12 Works

Data from: Monotreme ossification sequences and the riddle of mammalian skeletal development

Vera Weisbecker
The developmental differences between marsupials, placentals and monotremes are thought to be reflected in differing patterns of postcranial development and diversity. However, developmental polarities remain obscured by the rarity of monotreme data. Here I present the first postcranial ossification sequences of the monotreme echidna and platypus, and compare these with published data from other mammals and amniotes. Strikingly, monotreme stylopodia (humerus, femur) ossify after the more distal zeugopodia (radius/ulna, tibia/fibula), resembling only the European mole...

Data from: The influence of Late Quaternary climate-change velocity on species endemism

Brody Sandel, Lars Arge, Richard G. Davies, Kevin J. Gaston, William J. Sutherland, Bo Dalsgaard & Jens-Chrisitan Svenning
The effects of climate change on biodiversity should depend in part on climate displacement rate (climate-change velocity) and its interaction with species’ capacity to migrate. We estimated Late Quaternary glacial-interglacial climate-change velocity by integrating macroclimatic shifts since the Last Glacial Maximum with topoclimatic gradients. Globally, areas with high velocities were associated with marked absences of small-ranged amphibians, mammals and birds. The association between endemism and velocity was weakest in the highly vagile birds and strongest...

Data from: Masquerade is associated with polyphagy and larval overwintering in the Lepidoptera

Andrew D. Higginson, Leoni De Wert, Hannah M. Rowland, Michael P. Speed & Graeme D. Ruxton
Masquerading animals benefit from the difficulty that predators have in differentiating them from the inedible objects, such as twigs, that they resemble. The function of masquerade has been demonstrated, but how it interacts with the life history of organisms has not been studied. Here, we report the use of comparative analyses to test hypotheses linking masquerade to life-history parameters. We constructed a phylogenetic tree of the British species of the lepidoptera families Geometridae and Drepanidae...

Data from: Shell geometry and habitat determination in extinct and extant turtles (Reptilia: Testudinata)

Roger B. J. Benson, Gábor Domokos, Peter L. Várkonyi & Robert R. Reisz
A number of means, including forelimb proportions and shell bone histology have been used to infer the paleoecology of extinct turtles. However, the height to width ratio of the shell (as a one-parameter shell model) has been dismissed because of its unreliability, and more complex aspects of shell geometry have generally been overlooked. Here we employ a more reliable, three-parameter geometric model of the shell outline in anterior view as a means to assess turtle...

Data from: Getting a full dose? Reconsidering sex chromosome dosage compensation in the silkworm, Bombyx mori

James R. Walters & Thomas J. Hardcastle
Dosage compensation – equalizing gene expression levels in response to differences in gene dose or copy number – is classically considered to play a critical role in the evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes. As the X and Y diverge through degradation and gene loss on the Y (or the W in female-heterogametic ZW taxa), it is expected that dosage compensation will evolve to correct for sex-specific differences in gene dose. While this is observed in...

Data from: Group structure, kinship, inbreeding risk and habitual female dispersal in plural-breeding mammals

Dieter Lukas & Tim H Clutton-Brock
In most plural breeding mammals, female group members are matrilineal relatives but, in a small number of species, all adult females are immigrants who are seldom closely related to each other. Some explanations of contrasts in female philopatry suggest that these differences are a consequence of variation in resource distribution and feeding competition, while others argue that they reflect variation in the risk of close inbreeding to philopatric females. However, neither explanation has been tested...

Data from: Genetic analysis of life-history constraint and evolution in a wild ungulate population

Michael B. Morrissey, Craig A. Walling, Alastair J. Wilson, Josephine M. Pemberton, Tim H. Clutton-Brock & Loeske E. B. Kruuk
Trade-offs among life-history traits are central to evolutionary theory. In quantitative genetic terms, trade-offs may be manifested as negative genetic covariances relative to the direction of selection on phenotypic traits. Although the expression and selection of ecologically important phenotypic variation are fundamentally multivariate phenomena, the in situ quantification of genetic covariances is challenging. Even for life-history traits, where well-developed theory exists with which to relate phenotypic variation to fitness variation, little evidence exists from in...

