects of diet on traits such as lifespan and reproduction are well explored. Although plasticity in response to food is still present in older flies, it is unknown how sustained environmental variation affects life-history traits. Here, we explore how such life-long fluctuations of food supply affect weight and survival in groups of flies and affect weight, survival and reproduction in individual flies. In both...

Data from: Interspecific signalling between mutualists: food-thieving drongos use a cooperative sentinel call to manipulate foraging partners

Bruce D. Baigrie, Alex M. Thomspon & Tom P. Flower
Interspecific communication is common in nature, particularly between mutualists. However, whether signals evolved for communication with other species, or are in fact conspecific signals eavesdropped upon by partners, is often unclear. Fork-tailed drongos (Dicrurus adsimilis) associate with mixed-species groups and often produce true alarms at predators, whereupon associating species flee to cover, but also false alarms to steal associating species' food (kleptoparasitism). Despite such deception, associating species respond to drongo non-alarm calls by increasing their...

Data from: Oxidative status and social dominance in a wild cooperative breeder

Dominic L. Cram, Jonathan D. Blount & Andrew J. Young
1. Oxidative stress has been proposed as a key mediator of life-history trade-offs, yet the social factors that affect patterns of oxidative states amongst individuals in animal societies remain virtually unexplored. 2. This is important, as rank-related differences in reproductive effort in many social species have the potential to generate, or indeed arise from, differences in oxidative state across dominance classes. 3. Here, we examine rank-related variation in oxidative states before and after a lengthy...

Data from: Amyloid precursor protein translation is regulated by a 3'UTR guanine quadruplex

Ezekiel Crenshaw, Brian P. Leung, Chun Kit Kwok, Michal Sharoni, Kalee Olson, Neeraj P. Sebastian, Sara Ansaloni, Reinhard Schweitzer-Stenner, Michael R. Akins, Philip C. Bevilacqua & Aleister J. Saunders
A central event in Alzheimer’s disease is the accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) peptides generated by the proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). APP overexpression leads to increased Aβ generation and Alzheimer’s disease in humans and altered neuronal migration and increased long term depression in mice. Conversely, reduction of APP expression results in decreased Aβ levels in mice as well as impaired learning and memory and decreased numbers of dendritic spines. Together these...

Data from: Experimental evidence for phonemic contrasts in a nonhuman vocal system

Sabrina Engesser, Jodie M. S. Crane, James L. Savage, Andrew F. Russell & Simon W. Townsend
The ability to generate new meaning by rearranging combinations of meaningless sounds is a fundamental component of language. Although animal vocalizations often comprise combinations of meaningless acoustic elements, evidence that rearranging such combinations generates functionally distinct meaning is lacking. Here, we provide evidence for this basic ability in calls of the chestnut-crowned babbler (Pomatostomus ruficeps), a highly cooperative bird of the Australian arid zone. Using acoustic analyses, natural observations, and a series of controlled playback...

Data from: Acoustic identification of Mexican bats based on taxonomic and ecological constraints on call design

Veronica Zamora-Gutierrez, Celia Lopez-Gonzalez, M. Cristina MacSwiney Gonzalez, Brock Fenton, Gareth Jones, Elisabeth K. V. Kalko, Sebastien J. Puechmaille, Vassilios Stathopoulos & Kate E. Jones
Monitoring global biodiversity is critical for understanding responses to anthropogenic change, but biodiversity monitoring is often biased away from tropical, megadiverse areas that are experiencing more rapid environmental change. Acoustic surveys are increasingly used to monitor biodiversity change, especially for bats as they are important indicator species and most use sound to detect, localise and classify objects. However, using bat acoustic surveys for monitoring poses several challenges, particularly in megadiverse regions. Many species lack reference...

Data from: Formin is associated with left-right asymmetry in the pond snail and the frog

Angus Davison, Gary S. McDowell, Jennifer M. Holden, Harriet F. Johnson, Georgios D. Koutsovoulos, M. Maureen Liu, Paco Hulpiau, Frans Van Roy, Christopher M. Wade, Ruby Banerjee, Fengtang Yang, Satoshi Chiba, John W. Davey, Daniel J. Jackson, Michael Levin & Mark L. Blaxter
While components of the pathway that establishes left-right asymmetry have been identified in diverse animals, from vertebrates to flies, it is striking that the genes involved in the first symmetry-breaking step remain wholly unknown in the most obviously chiral animals, the gastropod snails. Previously, research on snails was used to show that left-right signaling of Nodal, downstream of symmetry breaking, may be an ancestral feature of the Bilateria. Here, we report that a disabling mutation...

