578 Works

Data from: Prey speed influences the speed and structure of the raptorial strike of a ‘sit-and-wait’ predator

Sergio Rossoni & Jeremy Niven
Predators must often employ flexible strategies to capture prey. Particular attention has been given to the strategies of visual predators that actively pursue their prey, but sit-and-wait predators have been largely overlooked, their strategies often characterised as stereotyped. Praying mantids are primarily sit-and-wait predators that often employ crypsis to catch their prey using a raptorial strike produced by their highly modified forelimbs. Here we show that the raptorial strike of the Madagascan marbled mantis (Polyspilota...

Male mate choice in the Spot-tail shark Carcharhinus sorrah: are males choosy or opportunistic?

Dareen Almojil
Male mate choice has been documented in different taxa including insects, lizards, fish, birds and mammals. However, in sharks, male mate choice is not clearly reported but field observations suggest that it is probable. In this study, I tested for evidence of male mating preference of the spot-tail shark Carcharhinus sorrah towards three female traits that are typically associated with female fecundity, these are: (1) body size, (2) parasite burden, and (3) mean heterozygosity. I...

A relatively higher mutation rate in African humans is the dominant mechanism causing Neanderthals to appear closer to non-Africans, not introgression

Bill Amos
It is widely thought that humans carry genetic legacies due to inter-breeding with Neanderthals, but all methods used to infer legacies ignore recurrent mutations and assume a constant mutation rate. These assumptions cause automatic rejection of a second hypothesis, where a higher mutation rate in Africans caused increased divergence from Neanderthals. Any fair test should strive to treat both hypotheses equally. Here I use mutation spectra, the relative frequencies of different mutating three-base combinations, to...

Hurricane disturbance accelerated the thermophilization of a Jamaican montane forest

Edmund V. J. Tanner, Peter Bellingham, John Healey & Kenneth Feeley
Thermophilization – changes in community composition towards greater relative abundances of species associated with warmer environments – has been described for plants and animals in many locations around the world. Disturbances of various kinds have increased rates of thermophilization in temperate sites, and this has been proposed, but not demonstrated, for some tropical environments. In this study, we tested whether disturbance by a Category four hurricane in 1988 (Hurricane Gilbert) increased thermophilization in a Jamaican...

Experimental evolution of a more restrained clutch size when filial cannibalism is prevented in burying beetles Nicrophorus vespilloides

Darren Rebar, Chay Halliwell, Rachel Kemp & Rebecca Kilner
The over-production of offspring is commonly associated with high hatching failure and a mechanism for dispensing with surplus young. We used experimental evolution of burying beetle populations Nicrophorus vespilloides to determine causality in these correlations. We asked: does eliminating the mechanism for killing ‘spare’ offspring cause the evolution of a more restrained clutch size, and consequently select for reduced hatching failure? N. vespilloides typically over-produces eggs but kills 1st instar larvae through partial filial cannibalism...

Major population splits coincide with episodes of rapid climate change in a forest-dependent bird

Vera-Maria Warmuth, Malcolm Burgess, Marko Mägi, Toni Laaksonen, Andrea Manica, Andreas Nord, Craig Primmer, Glenn-Peter Sætre, Wolfgang Winkel & Hans Ellegren
Climate change influences population demography by altering patterns of gene flow and reproductive isolation. Direct mutation rates offer the possibility for accurate dating on the within-species level but are currently only available for a handful of vertebrate species. Here, we use the first directly estimated mutation rate in birds to study the evolutionary history of pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca). Using a combination of demographic inference and environmental niche modelling, we show that all major population...

