566 Works

Data from: Putting vascular epiphytes on the traits map

Peter Hietz, Katrin Wagner, Flavio Nunes Ramos, Juliano Sarmento Cabral, Gerhard Zotz, Claudia Agudelo, Ana Maria Benavides, Manuel Cach Pérez, Catherine Cardelús, Nahelli Chilpa Galván, Lucas Costa, Rodolfo De Paula Oliveiras, Helena Einzmann, Rafael Farias, Valeria Guzmán Jacob, Michael Kessler, Catherine Kirby, Holger Kreft, Thorsten Krömer, Jamie Males, Samuel Monsalve Correa, Maria Moreno, Gunnar Petter, Casandra Reyes, Alfredo Saldaña … & Carrie Woods
Epiphyte trait data for the paper Hietz et al. 2021 Putting vascular epiphytes on the traits map. Journal of Ecology Plant functional traits impact the fitness and environmental niche of plants. Major plant functional types have been characterized by their trait spectrum, and the environmental and phylogenetic imprints on traits have advanced several ecological fields. Yet very few trait data on epiphytes, which represent almost 10% of vascular plants, are available. We collated >80,000 mostly...

Data from: How do predators generalize warning signals in simple and complex prey communities? Insights from a videogame

Monica Arias, John W. Davey, Simon Martin, Chris Jiggins, Nicola Nadeau, Mathieu Joron & Violaine Llaurens
The persistence of distinct warning signals within and between sympatric mimetic communities is a puzzling evolutionary question because selection favours convergence of colour patterns among toxic species. Such convergence is partly shaped by predators’ reaction to similar but not identical stimulus, i.e. generalization behaviour. And generalisation by predators is likely to be shaped by the diversity of local prey. However, studying generalization behaviour is generally limited to simple variations of prey colour patterns. Here, we...

Data from: Does evolutionary history correlate with contemporary extinction risk by influencing range size dynamics?

Andrew J. Tanentzap, Javier Igea, Matthew G. Johnston & Matthew J. Larcombe
Extinction threatens many species, yet is predicted by few factors across the plant Tree of Life (ToL). Taxon age is one factor that may associate with extinction if occupancy of geographic and adaptive zones varies with time, but evidence for such an association has been equivocal. Age-dependent occupancy can also influence diversification rates and thus extinction risk where new taxa have small range and population sizes. To test how age, diversification, and range size were...

Polysome fractionation analysis reveals features important for human nonsense-mediated mRNA decay

James Lloyd, Courtney French & Steven Brenner
Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is a translation-dependent mRNA surveillance pathway that eliminates transcripts with premature termination codons. Several studies have tried defined the features governing which transcripts are targeted to NMD. However, these approaches often rely on inhibiting core NMD factors, which often have roles in non-NMD processes within the cell. Based on reports that NMD-targeted transcripts are often bound by a single ribosome, we analyzed RNA-Seq data from a polysome fractionation experiment (TrIP-Seq) to...

Temporal Human Pressure Index

Jonas Geldmann, Lucas Joppa & Neil D. Burgess
It is widely accepted that the main driver of the observed decline in biological diversity is increasing human pressure on Earth’s ecosystems. However, the spatial patterns of change in human pressure and their relation to conservation efforts are less well known. We developed a spatially and temporally explicit map of global change in human pressure over two decades between 1990 and 2010 at a resolution of 10 km2. We evaluated 22 spatial data sets representing...

Quantifying the structure and dynamics of fish shoals under predation threat in three-dimensions

Maksym Romenskyy, James Herbert-Read, Christol Ioannou, Alex Szorkovszky, Ashley Ward & David Sumpter
Detailed quantifications of how predators and their grouping prey interact in three dimensions (3D) remain rare. Here we record the structure and dynamics of fish shoals (Pseudomugil signifer) in 3D both with and without live predators (Philypnodon grandiceps) under controlled laboratory conditions. Shoals adopted two distinct types of shoal structure; ‘sphere-like’ geometries at depth, and flat ‘carpet-like’ structures at the water’s surface, with shoals becoming more compact in both horizontal and vertical planes in the...

