56 Works

Data from: Jumping without slipping: leafhoppers (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) possess special tarsal structures for jumping from smooth surfaces

Christofer J. Clemente, Hanns Hagen Goetzke, James M. R. Bullock, Gregory P. Sutton, Malcolm Burrows & Walter Federle
Many hemipteran bugs can jump explosively from plant substrates, which can be very smooth. We therefore analysed the jumping performance of froghoppers (Philaenus spumarius, Aphrophoridae) and leafhoppers (Aphrodes bicinctus/makarovi, Cicadellidae) taking off from smooth (glass) and rough (sandpaper, 30 µm asperity size) surfaces. On glass, the propulsive hind legs of Philaenus froghoppers slipped, resulting in uncontrolled jumps with a fast forward spin, a steeper angle and only a quarter of the velocity compared with jumps...

Data from: TAPBPR bridges UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase 1 onto MHC class I to provide quality control in the antigen presentation pathway

Andreas Neerincx, Clemens Hermann, Robin Antrobus, Andy Van Hateren, Cao Huan, Nico Trautwein, Stefan Stevanović, Tim Elliott, Janet E. Deane, Louise H. Boyle & Huan Cao
Recently we revealed that TAPBPR is a peptide exchange catalyst important for optimal peptide selection by MHC class I molecules. Here we asked if any other co-factors associate with TAPBPR which would explain its effect on peptide selection. We identify an interaction between TAPBPR and UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase 1 (UGT1), a folding sensor in the calnexin/calreticulin quality control cycle known to regenerate the Glc1Man9GlcNAc2 moiety on glycoproteins. Our results suggest the formation of a multimeric complex,...

Data from: Resolving the Northern Hemisphere source region for the long-distance dispersal event that gave rise to the South American endemic dung moss Tetraplodon fuegianus

Lily Lewis, Elisabeth M. Biersma, Sarah B. Carey, Kent Holsinger, Stuart F. McDaniel, Ricardo Rozzi, Bernard Goffinet & Lily R. Lewis
Premise of the study—American bipolar plant distributions characterize taxa at various taxonomic ranks but are most common in the bryophytes at infraspecific and infrageneric levels. A previous study on the bipolar disjunction in the dung moss genus Tetraplodon found that direct long-distance dispersal from North to South in the Miocene - Pleistocene accounted for the origin of the Southern American endemic Tetraplodon fuegianus, congruent with other molecular studies on bipolar bryophytes. The previous study, however,...

Data from: Development of visual cortical function in infant macaques: a BOLD fMRI study

Tom Van Grootel, Alan Meeson, Matthias H.J. Munk, Zoe Kourtzi, J. Anthony Movshon, Nikos K. Logothetis, Lynne Kiorpes & Tom J. Van Grootel
Functional brain development is not well understood. In the visual system, neurophysiological studies in nonhuman primates show quite mature neuronal properties near birth although visual function is itself quite immature and continues to develop over many months or years after birth. Our goal was to assess the relative development of two main visual processing streams, dorsal and ventral, using BOLD fMRI in an attempt to understand the global mechanisms that support the maturation of visual...

Data from: Inferring dispersal across a fragmented landscape using reconstructed families in the Glanville fritillary butterfly

Toby Fountain, Arild Husby, Etsuko Nonaka, Michelle F. DiLeo, Janne H. Korhonen, Pasi Rastas, Torsti Schulz, Marjo Saastamoinen & Ilkka Hanski
Dispersal is important for determining both a species ecological processes, such as population viability, and its evolutionary processes, like gene flow and local adaptation. Yet obtaining accurate estimates in the wild through direct observation can be challenging or even impossible, particularly over large spatial and temporal scales. Genotyping many individuals from wild populations can provide detailed inferences about dispersal. We therefore utilized genomewide marker data to estimate dispersal in the classic metapopulation of the Glanville...

