567 Works

Genome reduction is associated with bacterial pathogenicity across different scales of temporal and ecological divergence - between species core gene alignments

Jane Charlesworth, Gemma Murray, Eric Miller, Michael Casey, Catrin Lloyd, Marcello Gottschalk, Dan Tucker, John Welch & Lucy Weinert
Emerging bacterial pathogens threaten global health and food security, and so it is important to ask whether these transitions to pathogenicity have any common features. We present a systematic study of the claim that pathogenicity is associated with genome reduction and gene loss. We compare broad-scale patterns across all bacteria, with detailed analyses of Streptococcus suis, an emerging zoonotic pathogen of pigs, which has undergone multiple transitions between disease and carriage forms. We find that...

Identification of a novel sex determining chromosome in cichlid fishes that acts as XY or ZW in different lineages

Anna Fiona Feller, Vera Ogi, Ole Seehausen & Joana Isabel Meier
Sex determination systems are highly conserved among most vertebrates with genetic sex determination, but can be variable and evolve rapidly in some. Here, we study sex determination in a clade with exceptionally high sex chromosome turnover rates. We identify the sex determining chromosomes in three interspecific crosses of haplochromine cichlid fishes from Lakes Victoria and Malawi. We find evidence for different sex determiners in each cross. In the Malawi cross and one Victoria cross the...

Data from: Abundance data applied to a novel model invertebrate host sheds new light on parasite community assembly in nature

Joshua Brian & David Aldridge
Understanding how environmental drivers influence the assembly of parasite communities, in addition to how parasites may interact at an infracommunity level, are fundamental requirements for the study of parasite ecology. Knowledge of how parasite communities are assembled will help to predict the risk of parasitism for hosts, and model how parasite communities may change under variable conditions. However, studies frequently rely on presence-absence data and examine multiple host species or sites, metrics which may be...

COMSOL models of fluid flow in the sarcomere

Sage Malingen, Kaitlyn Hood, Eric Lauga, Anette Hosoi & Thomas Daniel
A highly organized and densely packed lattice of molecular machinery within the sarcomeres of muscle cells powers contraction. Although many of the proteins that drive contraction have been studied extensively, the mechanical impact of fluid shearing within the lattice of molecular machinery has received minimal attention. It was recently proposed that fluid flow augments substrate transport in the sarcomere, however, this analysis used analytical models of fluid flow in the molecular machinery that could not...

Data from: Rapid evolutionary response to a transmissible cancer in Tasmanian devils

Brendan Epstein, Menna Jones, Rodrigo Hamede, Sarah Hendricks, Hamish McCallum, Elizabeth P. Murchison, Barbara Schönfeld, Cody Wiench, Paul Hohenlohe & Andrew Storfer
Although cancer rarely acts as an infectious disease, a recently emerged transmissible cancer in Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) is virtually 100% fatal. Devil facial tumour disease (DFTD) has swept across nearly the entire species’ range, resulting in localized declines exceeding 90% and an overall species decline of more than 80% in less than 20 years. Despite epidemiological models that predict extinction, populations in long-diseased sites persist. Here we report rare genomic evidence of a rapid,...

Data from: Bird and bat species' global vulnerability to collision mortality at wind farms revealed through a trait-based assessment

Chris B. Thaxter, Graeme M. Buchanan, Carr Jamie, Stuart H.M. Butchart, Tim Newbold, Rhys E. Green, Joseph A. Tobias, Wendy B. Foden, Sue O'Brien & James W. Pearce-Higgins
Mitigation of anthropogenic climate change involves deployments of renewable energy worldwide, including wind farms, which can pose a significant collision risk to volant animals. Most studies into the collision risk between species and wind turbines, however, have taken place in industrialized countries. Potential effects for many locations and species therefore remain unclear. To redress this gap, we conducted a systematic literature review of recorded collisions between birds and bats and wind turbines within developed countries....

Data from: Fine-scale genetic structure reflects sex-specific dispersal strategies in a population of sociable weavers (Philetairus socius)

René E. Van Dijk, Rita Covas, Claire Doutrelant, Claire N. Spottiswoode & Ben J. Hatchwell
Dispersal is a critical driver of gene flow, with important consequences for population genetic structure, social interactions and other biological processes. Limited dispersal may result in kin-structured populations in which kin selection may operate, but it may also increase the risk of kin competition and inbreeding. Here, we use a combination of long-term field data and molecular genetics to examine dispersal patterns and their consequences for the population genetics of a highly social bird, the...