Data from: Why do zoos attract crows? A comparative study from Europe and Asia

László Kövér, Szabolcs Lengyel, Makiko Takenaka, Alice Kirchmeir, Florian Uhl, Rachel Miller & Christine Schwab
Crows have successfully colonized many cities and urban zoos have been important in this process. To evaluate why zoos attract crows, we quantified crow numbers and behaviour in three zoos in Europe (Debrecen, Edinburgh, Vienna) and one in Asia (Sapporo). Data were collected in 445 surveys over 297 days in summer 2014 and winter 2014-15. We found that crow numbers were highest in Vienna, intermediate in Debrecen and Edinburgh and lowest in Sapporo, increased significantly...

Data from: Comparative phylogeography of three host sea anemones in the Indo-Pacific

Pablo Saenz-Agudelo, Madeleine Emms, Emily Giles, Remy Gatins, Gerrit Nanninga, Anna Scott, Jean Paul Hobbs, Ashley Frisch, Suzanne Mills, Ricardo Beldade & Michael Berumen
Aim The mutualistic relationship between anemones and anemonefishes is one of the most iconic examples of symbiosis. However, while anemonefishes have been extensively studied in terms of genetic connectivity, such information is lacking entirely for host sea anemones. Here, we provide the first information on the broad-scale population structure and phylogeographic patterns of three species of host sea anemone, Heteractis magnifica, Stichodactyla mertensii, and Entacmaea quadricolor. We evaluate if there is concordance in genetic structure...

Maternal predation risk increases offspring’s exploration but does not affect schooling behavior

Silvia Cattelan, James Herbert-Read, Paolo Panizzon, Alessandro Devigili, Matteo Griggio, Andrea Pilastro & Chiara Morosinotto
The environment that parents experience can influence their reproductive output and their offspring’s fitness via parental effects. Perceived predation risk can affect both parent and offspring phenotype, but it remains unclear to what extent offspring behavioral traits are affected when the mother is exposed to predation risk. This is particularly unclear in live-bearing species where maternal effects could occur during embryogenesis. Here, using a half-sib design to control for paternal effects, we experimentally exposed females...

Data from: Prey speed influences the speed and structure of the raptorial strike of a ‘sit-and-wait’ predator

Sergio Rossoni & Jeremy Niven
Predators must often employ flexible strategies to capture prey. Particular attention has been given to the strategies of visual predators that actively pursue their prey, but sit-and-wait predators have been largely overlooked, their strategies often characterised as stereotyped. Praying mantids are primarily sit-and-wait predators that often employ crypsis to catch their prey using a raptorial strike produced by their highly modified forelimbs. Here we show that the raptorial strike of the Madagascan marbled mantis (Polyspilota...

Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination against bovine tuberculosis: Is Perfect the Enemy of Good?

S. Srinivasan, V. Kapur, A. Conlan, L. Easterling, C. Herrera, P. Dandapat, M. Veerasami, G. Ameni, N. Jindal, J. Wood, N. Juleff, D. Bakker & K. Vordermeier
More than 50 million cattle are likely exposed to bovine tuberculosis (bTB) worldwide, highlighting a need for vaccination in regions where bTB is endemic and test-and-slaughter approaches are unfeasible. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) was first evaluated as a vaccine in cattle even before its widespread use in humans, yet its efficacy in cattle remains poorly understood. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis on the efficacy of BCG against bTB challenge in cattle, which demonstrated a...