Data from: A computational analysis of locomotor anatomy and body mass evolution in Allosauroidea (Dinosauria Theropoda)

Karl T. Bates, Roger B. J. Benson & Peter L. Falkingham
We investigate whether musculoskeletal anatomy and three-dimensional (3-D) body proportions were modified during the evolution of large (>6000 kg) body size in Allosauroidea (Dinosauria Theropoda). Three adaptations for maintaining locomotor performance at large body size, related to muscle leverage, mass, and body proportions, are tested and all are unsupported in this analysis. Predictions from 3-D musculoskeletal models of medium-sized (Allosaurus) and large-bodied (Acrocanthosaurus) allosauroids suggest that muscle leverage scaled close to isometry, well below the...

Data from: Natural selection on a measure of parasite resistance varies across ages and environmental conditions in a wild mammal

Adam D. Hayward, Alastair J. Wilson, Jill G. Pilkington, Tim H. Clutton-Brock, Josephine M. Pemberton & Loeske E. B. Kruuk
Parasites detrimentally affect host fitness, leading to expectations of positive selection on host parasite resistance. However, since immunity is costly, host fitness may be maximized at low, but non-zero, parasite infection intensities. These hypotheses are rarely tested on natural variation in free-living populations. We investigated selection on a measure of host parasite resistance in a naturally-regulated Soay sheep population using a longitudinal data set, and found negative correlations between parasite infection intensity and annual fitness...

Data from: The value of an egg: resource reallocation in ladybirds (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) infected with male-killing bacteria

Lori J Lawson-Handley, Sherif Elnagdy & Michael E N Majerus
Male-killing bacteria (MKs) are thought to persist in host populations by vertical transmission, and conferring direct and/or indirect fitness benefits to their hosts. Here, we test the role of indirect fitness benefits accrued from resource reallocation in species that engage in sibling egg cannibalism. We found that a single-egg meal significantly increased larval survival in 12 ladybird species, but the value of an egg (to survival) differed substantially between species. Next we tested the impact...

Data from: Macrobenthic assemblage structure in a cool-temperate intertidal dwarf-eelgrass bed in comparison to those in lower latitudes.

Richard S. K. Barnes & M. D. Farnon Ellwood
The evolution and ecology of latitudinal patterns in marine macrofaunal biodiversity and assemblage structure are contentious. With the aim of investigating the occurrence of such patterns in intertidal dwarf-eelgrass beds (Nanozostera spp.), those at cool-temperate Scolt Head Island, UK (latitude 52°N), were examined and compared to equivalent systems in warm-temperate Knysna, South Africa (34°S), and subtropical Moreton Bay, Australia (27°S); systems that had earlier been examined using identical methodology. The Scolt Head bed supported the...

Data from: Wing patterning gene redefines the mimetic history of Heliconius butterflies

Heather M. Hines, Brian A. Counterman, Riccardo Papa, Priscila Albuquerque De Moura, Marcio Z. Cardoso, Mauricio Linares, James Mallet, Robert D. Reed, Chris D. Jiggins, Marcus R. Kronforst, W. Owen McMillan, R. D. Reed, J. Mallet, W. O. McMillan, M. R. Kronforst, H. M. Hines, B. A. Counterman, M. Linares, M. Z. Cardoso & C. D. Jiggins
The mimetic butterflies Heliconius erato and H. melpomene have undergone parallel radiations to form a near-identical patchwork of over 20 different wing pattern races across the Neotropics. Previous molecular phylogenetic work on these radiations has suggested that similar but geographically disjunct color patterns arose multiple times independently in each species. The neutral markers used in these studies, however, can move freely across color pattern boundaries and therefore might not represent the history of the adaptive...

Registration Year

  • 2011

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Cambridge
  • University of Edinburgh
  • University of Liverpool
  • Center for Massive Data Algorithmics
  • University of Glasgow
  • Del Rosario University
  • Aarhus University
  • University of Chicago
  • University of East Anglia
  • University of Manchester