Data from: Symbiont strain is the main determinant of variation in Wolbachia-mediated protection against viruses across Drosophila species

Julien Martinez, Ignacio Tolosana, Suzan Ok, Sophie Smith, Kiana Snoeck, Jonathan P. Day, Frank Jiggins & Francis M. Jiggins
Wolbachia is a common heritable bacterial symbiont in insects. Its evolutionary success lies in the diverse phenotypic effects it has on its hosts coupled to its propensity to move between host species over evolutionary timescales. In a survey of natural host–symbiont associations in a range of Drosophila species, we found that 10 of 16 Wolbachia strains protected their hosts against viral infection. By moving Wolbachia strains between host species, we found that the symbiont genome...

Data from: Widespread paleopolyploidy, gene tree conflict, and recalcitrant relationships among the carnivorous Caryophyllales

Joseph F. Walker, Ya Yang, Moore J. Michael, Jessica Mikenas, Alfonso Timoneda, Samuel Frasier Brockington, Stephen Andrew Smith & Michael J. Moore
PREMISE OF STUDY: The carnivorous members of the large, hyperdiverse Caryophyllales (e.g., Venus flytrap, sundews, and Nepenthes pitcher plants) represent perhaps the oldest and most diverse lineage of carnivorous plants. However, despite numerous studies seeking to elucidate their evolutionary relationships, the early-diverging relationships remain unresolved. METHODS: To explore the utility of phylogenomic data sets for resolving relationships among the carnivorous Caryophyllales, we sequenced 10 transcriptomes, including all the carnivorous genera except those in the rare...

Data from: Exploring evolutionary relationships across the genome using topology weighting

Simon Henry Martin & Steven M. Van Belleghem
We introduce the concept of topology weighting, a method for quantifying relationships between taxa that are not necessarily monophyletic, and visualising how these relationships change across the genome. A given set of taxa can be related in a limited number of ways, but if each taxon is represented by multiple sequences, the number of possible topologies becomes very large. Topology weighting reduces this complexity by quantifying the contribution of each 'taxon topology' to the full...

Data from: Seed dispersers help plants to escape global warming

Juan P. González-Varo, José V. López-Bao & José Guitián
Plants are shifting their ranges towards higher elevations in response to global warming, yet such shifts are occurring at a rate slower than is needed to keep pace with a rapidly changing climate. There is, however, an almost complete lack of knowledge on seed dispersal across altitude, a key process to understand what constrains climate-driven range shifts. Here, we report the first direct empirical evidence on altitudinal seed dispersal mediated by two common frugivorous mammals:...

Data from: No evidence for maintenance of a sympatric Heliconius species barrier by chromosomal inversions

John W. Davey, Sarah L. Barker, Pasi M. Rastas, Ana Pinharanda, Simon H. Martin, Richard Durbin, W. Owen McMillan, Richard M. Merrill & Chris D. Jiggins
Mechanisms that suppress recombination are known to help maintain species barriers by preventing the breakup of coadapted gene combinations. The sympatric butterfly species Heliconius melpomene and Heliconius cydno are separated by many strong barriers, but the species still hybridize infrequently in the wild, and around 40% of the genome is influenced by introgression. We tested the hypothesis that genetic barriers between the species are maintained by inversions or other mechanisms that reduce between-species recombination rate....

Data from: Estimates of observer expertise improve species distributions from citizen science data

Alison Johnston, Daniel Fink, Wesley M Hochachka & Steve Kelling
1. Citizen science data are increasingly making valuable contributions to ecological studies. However, many citizen science surveys are also designed to encourage wide participation and therefore the participants have a range of natural history expertise, leading to variation and potentially bias in the data. 2. We assessed a recently proposed measure of observer expertise, calculated based on the average numbers of species recorded by observers. We investigated if this observer expertise score is associated with...

