19 Works

Data from: Maternal, social and abiotic environment effects on growth vary across life stages in a cooperative mammal

Sinead English, Andrew W. Bateman, Rafael Mares, Arpat Ozgul & Tim H. Clutton-Brock
1. Resource availability plays a key role in driving variation in somatic growth and body condition, and the factors determining access to resources vary considerably across life stages. Parents and carers may exert important influences in early life, when individuals are nutritionally dependent, with abiotic environmental effects having stronger influences later in development as individuals forage independently. 2. Most studies have measured specific factors influencing growth across development, or have compared relative influences of different...

Data from: Defeating crypsis: detection and learning of camouflage strategies

Jolyon Troscianko, Alice E. Lown, Anna E. Hughes & Martin Stevens
Camouflage is perhaps the most widespread defence against predators in nature and an active area of interdisciplinary research. Recent work has aimed to understand what camouflage types exist (e.g. background matching, disruptive, and distractive patterns) and their effectiveness. However, work has almost exclusively focused on the efficacy of these strategies in preventing initial detection, despite the fact that predators often encounter the same prey phenotype repeatedly, affording them opportunities to learn to find those prey...

Data from: The scent of inbreeding: male sex pheromones betray inbred males

Erik Van Bergen, Paul M. Brakefield, Stéphanie Heuskin, Bas J. Zwaan & Caroline M. Nieberding
Inbreeding depression results from mating among genetically related individuals and impairs reproductive success. The decrease in male mating success is usually attributed to an impact on multiple fitness-related traits that reduce the general condition of inbred males. Here we find that the production of the male sex pheromone is reduced significantly by inbreeding in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana. Other traits indicative of the general condition, including flight performance, are also negatively affected in male butterflies...

Data from: Rook, but not jackdaw, post-conflict third-party affiliation reduces aggression for aggressors

Corina J. Logan, Ljerka Ostojić & Nicola S. Clayton
Post-conflict (PC) affiliation refers to positive social interactions that occur after fights. Although this behavior has been widely studied, its functions are rarely tested. We examine a potential function of PC third-party affiliation (affiliation between former opponents and bystanders) in rooks and jackdaws by investigating the hypothesis that conflicts lead to further aggression and that PC third-party affiliation increases to reduce such aggression. The results show that PC affiliation reduces PC aggression for rook aggressors...

Data from: Reed warbler hosts fine-tune their defenses to track three decades of cuckoo decline

Rose Thorogood, Nick B. Davies & Nicholas B. Davies
Interactions between avian hosts and brood parasites can provide a model for how animals adapt to a changing world. Reed warbler (Acrocephalus scirpaceus) hosts employ costly defenses to combat parasitism by common cuckoos (Cuculus canorus). During the last three decades cuckoos have declined markedly across England, reducing parasitism at our study site (Wicken Fen) from 24% of reed warbler nests in 1985 to 1% in 2012. Here we show with experiments that host mobbing and...

Data from: A brood parasite selects for its own egg traits

Claire N. Spottiswoode
Many brood parasitic birds lay eggs that mimic their hosts' eggs in appearance. This typically arises from selection from discriminating hosts that reject eggs which differ from their own. However, selection on parasitic eggs may also arise from parasites themselves, since it should pay a laying parasitic female to detect and destroy another parasitic egg previously laid in the same host nest by a different female. In this study, I experimentally test the source of...

Data from: Molecular population genetics of the melanic plumage polymorphism in arctic skuas (Stercorarius parasiticus): evidence for divergent selection on plumage colour

Nicholas I. Mundy & Kirstin Janssen
The arctic skua (Stercorarius parasiticus) is a classic example of an avian plumage polymorphism, with variation in melanin-based ventral plumage coloration defining pale, intermediate and dark morphs in adults of both sexes. However, despite several decades of field research, there is an incomplete understanding of how the polymorphism in ventral plumage colour is maintained and the selective forces involved. Here we investigate selection on a locus (MC1R) that is strongly associated with plumage colour variation...