Data from: Putting vascular epiphytes on the traits map

Peter Hietz, Katrin Wagner, Flavio Nunes Ramos, Juliano Sarmento Cabral, Gerhard Zotz, Claudia Agudelo, Ana Maria Benavides, Manuel Cach Pérez, Catherine Cardelús, Nahelli Chilpa Galván, Lucas Costa, Rodolfo De Paula Oliveiras, Helena Einzmann, Rafael Farias, Valeria Guzmán Jacob, Michael Kessler, Catherine Kirby, Holger Kreft, Thorsten Krömer, Jamie Males, Samuel Monsalve Correa, Maria Moreno, Gunnar Petter, Casandra Reyes, Alfredo Saldaña … & Carrie Woods
Epiphyte trait data for the paper Hietz et al. 2021 Putting vascular epiphytes on the traits map. Journal of Ecology Plant functional traits impact the fitness and environmental niche of plants. Major plant functional types have been characterized by their trait spectrum, and the environmental and phylogenetic imprints on traits have advanced several ecological fields. Yet very few trait data on epiphytes, which represent almost 10% of vascular plants, are available. We collated >80,000 mostly...

Mapping material use and modelling the embodied carbon in UK construction

Michal Drewniok, Jose M. Cruz Azevedo, Cyrille Dunant & Will Hawkins
The dataset present assumptions and results for the papers "Mapping material use and embodied carbon in the UK construction'' and "Modelling the embodied carbon cost of UK domestic building construction: Today to 2050"

A selective supramolecular photochemical sensor for dopamine

Setu Kasera, Zarah Walsh, Jesús del Barrio & Oren A. Scherman
(2014). A selective supramolecular photochemical sensor for dopamine. Supramolecular Chemistry: Vol. 26, Eighth International Symposium of Macrocyclic and Supramolecular Chemistry (ISMSC-8), pp. 280-285.

AI3SD Video: The Universal Digital Twin - accessing the world of chemistry

Markus Kraft
In my talk I shall present the 'universal digital twin' (UDT) and some of its applications in the realm of chemistry. The UDT is a dynamic knowledge graph and is implemented using technologies from the Semantic Web. It is composed of concepts and instances that are defined using ontologies, and of computational agents that operate on both the concepts and instances to update the dynamic knowledge graph. By construction, it is distributed, supports cross-domain interoperability,...

Data from: Linked morphological changes during palate evolution in early tetrapods

Charles B. Kimmel, Brian Sidlauskas & Jennifer A. Clack
We examined the shapes and sizes of dermal bones of the palate of selected Palaeozoic tetrapods in order to identify the ancestral states of palatal bone morphologies in the earliest tetrapods, to learn how the composition of the palate varies within and among early tetrapod radiations, and recognize evolutionary correlations among the size and shapes of skeletal elements in this important group of animals. We find that whereas the palatal bones themselves and their arrangements...

Data from: Group structure, kinship, inbreeding risk and habitual female dispersal in plural-breeding mammals

Dieter Lukas & Tim H Clutton-Brock
In most plural breeding mammals, female group members are matrilineal relatives but, in a small number of species, all adult females are immigrants who are seldom closely related to each other. Some explanations of contrasts in female philopatry suggest that these differences are a consequence of variation in resource distribution and feeding competition, while others argue that they reflect variation in the risk of close inbreeding to philopatric females. However, neither explanation has been tested...

Data from: Monotreme ossification sequences and the riddle of mammalian skeletal development

Vera Weisbecker
The developmental differences between marsupials, placentals and monotremes are thought to be reflected in differing patterns of postcranial development and diversity. However, developmental polarities remain obscured by the rarity of monotreme data. Here I present the first postcranial ossification sequences of the monotreme echidna and platypus, and compare these with published data from other mammals and amniotes. Strikingly, monotreme stylopodia (humerus, femur) ossify after the more distal zeugopodia (radius/ulna, tibia/fibula), resembling only the European mole...