Data from: Global biogeographic patterns in bipolar moss species

Elisabeth Machteld Biersma, Jennifer A. Jackson, Jaakko Hyvonen, Satu Koskinen, Katrin Linse, Howard Griffiths & Peter Convey
A bipolar disjunction is an extreme, yet common, biogeographic pattern in non-vascular plants, yet its underlying mechanisms (vicariance or long-distance dispersal), origin and timing remain poorly understood. Here, combining a large-scale population dataset and multiple dating analyses, we examine the biogeography of four bipolar Polytrichales mosses, common to the Holarctic (temperate and polar Northern Hemisphere regions) and the Antarctic region (Antarctic, sub-Antarctic, southern South America) and other Southern Hemisphere (SH) regions. Our data reveal contrasting...

Data from: Vestigial singing behaviour persists after the evolutionary loss of song in crickets

Will T. Schneider, Christian Rutz, Berthold Hedwig & Nathan W. Bailey
The evolutionary loss of sexual traits is widely predicted. Because sexual signals can arise from the coupling of specialised motor activity with morphological structures, disruption to a single component could lead to overall loss of function. Opportunities to observe this process and characterise any remaining signal components are rare, but could provide insight into the mechanisms, indirect costs, and evolutionary consequences of signal loss. We investigated the recent evolutionary loss of a long-range acoustic sexual...

Data from: Simplifying understory complexity in oil palm plantations is associated with a reduction in the density of a cleptoparasitic spider, Argyrodes miniaceus (Araneae: Theridiidae), in host (Araneae: Nephilinae) webs

Dakota M. Spear, William A. Foster, Andreas Dwi Advento, Mohammad Naim, Jean-Pierre Caliman, Sarah H. Luke, Jake L. Snaddon, Sudharto Ps & Edgar C. Turner
Expansion of oil palm agriculture is currently one of the main drivers of habitat modification in Southeast Asia. Habitat modification can have significant effects on biodiversity, ecosystem function, and interactions between species by altering species abundances or the available resources in an ecosystem. Increasing complexity within modified habitats has the potential to maintain biodiversity and preserve species interactions. We investigated trophic interactions between Argyrodes miniaceus, a cleptoparasitic spider, and its Nephila spp. spider hosts in...

Data from: Small carbonaceous fossils (SCFs) from the Terreneuvian (lower Cambrian) of Baltica

Ben J. Slater, Thomas HP Harvey, Nicholas J. Butterfield & Thomas H. P. Harvey
We describe a new assemblage of small carbonaceous fossils (SCFs) from diagenetically minimally altered clays and siltstones of Terreneuvian age from the Lontova and Voosi formations of Estonia, Lithuania and Russia. This is the first detailed account of an SCF assemblage from the Terreneuvian, and includes a number of previously undocumented Cambrian organisms. Recognisably bilaterian-derived SCFs include abundant protoconodonts (total-group Chaetognatha), and distinctive cuticular spines of scalidophoran worms. Alongside these metazoan remains are a range...

Data from: Explaining European fungal fruiting phenology with climate variability

Carrie Andrew, Einar Heegaard, Klaus Høiland, Beatrice Senn-Irlet, Thomas W. Kuyper, Irmgard Krisai-Greilhuber, Paul M. Kirk, Jacob Heilmann-Clausen, Alan C. Gange, Simon Egli, Claus Bässler, Ulf Büntgen, Lynne Boddy & Håvard Kauserud
Here we assess the impact of geographically dependent (latitude, longitude and altitude) changes in bioclimatic (temperature, precipitation and primary productivity) variability on fungal fruiting phenology across Europe. Two main nutritional guilds of fungi, saprotrophic and ectomycorrhizal, were further separated into spring and autumn fruiters. We used a path‐analysis to investigate how biogeographic patterns in fungal fruiting phenology coincided with seasonal changes in climate and primary production. Across central to northern Europe, mean fruiting varied by...

Data from: Release from intralocus sexual conflict? Evolved loss of a male sexual trait demasculinises female gene expression

Jack G. Rayner, Sonia Pascoal & Nathan W. Bailey
The loss of sexual ornaments is observed across taxa, and pleiotropic effects of such losses provide an opportunity to gain insight into underlying dynamics of sex-biased gene expression and intralocus sexual conflict (IASC). We investigated this in a Hawaiian field cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus, in which an X-linked genotype (flatwing) feminises males’ wings and eliminates their ability to produce sexually selected songs. We profiled adult gene expression across somatic and reproductive tissues of both sexes. Despite...