Data from: Empirical phylogenies and species abundance distributions are consistent with pre-equilibrium dynamics of neutral community models with gene flow

Anne-Sophie Bonnet-Lebrun, Andrea Manica, Anders Eriksson, Ana S.L. Rodrigues & Ana S. L. Rodrigues
Community characteristics reflect past ecological and evolutionary dynamics. Here, we investigate whether it is possible to obtain realistically shaped modelled communities – i.e., with phylogenetic trees and species abundance distributions shaped similarly to typical empirical bird and mammal communities – from neutral community models. To test the effect of gene flow, we contrasted two spatially explicit individual-based neutral models: one with protracted speciation, delayed by gene flow, and one with point mutation speciation, unaffected by...

Data from: Cell cycle-dependent differentiation dynamics balances growth and endocrine differentiation in the pancreas

Yung Hae Kim, Hjalte List Larsen, Pau Rué, Laurence A. Lemaire, Jorge Ferrer & Anne Grapin-Botton
Organogenesis relies on the spatiotemporal balancing of differentiation and proliferation driven by an expanding pool of progenitor cells. In the mouse pancreas, lineage tracing at the population level has shown that the expanding pancreas progenitors can initially give rise to all endocrine, ductal, and acinar cells but become bipotent by embryonic day 13.5, giving rise to endocrine cells and ductal cells. However, the dynamics of individual progenitors balancing self-renewal and lineage-specific differentiation has never been...

Data from: The comparative landscape of duplications in Heliconius melpomene and Heliconius cydno

Ana Pinharanda, Simon H. Martin, Sarah L. Barker, John W. Davey & Chris D. Jiggins
Gene duplications can facilitate adaptation and may lead to inter-population divergence, causing reproductive isolation. We used whole-genome re-sequencing data from 34 butterflies to detect duplications in two Heliconius species, H. cydno and H. melpomene. Taking advantage of three distinctive signals of duplication in short-read sequencing data, we identified 744 duplicated loci in H. cydno and H. melpomene, 96% of which were validated with single molecule sequencing. We have found that duplications overlap genes significantly less...

Data from: Angiosperm wood structure: global patterns in vessel anatomy and their relationship to wood density and potential conductivity

Amy E. Zanne, Mark Westoby, Daniel S. Falster, David D. Ackerly, Scott R Loarie, Sarah E. J. Arnold & David A. Coomes
Woody stems comprise a large biological carbon fraction and determine water transport between roots and leaves; their structure and function can influence both carbon and hydrological cycles. While angiosperm wood anatomy and density determine hydraulic conductivity and mechanical strength, little is known about interrelations across many species. We compiled a global dataset comprising two anatomical traits for 3005 woody angiosperms: mean vessel lumen area ( ) and number per unit area (N). From these, we...

Data from: From cacti to carnivores: improved phylotranscriptomic sampling and hierarchical homology inference provide further insight into the evolution of Caryophyllales

Joseph Frederic Walker, Ya Yang, Tao Feng, Alfonso Timoneda, Jessica Mikenas, Vera Hutchison, Caroline Edwards, Ning Wang, Sonia Ahluwalia, Julia Olivieri, Nathanael Walker-Hale, Lucas C. Majure, Raúl Puente, Gudrun Kadereit, Maximillian Lauterbach, Urs Eggli, Hilda Flores-Olvera, Helga Ochoterena, Samuel F. Brockington, Michael J. Moore & Stephen A. Smith
Premise of the Study— The Caryophyllales contains ~12,500 species and is known for its cosmopolitan distribution, convergence of trait evolution, and extreme adaptations. Some relationships within the Caryophyllales, like those of many large plant clades, remain unclear and phylogenetic studies often recover alternative hypotheses. We explore the utility of broad and dense transcriptome sampling across the order for resolving evolutionary relationships in Caryophyllales. Methods— We generated 84 transcriptomes and combined these with 224 publicly available...