Effects of BCG vaccination against Bovine Tuberculosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis Date

V. Srikrishnan, A. Conlan, L. Easterling, C. Herrara, P. Dandapat, M. Veerasami, G. Ameni, D. Bakker, M. Vordermeier & V. Kapur
Despite the effective control of Bovine Tuberculosis (bTB) in many countries using test-and-slaughter, more than 50 million cattle are still likely to be infected worldwide, highlighting the urgent need for alternative interventions such as vaccines to reduce disease burden and control spread of bTB. Vaccination may be particularly important in regions where the disease is endemic, and test-and-slaughter is neither practical nor acceptable socio-economically. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has been in experimental use in cattle for...

Microclimate proxy measurements from a logging gradient in Malaysian Borneo

B. Blonder, S. Both, D.A. Coomes, D.M.O. Elias, T. Jucker, J. Kvasnica, N. Majalap, Y.S. Malhi, T. Riutta & M. Svátek
Temperatures recorded 5cm above the forest floor in a gridded design (1 to 13m distance) within three, 1 hectare forest plots in Sabah, Borneo. The dataset also includes air temperature data from a nearby weather station at the same temporal resolution, and spatially-interpolated measurements of topography and canopy structure in each forest plot at a 1m resolution. iButton temperature measurement 5cm above the forest floor in gridded design (1-13m distance) within three 1-ha forest plots...

Drosophila C virus genomes, Cambridge (2017)

F.M. Jiggins & B. Longdon
The resource consists of genome sequence data for the Drosophila C virus that has been serially passaged through different species of Drosophila in the laboratory. The genomes were sequenced and aligned to the reference genome. The frequency of variants at both biallelic and triallelic sites was then calculated. We also generated a phylogeny of the species involved using published data. This data was generated to understand how viruses adapt to new host species by Francis...

Coastal Biodiversity and Ecosystem Service Sustainability (CBESS) sedimentation and erosion monitoring over saltmarsh and mudflat habitats

T. Spencer, B.R. Evans & I. Möller
The dataset details surface elevation and sedimentation measurements across five UK saltmarsh sites. Two of the sites were in Morecambe Bay, North West England and three of the sites were in Essex, South East England, each of these sites consisted of a saltmarsh area and adjacent mudflat area. Rod Sedimentation-Erosion Tables (rSETs) were installed at different distances from the vegetated margin. Three rSETs were deployed for each Essex site and four for the Morecambe sites....

Above-ground carbon density derived from LiDAR data over oil palm plantations in Malaysian Borneo, 2014

M.H. Nunes, R.M. Ewers, E.C. Turner & D.A. Coomes
This data set provides above-ground carbon density derived from LiDAR data over oil palm plantations in the Stability of Altered Forest Ecosystems (SAFE) project site located in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo in 2014. This includes the number of trees in plots and the average forest canopy per hectare at different heights. Data were collected during a project which was included in the NERC Human-modified tropical forest (HMTF) Programme.

Our Fluid Nation: The Impact of Fluid Dynamics in the UK

Matthew Juniper, Catherine Noakes, Steven Tobias, Claire Savy & John Lincoln
Fluid dynamics is a major UK industrial and research strength, and is critical to many applications. Fluid dynamics is an enabling technology for industry sectors as diverse as transport, healthcare technologies, marine and energy. It plays a key role in the most important challenges facing today’s society, including the drive to net zero, understanding disease and predicting weather and climate. For the first time, this report evaluates the direct contribution that fluid dynamics makes to...

Measurements of tree motion in the wind collated from multiple studies undertaken in the UK, Puerto Rico and Australia between 1987-2015

T. Jackson, A. Wellpott, S. Van Bloem, A. Achim, K. James & B. Gardiner
This dataset contains high resolution measurements of tree motion in response to wind at six sites. The data was collected using sensors mounted directly onto the tree trunk. The sites are: Rivox, Kershope, Kyloe and Clocaenog in the UK. Guanica in Puerto Rico and six open-grown trees from Australia.