Data from: Multi-jawed chaetognaths from the Chengjiang Lagerstätte (Cambrian, Series 2, Stage 3) of Yunnan, China

Degan Shu, Simon Conway Morris, Jian Han, Jennifer F. Hoyal Cuthill, Zhifei Zhang, Meirong Cheng & Hai Huang
Chaetognaths (arrow-worms) are enigmatic in terms of their phylogenetic position, while the existence of Protosagitta spinosa from the Chengjiang Lagerstätte suggests minimal change in their unique bodyplan since at least the early Cambrian. Apart from rare (and sometimes controversial) soft-bodied remains, the fossil record of chaetognaths is otherwise almost entirely dependent on early Palaeozoic phosphatic microfossils, some of which are placed amongst so-called protoconodonts. Fused spine clusters are strikingly similar to the cephalic grasping apparatus...

Data from: Androgens predict parasitism in female meerkats: a new perspective on a classic trade-off

Kendra N. Smyth, Lydia K. Greene, Tim Clutton-Brock & Christine M. Drea
The immunocompetence handicap hypothesis posits that androgens in males can be a ‘double-edged sword’, actively promoting reproductive success, while also negatively impacting health. Because there can be both substantial androgen concentrations in females and significant androgenic variation among them, particularly in species portraying female social dominance over males or intense female–female competition, androgens might also play a role in mediating female health and fitness. We examined this hypothesis in the meerkat (Suricata suricatta), a cooperatively...

Data from: Interacting networks of resistance, virulence and core machinery genes identified by genome-wide epistasis analysis

Marcin J. Skwark, Nicholas J. Croucher, Santeri Puranen, Claire Chewapreecha, Maiju Pesonen, Ying Ying Xu, Paul Turner, Simon R. Harris, Stephen B. Beres, James M. Musser, Julian Parkhill, Stephen D. Bentley, Erik Aurell & Jukka Corander
Recent advances in the scale and diversity of population genomic datasets for bacteria now provide the potential for genome-wide patterns of co-evolution to be studied at the resolution of individual bases. Here we describe a new statistical method, genomeDCA, which uses recent advances in computational structural biology to identify the polymorphic loci under the strongest co-evolutionary pressures. We apply genomeDCA to two large population data sets representing the major human pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) and...

Data from: Sexual selection and population divergence II. divergence in different sexual traits and signal modalities in field crickets (Teleogryllus oceanicus)

Sonia Pascoal, Magdalena Mendrok, Alastair J. Wilson, John Hunt & Nathan W. Bailey
Sexual selection can target many different types of traits. However, the relative influence of different sexually-selected traits during evolutionary divergence is poorly understood. We used the field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus to quantify and compare how five traits from each of three sexual signal modalities and components diverge among allopatric populations: male advertisement song, cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profiles and forewing morphology. Population divergence was unexpectedly consistent: we estimated the among-population (genetic) variance-covariance matrix, D, for all...

Data from: Novel opsin gene variation in large-bodied, diurnal lemurs

Rachel L. Jacobs, Tammie S. MacFie, Amanda N. Spriggs, Andrea L. Baden, Toni Lyn Morelli, Mitchell T. Irwin, Richard R. Lawler, Jennifer Pastorini, Mireya Mayor, Runhua Lei, Ryan Culligan, Melissa T. R. Hawkins, Peter M. Kappeler, Patricia C. Wright, Edward E. Louis, Nicholas I. Mundy & Brenda J. Bradley
Some primate populations include both trichromatic and dichromatic (red–green colour blind) individuals due to allelic variation at the X-linked opsin locus. This polymorphic trichromacy is well described in day-active New World monkeys. Less is known about colour vision in Malagasy lemurs, but, unlike New World monkeys, only some day-active lemurs are polymorphic, while others are dichromatic. The evolutionary pressures underlying these differences in lemurs are unknown, but aspects of species ecology, including variation in activity...

Data from: Temporal shifts and temperature sensitivity of avian spring migratory phenology: a phylogenetic meta-analysis

Takuji Usui, Stuart H. M. Butchart & Albert B. Phillimore
There are wide reports of advances in the timing of spring migration of birds over time and in relation to rising temperatures, though phenological responses vary substantially within and among species. An understanding of the ecological, life-history and geographic variables that predict this intra- and interspecific variation can guide our projections of how populations and species are likely to respond to future climate change. Here, we conduct phylogenetic meta-analyses addressing slope estimates of the timing...

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  • University of Cambridge
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