Data from: Resolving recent plant radiations: power and robustness of genotyping-by-sequencing

Mario Fernández-Mazuecos, Greg Mellers, Beatriz Vigalondo, Llorenç Sáez, Pablo Vargas & Beverley J. Glover
Disentangling species boundaries and phylogenetic relationships within recent evolutionary radiations is a challenge due to the poor morphological differentiation and low genetic divergence between species, frequently accompanied by phenotypic convergence, inter-specific gene flow and incomplete lineage sorting. Here we employed a genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach, in combination with morphometric analyses, to investigate a small western Mediterranean clade in the flowering plant genus Linaria that radiated in the Quaternary. After confirming the morphological and genetic distinctness of...

Data from: Improved transcriptome sampling pinpoints 26 ancient and more recent polyploidy events in Caryophyllales, including two allopolyploidy events

Ya Yang, Michael J. Moore, Samuel F. Brockington, Jessica Mikenas, Julia Olivieri, Joseph F. Walker & Stephen A. Smith
• Studies of the macroevolutionary legacy of polyploidy are limited by an incomplete sampling of these events across the tree of life. To better locate and understand these events, we need comprehensive taxonomic sampling as well as homology inference methods that accurately reconstruct the frequency and location of gene duplications. • We assembled a dataset of transcriptomes and genomes from 169 species in Caryophyllales, of which 43 were newly generated for this study, representing one...

Data from: Allatostatin A signalling in Drosophila regulates feeding and sleep and is modulated by PDF

Jiangtian Chen, Wencke Reiher, Christiane Hermann-Luibl, Azza Sellami, Paola Cognigni, Shu Kondo, Charlotte Helfrich-Förster, Jan A. Veenstra & Christian Wegener
Feeding and sleep are fundamental behaviours with significant interconnections and cross-modulations. The circadian system and peptidergic signals are important components of this modulation, but still little is known about the mechanisms and networks by which they interact to regulate feeding and sleep. We show that specific thermogenetic activation of peptidergic Allatostatin A (AstA)-expressing PLP neurons and enteroendocrine cells reduces feeding and promotes sleep in the fruit fly Drosophila. The effects of AstA cell activation are...

Data from: Coadapted genomes and selection on hybrids: Fisher's geometric model explains a variety of empirical patterns

Alexis Simon, Nicolas Bierne & John J. Welch
Natural selection plays a variety of roles in hybridization, speciation and admixture. Most research has focused on two extreme cases: crosses between closely-related inbred lines, where hybrids are fitter than their parents, or crosses between effectively isolated species, where hybrids suffer severe breakdown. But many natural populations must fall into intermediate regimes, with multiple types of gene interaction, and these are more difficult to study. Here, we develop a simple fitness landscape model, and show...

Data from: Wing patterning gene redefines the mimetic history of Heliconius butterflies

Heather M. Hines, Brian A. Counterman, Riccardo Papa, Priscila Albuquerque De Moura, Marcio Z. Cardoso, Mauricio Linares, James Mallet, Robert D. Reed, Chris D. Jiggins, Marcus R. Kronforst & W. Owen McMillan
The mimetic butterflies Heliconius erato and H. melpomene have undergone parallel radiations to form a near-identical patchwork of over 20 different wing pattern races across the Neotropics. Previous molecular phylogenetic work on these radiations has suggested that similar but geographically disjunct color patterns arose multiple times independently in each species. The neutral markers used in these studies, however, can move freely across color pattern boundaries and therefore might not represent the history of the adaptive...

Data from: Synthesis, characterization and modelling of zinc and silicate co-substituted hydroxyapatite

Robert J. Friederichs, Helen F. Chappell, David V. Shepherd & Serena M. Best
Experimental chemistry and atomic modelling studies were performed here to investigate a novel ionic co-substitution in hydroxyapatite (HA). Zinc, silicate co-substituted HA (ZnSiHA) remained phase pure after heating to 1100°C with Zn and Si amounts of 0.6 wt% and 1.2 wt%, respectively. Unique lattice expansions in ZnSiHA, silicate Fourier transform infrared peaks and changes to the hydroxyl IR stretching region suggested Zn and silicate co-substitution in ZnSiHA. Zn and silicate insertion into HA was modelled...

Data from: Relative advantages of dichromatic and trichromatic color vision in camouflage breaking

Jolyon Troscianko, Jared Wilson-Aggarwal, David Griffiths, Claire N. Spottiswoode & Martin Stevens
There is huge diversity in visual systems and color discrimination abilities, thought to stem from an animal’s ecology and life history. Many primate species maintain a polymorphism in color vision, whereby most individuals are dichromats but some females are trichromats, implying that selection sometimes favors dichromatic vision. Detecting camouflaged prey is thought to be a task where dichromatic individuals could have an advantage. However, previous work either has not been able to disentangle camouflage detection...