Data from: Dispersal decreases survival but increases reproductive opportunities for subordinates in a cooperative breeder

Nino Maag, Maria Paniw, Gabriele Cozzi, Marta Manser, Tim Clutton-Brock & Arpat Ozgul
In most socially structured populations, the formation of new groups depends on the survival and reproduction of dispersing individuals. Quantifying vital rates in dispersers, however, is difficult due to logistic challenges of following wide-ranging animals. Here, using data from free-ranging meerkats (Suricata suricatta), we estimated survival and reproduction of dispersing and established resident females. Meerkat groups consist of a dominant pair and several subordinate helpers. Female helpers are evicted from their resident groups by the...

Experimental evolution of a more restrained clutch size when filial cannibalism is prevented in burying beetles Nicrophorus vespilloides

Darren Rebar, Chay Halliwell, Rachel Kemp & Rebecca Kilner
The over-production of offspring is commonly associated with high hatching failure and a mechanism for dispensing with surplus young. We used experimental evolution of burying beetle populations Nicrophorus vespilloides to determine causality in these correlations. We asked: does eliminating the mechanism for killing ‘spare’ offspring cause the evolution of a more restrained clutch size, and consequently select for reduced hatching failure? N. vespilloides typically over-produces eggs but kills 1st instar larvae through partial filial cannibalism...

Supplemental material: Astrocyte biomarkers in Alzheimer’s disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Bruna Bellaver, João Pedro Ferrari-Souza, Lucas Uglione Da Ros, Stephen F. Carter, Elena Rodriguez-Vieitez, Agneta Nordberg, Luc Pellerin, Pedro Rosa-Neto, Douglas Teixeira Leffa & Eduardo R. Zimmer
Objective: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine whether fluid and imaging astrocyte biomarkers are altered in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods: PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched for articles reporting fluid or imaging astrocyte biomarkers in AD. Pooled effect sizes were determined with mean differences (SMD) using the Hedge’s G method with random-effects to determine biomarker performance. Adapted questions from QUADAS-2 were applied for quality assessment. A protocol for this study...

Hurricane disturbance accelerated the thermophilization of a Jamaican montane forest

Edmund V. J. Tanner, Peter Bellingham, John Healey & Kenneth Feeley
Thermophilization – changes in community composition towards greater relative abundances of species associated with warmer environments – has been described for plants and animals in many locations around the world. Disturbances of various kinds have increased rates of thermophilization in temperate sites, and this has been proposed, but not demonstrated, for some tropical environments. In this study, we tested whether disturbance by a Category four hurricane in 1988 (Hurricane Gilbert) increased thermophilization in a Jamaican...

A selective supramolecular photochemical sensor for dopamine

Setu Kasera, Oren A. Scherman, Zarah Walsh & Jesús del Barrio
(2014). A selective supramolecular photochemical sensor for dopamine. Supramolecular Chemistry: Vol. 26, Eighth International Symposium of Macrocyclic and Supramolecular Chemistry (ISMSC-8), pp. 280-285.

Data from: Linked morphological changes during palate evolution in early tetrapods

Charles B. Kimmel, Brian Sidlauskas & Jennifer A. Clack
We examined the shapes and sizes of dermal bones of the palate of selected Palaeozoic tetrapods in order to identify the ancestral states of palatal bone morphologies in the earliest tetrapods, to learn how the composition of the palate varies within and among early tetrapod radiations, and recognize evolutionary correlations among the size and shapes of skeletal elements in this important group of animals. We find that whereas the palatal bones themselves and their arrangements...

Data from: Group structure, kinship, inbreeding risk and habitual female dispersal in plural-breeding mammals

Dieter Lukas & Tim H Clutton-Brock
In most plural breeding mammals, female group members are matrilineal relatives but, in a small number of species, all adult females are immigrants who are seldom closely related to each other. Some explanations of contrasts in female philopatry suggest that these differences are a consequence of variation in resource distribution and feeding competition, while others argue that they reflect variation in the risk of close inbreeding to philopatric females. However, neither explanation has been tested...

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