585 Works

Data from: Exploring the mechanisms underlying a heterozygosity-fitness correlation for canine size in the Antarctic fur seal Arctocephalus gazella

Joseph I Hoffman, Jaume Forcada & William Amos
Although heterozygosity-fitness correlations (HFCs) are widely reported in the literature, most studies use too few markers to allow the proximate mechanisms to be convincingly resolved. Two competing hypotheses have been proposed: the general effects hypothesis, in which marker heterozygosity correlates with genome-wide heterozygosity and hence the inbreeding coefficient f, and the local effects hypothesis, in which one or more of the markers by chance exhibit associative overdominance. To explore the relative contributions of general and...

Data from: Angiosperm wood structure: global patterns in vessel anatomy and their relationship to wood density and potential conductivity

Amy E. Zanne, Mark Westoby, Daniel S Falster, David D Ackerly, Scott R Loarie, Sarah E J Arnold, David A. Coomes, David D. Ackerly, Sarah E. J. Arnold & Daniel S. Falster
Woody stems comprise a large biological carbon fraction and determine water transport between roots and leaves; their structure and function can influence both carbon and hydrological cycles. While angiosperm wood anatomy and density determine hydraulic conductivity and mechanical strength, little is known about interrelations across many species. We compiled a global dataset comprising two anatomical traits for 3005 woody angiosperms: mean vessel lumen area ( ) and number per unit area (N). From these, we...

Data from: The value of an egg: resource reallocation in ladybirds (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) infected with male-killing bacteria

Lori J Lawson-Handley, Sherif Elnagdy & Michael E N Majerus
Male-killing bacteria (MKs) are thought to persist in host populations by vertical transmission, and conferring direct and/or indirect fitness benefits to their hosts. Here, we test the role of indirect fitness benefits accrued from resource reallocation in species that engage in sibling egg cannibalism. We found that a single-egg meal significantly increased larval survival in 12 ladybird species, but the value of an egg (to survival) differed substantially between species. Next we tested the impact...

Data from: Macrobenthic assemblage structure in a cool-temperate intertidal dwarf-eelgrass bed in comparison to those in lower latitudes.

Richard S. K. Barnes & M. D. Farnon Ellwood
The evolution and ecology of latitudinal patterns in marine macrofaunal biodiversity and assemblage structure are contentious. With the aim of investigating the occurrence of such patterns in intertidal dwarf-eelgrass beds (Nanozostera spp.), those at cool-temperate Scolt Head Island, UK (latitude 52°N), were examined and compared to equivalent systems in warm-temperate Knysna, South Africa (34°S), and subtropical Moreton Bay, Australia (27°S); systems that had earlier been examined using identical methodology. The Scolt Head bed supported the...

Data from: Geographic variation of the major histocompatibility complex in Eastern Atlantic grey seals (Halichoerus grypus)

Kristina Cammen, Joe I Hoffman, Leslie A Knapp, John Harwood & William Amos
Pathogen-driven balancing selection maintains high genetic diversity in many vertebrates, particularly in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) immune system gene family, which is often associated with disease susceptibility. In large natural populations where subpopulations face different pathogen pressures, the MHC should show greater genetic differentiation within a species than neutral markers. We examined genetic diversity at the MHC-DQB locus and nine putatively neutral microsatellite markers in grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) from eight United Kingdom colonies,...

Data from: Shell geometry and habitat determination in extinct and extant turtles (Reptilia: Testudinata)

Roger B. J. Benson, Gábor Domokos, Peter L. Várkonyi & Robert R. Reisz
A number of means, including forelimb proportions and shell bone histology have been used to infer the paleoecology of extinct turtles. However, the height to width ratio of the shell (as a one-parameter shell model) has been dismissed because of its unreliability, and more complex aspects of shell geometry have generally been overlooked. Here we employ a more reliable, three-parameter geometric model of the shell outline in anterior view as a means to assess turtle...

Data from: Getting a full dose? Reconsidering sex chromosome dosage compensation in the silkworm, Bombyx mori

James R. Walters & Thomas J. Hardcastle
Dosage compensation – equalizing gene expression levels in response to differences in gene dose or copy number – is classically considered to play a critical role in the evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes. As the X and Y diverge through degradation and gene loss on the Y (or the W in female-heterogametic ZW taxa), it is expected that dosage compensation will evolve to correct for sex-specific differences in gene dose. While this is observed in...

Data from: The influence of Late Quaternary climate-change velocity on species endemism

Brody Sandel, Lars Arge, Richard G. Davies, Kevin J. Gaston, William J. Sutherland, Bo Dalsgaard & Jens-Chrisitan Svenning
The effects of climate change on biodiversity should depend in part on climate displacement rate (climate-change velocity) and its interaction with species’ capacity to migrate. We estimated Late Quaternary glacial-interglacial climate-change velocity by integrating macroclimatic shifts since the Last Glacial Maximum with topoclimatic gradients. Globally, areas with high velocities were associated with marked absences of small-ranged amphibians, mammals and birds. The association between endemism and velocity was weakest in the highly vagile birds and strongest...

Data from: Contrasting patterns of genetic diversity at three different genetic markers in a marine mammal metapopulation

Joseph I Hoffman, Kanchon Dasmahapatra, William Amos, Caleb Phillips, Tom Gelatt & John Bickham
Many studies use genetic markers to explore population structure and variability within species. However, only a minority use more than one type of marker and, despite increasing evidence of a strong link between heterozygosity and individual fitness, few ask whether diversity correlates with population trajectory. To address these issues, we analysed data from the Steller's sea lion, Eumetiopias jubatus, where three stocks are distributed over a vast geographic range and where both genetic samples and...

Data from: Masquerade is associated with polyphagy and larval overwintering in the Lepidoptera

Andrew D. Higginson, Leoni De Wert, Hannah M. Rowland, Michael P. Speed & Graeme D. Ruxton
Masquerading animals benefit from the difficulty that predators have in differentiating them from the inedible objects, such as twigs, that they resemble. The function of masquerade has been demonstrated, but how it interacts with the life history of organisms has not been studied. Here, we report the use of comparative analyses to test hypotheses linking masquerade to life-history parameters. We constructed a phylogenetic tree of the British species of the lepidoptera families Geometridae and Drepanidae...

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