Data from: Disparity, diversity, and duplications in the Caryophyllales

Stephen A. Smith, Joseph W. Brown, Ya Yang, Riva Bruenn, Chloe P. Drummond, Samuel F. Brockington, Joseph F. Walker, Noah Last, Norman A. Douglas & Michael J. Moore
The role played by whole genome duplication (WGD) in plant evolution is actively debated. WGDs have been associated with advantages such as superior colonization, various adaptations, and increased effective population size. However, the lack of a comprehensive mapping of WGDs within a major plant clade has led to uncertainty regarding the potential association of WGDs and higher diversification rates. Using seven chloroplast and nuclear ribosomal genes, we constructed a phylogeny of 5036 species of Caryophyllales,...

Data from: Cambrian petalonamid Stromatoveris phylogenetically links Ediacaran biota to later animals

Jennifer Hoyal Cuthill, Jian Han & Jennifer F. Hoyal Cuthill
Macro-organisms of the Ediacaran period (635-541 Ma) were large and morphologically complex, with some living in aphotic habitats, presenting the possibility that they were early animals. However, ‘bizarre’ Ediacaran morphologies and mouldic preservation have frustrated comparison to later taxa. Consequently, both the positions of Ediacaran biota in the tree of life and the origins of the Metazoa have been unresolved. Here we provide phylogenetic evidence to identify Ediacaran macro-biota as animals, based on 206 new...

Data from: Genome sequence of dwarf birch (Betula nana) and cross-species RAD markers

Nian Wang, Marian Thomson, William J. A. Bodles, Robert M. M. Crawford, Harriet V. Hunt, Alan Watson Featherstone, Jaume Pellicer & Richard J. A. Buggs
New sequencing technologies allow development of genome-wide markers for any genus of ecological interest, including plant genera such as Betula (birch) that have previously proved difficult to study due to widespread polyploidy and hybridisation. We present a de novo reference genome sequence assembly, from 67X short read coverage, of Betula nana (dwarf birch) – a diploid that is the keystone woody species of sub-arctic scrub communities but of conservation concern in Britain. We also present...

Data from: No correlation between multi-locus heterozygosity and fitness in the common buzzard despite heterozygote advantage for plumage colour

Martina Boerner, Joseph I. Hoffman, William Amos, Nayden Chakarov & Oliver Kruger
Correlations between heterozygosity and fitness are frequently found but rarely well understood. Fitness can be affected by single loci of large effect which correlate with neutral markers via linkage disequilibrium, or as a result of variation in genome-wide heterozygosity following inbreeding. We explored these alternatives in the common buzzard, a raptor species in which three colour morphs differ in their lifetime reproductive success. Using 18 polymorphic microsatellite loci, we evaluated potential genetic differences among the...

Data from: Independent and parallel evolution of new genes by gene duplication in two origins of C4 photosynthesis provides new insight into the mechanism of phloem loading in C4 species

David M. Emms, Sarah Covshoff, Julian M. Hibberd & Steven Kelly
C4 photosynthesis is considered one of the most remarkable examples of evolutionary convergence in eukaryotes. However, it is unknown whether the evolution of C4 photosynthesis required the evolution of new genes. Genome-wide gene-tree species-tree reconciliation of seven monocot species that span two origins of C4 photosynthesis revealed that there was significant parallelism in the duplication and retention of genes coincident with the evolution of C4 photosynthesis in these lineages. Specifically, 21 orthologous genes were duplicated...

Data from: Requirements and limits of anatomy-based predictions of locomotion in terrestrial arthropods with emphasis on arachnids

Tom Weihmann, Hanns Hagen Goetzke & Michael Günther
Modern computer-aided techniques foster the availability and quality of 3D visualization and reconstruction of extinct and extant species. Moreover, animated sequences of locomotion and other movements find their way into motion pictures and documentary films, but also gain attraction in science. While movement analysis is well advanced in vertebrates, particularly in mammals and birds, analyses in arthropods, with their much higher variability regarding general anatomy and size, are still in their infancies and restricted to...

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