Data from: Nutrient-dependent growth underpinned the Ediacaran transition to large body size

Jennifer F. Hoyal Cuthill & Simon Conway Morris
Macroscale rangeomorph fossils, with characteristic branching fronds, appear (571 Myr ago) after the Gaskiers glaciation (580 Myr ago). However, biological mechanisms of size growth and potential connections to ocean geochemistry were untested. Using micro-computerized tomography and photographic measurements, alongside mathematical and computer models, we demonstrate that growth of rangeomorph branch internodes declined as their relative surface area decreased. This suggests that frond size and shape were directly responsive to nutrient uptake.

Data from: Microsaccadic sampling of moving image information provides Drosophila hyperacute vision

Mikko Juusola, An Dau, Zhuoyi Song, Narendra Solanki, Diana Rien, David Jaciuch, Sidhartha Anil Dongre, Florence Blanchard, Gonzalo G. De Polavieja, Roger C. Hardie & Jouni Takalo
Small fly eyes should not see fine image details. Because flies exhibit saccadic visual behaviors and their compound eyes have relatively few ommatidia (sampling points), their photoreceptors would be expected to generate blurry and coarse retinal images of the world. Here we demonstrate that Drosophila see the world far better than predicted from the classic theories. By using electrophysiological, optical and behavioral assays, we found that R1-R6 photoreceptors' encoding capacity in time is maximized to...

Data from: Adaptation to a novel family environment involves both apparent and cryptic phenotypic changes

Matthew Schrader, Benjamin J.M. Jarrett, Darren Rebar, Rebecca M. Kilner & Benjamin J. M. Jarrett
Cryptic evolution occurs when evolutionary change is masked by concurrent environmental change. In most cases, evolutionary changes in the phenotype are masked by changing abiotic factors. However, evolutionary change in one trait might also be masked by evolutionary change in another trait, a phenomenon referred to as evolutionary environmental deterioration. Nevertheless, detecting this second type of cryptic evolution is challenging and there are few compelling examples. Here, we describe a likely case of evolutionary environmental...

Data from: DNA recovery from wild chimpanzee tools

Fiona A. Stewart, Alexander K. Piel, Lydia Luncz, Joanna Osborne, Yingying Li, Beatrice H. Hahn, Michael Haslam & Joanna Osborn
Most of our knowledge of wild chimpanzee behaviour stems from fewer than 10 long-term field sites. This bias limits studies to a potentially unrepresentative set of communities known to show great behavioural diversity on small geographic scales. Here, we introduce a new genetic approach to bridge the gap between behavioural material evidence in unhabituated chimpanzees and genetic advances in the field of primatology. The use of DNA analyses has revolutionised archaeological and primatological fields, whereby...

Data from: Ranking and characterization of established BMI and lipid associated loci as candidates for gene-environment interactions

Dmitry Shungin, Wei Q. Deng, Tibor V. Varga, Jian'an Luan, Evelin Mihailov, Andres Metspalu, Andrew P. Morris, Nita G. Forouhi, Cecilia Lindgren, Patrik K. E. Magnusson, Nancy L. Pedersen, Göran Hallmans, Audrey Y. Chu, Anne E. Justice, Mariaelisa Graff, Thomas W. Winkler, Lynda M. Rose, Claudia Langenberg, L. Adrienne Cupples, Paul M. Ridker, Nicholas J. Wareham, Ken K. Ong, Ruth J. F. Loos, Daniel I. Chasman, Erik Ingelsson … & Paul W. Franks
Phenotypic variance heterogeneity across genotypes at a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) may reflect underlying gene-environment (G·E) or gene-gene interactions. We modeled variance heterogeneity for blood lipids and BMI in up to 44,211 participants and investigated relationships between variance effects (Pv), G·E interaction effects (with smoking and physical activity), and marginal genetic effects (Pm). Correlations between Pv and Pm were stronger for SNPs with established marginal effects (Spearman's ρ=0.401 for triglycerides, and ρ=0.236 for BMI) compared...