Data from: Proboscis profiler: a tool for detecting acanthocephalan morphotypes

Matthew T. Wayland
Molecular studies conducted over the past 25 years have revealed previously unrecognised diversity in the phylum Acanthocephala. Several nominal species have been shown to represent complexes of morphologically cryptic biological species, a situation potentially confounding the analysis of ecological data. A software tool, ‘Proboscis profiler’, was developed to detect morphological heterogeneity in collections of superficially similar acanthocephalan worms based on the multivariate statistical analysis of proboscis hook dimensions. Proboscis profiler identifies objective, natural groups in...

Data from: A giant pliosaurid skull from the Late Jurassic of England

Roger B. J. Benson, Mark Evans, Adam S. Smith, Judyth Sassoon, Scott Moore-Faye, Hilary F. Ketchum & Richard Forrest
Pliosaurids were a long-lived and cosmopolitan group of marine predators that spanned 110 million years and occupied the upper tiers of marine ecosystems from the Middle Jurassic until the early Late Cretaceous. A well-preserved giant pliosaurid skull from the Late Jurassic Kimmeridge Clay Formation of Dorset, United Kingdom, represents a new species, Pliosaurus kevani. This specimen is described in detail, and the taxonomy and systematics of Late Jurassic pliosaurids is revised. We name two additional...

Data from: A morphometric and genetic framework for the genus Gazella de Blainville, 1816 (Ruminantia: Bovidae) with special focus on Arabian and Levantine mountain gazelles

Eva V. Bärmann, Torsten Wronski, Hannes Lerp, Beatriz Azanza, Saskia Börner, Dirk Erpenbeck, Gertrud E. Rössner & Gert Wörheide
Gazella is one of the most species-rich genera within horned ruminants. Despite overall similarity in body size and morphology, gazelles show variability in coloration and horn morphology. Unfortunately, however, species differentiation based on these characters, or on discrete skull characters, is very difficult due to high intraspecific variability. Furthermore, most species have fragmented and allopatric distributions, so that species boundaries were hard to define in the past. Mitochondrial DNA sequences have proven useful for investigating...

Data from: Ecological and genetic factors influencing the transition between host-use strategies in sympatric Heliconius butterflies

Richard M. Merrill, Russell E. Naisbit, James Mallet & Chris D. Jiggins
Shifts in host-plant use by phytophagous insects have played a central role in their diversification. Evolving host-use strategies will reflect a trade-off between selection pressures. The ecological niche of herbivorous insects is partitioned along several dimensions, and if populations remain in contact, recombination will break down associations between relevant loci. As such, genetic architecture can profoundly affect the coordinated divergence of traits and subsequently the ability to exploit novel habitats. The closely related species Heliconius...

Data from: Ancient trade routes shaped the genetic structure of horses in eastern Eurasia

Vera M. Warmuth, Michael G. Campana, Anders Eriksson, Mim Bower, Graeme Barker & Andrea Manica
Animal exchange networks have been shown to play an important role in determining gene flow among domestic animal populations. The Silk Road is one of the oldest continuous exchange networks in human history, yet its effectiveness in facilitating animal exchange across large geographic distances and topographically challenging landscapes has never been explicitly studied. Horses are known to have been traded along the Silk Roads; however, extensive movement of horses in connection with other human activities...

Data from: Genome-wide evidence for speciation with gene flow in Heliconius butterflies

Simon H. Martin, Kanchon K. Dasmahapatra, Nicola J. Nadeau, Camilo Salazar, James R. Walters, Fraser Simpson, Mark Blaxter, Andrea Manica, James Mallet & Chris D. Jiggins
Most speciation events probably occur gradually, without complete and immediate reproductive isolation, but the full extent of gene flow between diverging species has rarely been characterized on a genome-wide scale. Documenting the extent and timing of admixture between diverging species can clarify the role of geographic isolation in speciation. Here we use new methodology to quantify admixture at different stages of divergence in Heliconius butterflies, based on whole genome sequences of 31 individuals. Comparisons between...