Data from: Out of the Andes: patterns of diversification in clearwing butterflies

Marianne Elias, Mathieu Joron, Keith Willmott, Vera Kaiser, Karina Silva-Brandão, Carlos Arias, Luz Miryam Gomez Piñeres, Sandra Uribe, Andrew Brower, André Freitas & Chris Jiggins
Global biodiversity peaks in the tropical forests of the Andes, a striking geological feature that has likely been instrumental in generating biodiversity by providing opportunities for both vicariant and ecological speciation. However, the role of these mountains in the diversification of insects, which dominate biodiversity, has been poorly explored using phylogenetic methods. Here we study the role of the Andes in the evolution of a diverse Neotropical insect group, the clearwing butterflies. We used dated...

Data from: Natural selection on a measure of parasite resistance varies across ages and environmental conditions in a wild mammal

Adam D. Hayward, Alastair J. Wilson, Jill G. Pilkington, Tim H. Clutton-Brock, Josephine M. Pemberton & Loeske E. B. Kruuk
Parasites detrimentally affect host fitness, leading to expectations of positive selection on host parasite resistance. However, since immunity is costly, host fitness may be maximized at low, but non-zero, parasite infection intensities. These hypotheses are rarely tested on natural variation in free-living populations. We investigated selection on a measure of host parasite resistance in a naturally-regulated Soay sheep population using a longitudinal data set, and found negative correlations between parasite infection intensity and annual fitness...

Data from: A computational analysis of locomotor anatomy and body mass evolution in Allosauroidea (Dinosauria Theropoda)

Karl T. Bates, Roger B. J. Benson & Peter L. Falkingham
We investigate whether musculoskeletal anatomy and three-dimensional (3-D) body proportions were modified during the evolution of large (>6000 kg) body size in Allosauroidea (Dinosauria Theropoda). Three adaptations for maintaining locomotor performance at large body size, related to muscle leverage, mass, and body proportions, are tested and all are unsupported in this analysis. Predictions from 3-D musculoskeletal models of medium-sized (Allosaurus) and large-bodied (Acrocanthosaurus) allosauroids suggest that muscle leverage scaled close to isometry, well below the...

Data from: Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum

Amy E. Zanne, G. Lopez-Gonzalez, David A. Coomes, Jugo Ilic, Steven Jansen, Simon L. Lewis, Regis B. Miller, Nathan G. Swenson, Michael C. Wiemann & Jerome Chave
Wood performs several essential functions in plants, including mechanically supporting aboveground tissue, storing water and other resources, and transporting sap. Woody tissues are likely to face physiological, structural and defensive trade-offs. How a plant optimizes among these competing functions can have major ecological implications, which have been under-appreciated by ecologists compared to the focus they have given to leaf function. To draw together our current understanding of wood function, we identify and collate data on...

Data from: Wing patterning gene redefines the mimetic history of Heliconius butterflies

Heather M. Hines, Brian A. Counterman, Riccardo Papa, Priscila Albuquerque De Moura, Marcio Z. Cardoso, Mauricio Linares, James Mallet, Robert D. Reed, Chris D. Jiggins, Marcus R. Kronforst, W. Owen McMillan, R. D. Reed, J. Mallet, W. O. McMillan, M. R. Kronforst, H. M. Hines, B. A. Counterman, M. Linares, M. Z. Cardoso & C. D. Jiggins
The mimetic butterflies Heliconius erato and H. melpomene have undergone parallel radiations to form a near-identical patchwork of over 20 different wing pattern races across the Neotropics. Previous molecular phylogenetic work on these radiations has suggested that similar but geographically disjunct color patterns arose multiple times independently in each species. The neutral markers used in these studies, however, can move freely across color pattern boundaries and therefore might not represent the history of the adaptive...

Data from: Exploring the mechanisms underlying a heterozygosity-fitness correlation for canine size in the Antarctic fur seal Arctocephalus gazella

Joseph I Hoffman, Jaume Forcada & William Amos
Although heterozygosity-fitness correlations (HFCs) are widely reported in the literature, most studies use too few markers to allow the proximate mechanisms to be convincingly resolved. Two competing hypotheses have been proposed: the general effects hypothesis, in which marker heterozygosity correlates with genome-wide heterozygosity and hence the inbreeding coefficient f, and the local effects hypothesis, in which one or more of the markers by chance exhibit associative overdominance. To explore the relative contributions of general and...