Data from: Unravelling seed dispersal through fragmented landscapes: frugivore species operate unevenly as mobile links

Juan P. González-Varo, Carolina Carvalho, Juan M. Arroyo, Pedro Jordano & Carolina S. Carvalho
Seed dispersal constitutes a pivotal process in an increasingly fragmented world, promoting population connectivity, colonization and range shifts in plants. Unveiling how multiple frugivore species disperse seeds through fragmented landscapes, operating as mobile links, has remained elusive owing to methodological constraints for monitoring seed dispersal events. We combine for the first time DNA barcoding and DNA microsatellites to identify, respectively, the frugivore species and the source trees of animal-dispersed seeds in forest and matrix of...

Data from: Does coevolution with a shared parasite drive hosts to partition their defences among species?

Eleanor M. Caves, Martin Stevens & Claire N. Spottiswoode
When mimicry imposes costs on models, selection may drive the model's phenotype to evolve away from its mimic. For example, brood parasitism often drives hosts to diversify in egg appearance among females within a species, making mimetic parasitic eggs easier to detect. However, when a single parasite species exploits multiple host species, parasitism could also drive host egg evolution away from other co-occurring hosts, to escape susceptibility to their respective mimics. This hypothesis predicts that...

Data from: Empirical phylogenies and species abundance distributions are consistent with pre-equilibrium dynamics of neutral community models with gene flow

Anne-Sophie Bonnet-Lebrun, Andrea Manica, Anders Eriksson, Ana S.L. Rodrigues & Ana S. L. Rodrigues
Community characteristics reflect past ecological and evolutionary dynamics. Here, we investigate whether it is possible to obtain realistically shaped modelled communities – i.e., with phylogenetic trees and species abundance distributions shaped similarly to typical empirical bird and mammal communities – from neutral community models. To test the effect of gene flow, we contrasted two spatially explicit individual-based neutral models: one with protracted speciation, delayed by gene flow, and one with point mutation speciation, unaffected by...

Data from: When do trade-offs occur? The roles of energy constraints and trait flexibility in a bushcricket

Flavia Barbosa, Darren Rebar & Michael D. Greenfield
In many animal species, the expression of sexually-selected traits is negatively correlated with survival traits such as immune function, a relationship termed a ‘trade-off’. But an alternative in which sexually-selected traits are positively correlated with survival traits is also widespread. The nature of inter-trait relationships may be largely determined by overall energy expenditure, energy availability, and trait flexibility, with trade-offs expected when individuals are subject to energy constraints. We tested this hypothesis in Ephippiger diurnus,...

Data from: Bird and bat species' global vulnerability to collision mortality at wind farms revealed through a trait-based assessment

Chris B. Thaxter, Graeme M. Buchanan, Carr Jamie, Stuart H.M. Butchart, Tim Newbold, Rhys E. Green, Joseph A. Tobias, Wendy B. Foden, Sue O'Brien & James W. Pearce-Higgins
Mitigation of anthropogenic climate change involves deployments of renewable energy worldwide, including wind farms, which can pose a significant collision risk to volant animals. Most studies into the collision risk between species and wind turbines, however, have taken place in industrialized countries. Potential effects for many locations and species therefore remain unclear. To redress this gap, we conducted a systematic literature review of recorded collisions between birds and bats and wind turbines within developed countries....

Data from: Disparity, diversity, and duplications in the Caryophyllales

Stephen A. Smith, Joseph W. Brown, Ya Yang, Riva Bruenn, Chloe P. Drummond, Samuel F. Brockington, Joseph F. Walker, Noah Last, Norman A. Douglas & Michael J. Moore
The role played by whole genome duplication (WGD) in plant evolution is actively debated. WGDs have been associated with advantages such as superior colonization, various adaptations, and increased effective population size. However, the lack of a comprehensive mapping of WGDs within a major plant clade has led to uncertainty regarding the potential association of WGDs and higher diversification rates. Using seven chloroplast and nuclear ribosomal genes, we constructed a phylogeny of 5036 species of Caryophyllales,...