Data from: No correlation between multi-locus heterozygosity and fitness in the common buzzard despite heterozygote advantage for plumage colour

Martina Boerner, Joseph I. Hoffman, William Amos, Nayden Chakarov & Oliver Kruger
Correlations between heterozygosity and fitness are frequently found but rarely well understood. Fitness can be affected by single loci of large effect which correlate with neutral markers via linkage disequilibrium, or as a result of variation in genome-wide heterozygosity following inbreeding. We explored these alternatives in the common buzzard, a raptor species in which three colour morphs differ in their lifetime reproductive success. Using 18 polymorphic microsatellite loci, we evaluated potential genetic differences among the...

Data from: The direct effects of male-killer infection on fitness of ladybird hosts (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

Sherif Elnagdy, Mark Gardener, Lori-Jayne Lawson-Handley, L.-J. Lawson Handley & M. E. N. Majerus
Male-killing bacteria are common in insects, and are thought to persist in host populations primarily by indirect fitness benefits to infected females, while direct fitness effects are generally assumed to be neutral or deleterious. Here, we estimated the effect of male-killer infection on direct fitness (number of eggs laid, as a measure of fecundity, together with survival) and other life-history traits (development time and body size) in seven ladybird host/male-killer combinations. Effects of male-killers on...

Data from: Power and temptation cause shifts between exploitation and cooperation in a cleaner wrasse mutualism

Simon Gingins, Redouan Bshary, Johanna Werminghausen, Rufus A. Johnstone & Alexandra S. Grutter
In many instances of cooperation, only one individual has both the potential and the incentive to ‘cheat’ and exploit its partner. Under these asymmetric conditions, a simple model predicts that variation in the temptation to cheat and in the potential victim's capacity for partner control leads to shifts between exploitation and cooperation. Here, we show that the threat of early termination of an interaction was sufficient to induce cleaner wrasse Labroides dimidiatus to feed selectively...

Data from: DNA barcoding reveals a largely unknown fauna of Gracillariidae leaf-mining moths in the Neotropics

D. C. Lees, A. Y. Kawahara, R. Rougerie, I. Ohshima, A. Kawakita, O. Bouteleux, J. De Prins & C. Lopez-Vaamonde
Higher taxa often show increasing species richness towards tropical low latitudes, a pattern known as the latitudinal biodiversity gradient (LBG). A rare reverse LBG (with greater richness towards temperate high latitudes) is exhibited by Gracillariidae leaf-mining moths, in which most described species occur in northern temperate areas. We carried out the first assessment of gracillariid species diversity in two Neotropical regions to test whether the relatively low tropical species diversity of this family is genuine...

Data from: Delimiting tropical mountain ecoregions for conservation

Philip J. Platts, Neil D. Burgess, Roy E. Gereau, Jon C. Lovett, Andrew R. Marshall, Colin J. McClean, Petri K. E. Pellikka, Ruth D. Swetnam & Rob Marchant
Ecological regions aggregate habitats with similar biophysical characteristics within well-defined boundaries, providing spatially consistent platforms for monitoring, managing and forecasting the health of interrelated ecosystems. A major obstacle to the implementation of this approach is imprecise and inconsistent boundary placement. For globally important mountain regions such as the Eastern Arc (Tanzania and Kenya), where qualitative definitions of biophysical affinity are well established, rule-based methods for landform classification provide a straightforward solution to ambiguities in region...

Data from: Environmental gradients predict the genetic population structure of a coral reef fish in the Red Sea

Gerrit B. Nanninga, Pablo Saenz-Agudelo, Manica Andrea, Michael L. Berumen & Andrea Manica
The relatively recent fields of terrestrial landscape and marine seascape genetics seek to identify the influence of biophysical habitat features on the spatial genetic structure of populations or individuals. Over the last few years, there has been accumulating evidence for the effect of environmental heterogeneity on patterns of gene flow and connectivity in marine systems. Here we investigate the population genetic patterns of an anemonefish, Amphiprion bicinctus, along the Saudi Arabian coast of the Red...

Registration Year

  • 2013

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Cambridge
  • Royal Museum for Central Africa
  • University of Twente
  • University of Liège
  • Stanford University
  • University of Pretoria
  • Kyoto Prefectural University
  • University of Queensland
  • University of Neuchâtel
  • Del Rosario University