Data from: Angiosperm wood structure: global patterns in vessel anatomy and their relationship to wood density and potential conductivity

Amy E. Zanne, Mark Westoby, Daniel S Falster, David D Ackerly, Scott R Loarie, Sarah E J Arnold, David A. Coomes, David D. Ackerly, Sarah E. J. Arnold & Daniel S. Falster
Woody stems comprise a large biological carbon fraction and determine water transport between roots and leaves; their structure and function can influence both carbon and hydrological cycles. While angiosperm wood anatomy and density determine hydraulic conductivity and mechanical strength, little is known about interrelations across many species. We compiled a global dataset comprising two anatomical traits for 3005 woody angiosperms: mean vessel lumen area ( ) and number per unit area (N). From these, we...

Data from: The value of an egg: resource reallocation in ladybirds (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) infected with male-killing bacteria

Lori J Lawson-Handley, Sherif Elnagdy & Michael E N Majerus
Male-killing bacteria (MKs) are thought to persist in host populations by vertical transmission, and conferring direct and/or indirect fitness benefits to their hosts. Here, we test the role of indirect fitness benefits accrued from resource reallocation in species that engage in sibling egg cannibalism. We found that a single-egg meal significantly increased larval survival in 12 ladybird species, but the value of an egg (to survival) differed substantially between species. Next we tested the impact...

Data from: Macrobenthic assemblage structure in a cool-temperate intertidal dwarf-eelgrass bed in comparison to those in lower latitudes.

Richard S. K. Barnes & M. D. Farnon Ellwood
The evolution and ecology of latitudinal patterns in marine macrofaunal biodiversity and assemblage structure are contentious. With the aim of investigating the occurrence of such patterns in intertidal dwarf-eelgrass beds (Nanozostera spp.), those at cool-temperate Scolt Head Island, UK (latitude 52°N), were examined and compared to equivalent systems in warm-temperate Knysna, South Africa (34°S), and subtropical Moreton Bay, Australia (27°S); systems that had earlier been examined using identical methodology. The Scolt Head bed supported the...

Data from: Geographic variation of the major histocompatibility complex in Eastern Atlantic grey seals (Halichoerus grypus)

Kristina Cammen, Joe I Hoffman, Leslie A Knapp, John Harwood & William Amos
Pathogen-driven balancing selection maintains high genetic diversity in many vertebrates, particularly in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) immune system gene family, which is often associated with disease susceptibility. In large natural populations where subpopulations face different pathogen pressures, the MHC should show greater genetic differentiation within a species than neutral markers. We examined genetic diversity at the MHC-DQB locus and nine putatively neutral microsatellite markers in grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) from eight United Kingdom colonies,...

Data from: Shell geometry and habitat determination in extinct and extant turtles (Reptilia: Testudinata)

Roger B. J. Benson, Gábor Domokos, Peter L. Várkonyi & Robert R. Reisz
A number of means, including forelimb proportions and shell bone histology have been used to infer the paleoecology of extinct turtles. However, the height to width ratio of the shell (as a one-parameter shell model) has been dismissed because of its unreliability, and more complex aspects of shell geometry have generally been overlooked. Here we employ a more reliable, three-parameter geometric model of the shell outline in anterior view as a means to assess turtle...

Data from: Getting a full dose? Reconsidering sex chromosome dosage compensation in the silkworm, Bombyx mori

James R. Walters & Thomas J. Hardcastle
Dosage compensation – equalizing gene expression levels in response to differences in gene dose or copy number – is classically considered to play a critical role in the evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes. As the X and Y diverge through degradation and gene loss on the Y (or the W in female-heterogametic ZW taxa), it is expected that dosage compensation will evolve to correct for sex-specific differences in gene dose. While this is observed in...

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