Foraging behaviour of Parus major held in temporary captivity

R Thorogood, H Kokko & J Mappes
The data set describes foraging decisions by great tits (Parus major), held in temporary captivity. Data were collected from birds caught from forest at the University of Jyväskylä Research Station, Konnevesi (62°37.7'N 026°17'E), Finland, and were collected during the winter of 2013-2014. Birds were presented with (1) two different coloured plastic cups, or (2) two different artificial prey (almond pieces inside a paper packet and printed with a black and white symbol). One symbol was...

Data from: Resolving recent plant radiations: power and robustness of genotyping-by-sequencing

Mario Fernández-Mazuecos, Greg Mellers, Beatriz Vigalondo, Llorenç Sáez, Pablo Vargas & Beverley J. Glover
Disentangling species boundaries and phylogenetic relationships within recent evolutionary radiations is a challenge due to the poor morphological differentiation and low genetic divergence between species, frequently accompanied by phenotypic convergence, inter-specific gene flow and incomplete lineage sorting. Here we employed a genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach, in combination with morphometric analyses, to investigate a small western Mediterranean clade in the flowering plant genus Linaria that radiated in the Quaternary. After confirming the morphological and genetic distinctness of...

Data from: Is bigger better? The relationship between size and reproduction in female Asian elephants

J. A. H. Crawley, H. S. Mumby, S. N. Chapman, M. Lahdenperä, K. U. Mar, W. Htut, A. Thura Soe, H. H. Aung & V. Lummaa
The limited availability of resources is predicted to impose trade-offs between growth, reproduction and self-maintenance in animals. However, although some studies have shown that early reproduction suppresses growth, reproduction positively correlates with size in others. We use detailed records from a large population of semi-captive elephants in Myanmar to assess the relationships between size (height and weight), reproduction and survival in female Asian elephants, a species characterized by slow, costly life history. Although female height...

Data from: Improved transcriptome sampling pinpoints 26 ancient and more recent polyploidy events in Caryophyllales, including two allopolyploidy events

Ya Yang, Michael J. Moore, Samuel F. Brockington, Jessica Mikenas, Julia Olivieri, Joseph F. Walker & Stephen A. Smith
• Studies of the macroevolutionary legacy of polyploidy are limited by an incomplete sampling of these events across the tree of life. To better locate and understand these events, we need comprehensive taxonomic sampling as well as homology inference methods that accurately reconstruct the frequency and location of gene duplications. • We assembled a dataset of transcriptomes and genomes from 169 species in Caryophyllales, of which 43 were newly generated for this study, representing one...

Data from: Genome-wide evolutionary dynamics of influenza B viruses on a global scale

Pinky Langat, Jayna Raghwani, Gytis Dudas, Thomas A. Bowden, Stephanie Edwards, Astrid Gall, Trevor Bedford, Andrew Rambaut, Rodney S. Daniels, Colin A. Russell, Oliver G. Pybus, John McCauley, Paul Kellam & Simon J. Watson
The global-scale epidemiology and genome-wide evolutionary dynamics of influenza B remain poorly understood compared with influenza A viruses. We compiled a spatio-temporally comprehensive dataset of influenza B viruses, comprising over 2,500 genomes sampled worldwide between 1987 and 2015, including 382 newly-sequenced genomes that fill substantial gaps in previous molecular surveillance studies. Our contributed data increase the number of available influenza B virus genomes in Europe, Africa and Central Asia, improving the global context to study...

Data from: Microencapsulated diets to improve bivalve shellfish aquaculture

David Willer & David C. Aldridge
Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector and feeds over 3 billion people. Bivalve shellfish aquaculture makes up 25% of global aquaculture production and is worth annually US$19 billion, but continued growth is currently limited by suboptimal diets and limited tools for disease control. New advances in microencapsulation technology could provide an effective way to overcome these biological limitations. This study demonstrated that a new formulation of microencapsulated diet known as BioBullets could be ingested...

Data from: Socially informed dispersal in a territorial cooperative breeder

Gabriele Cozzi, Nino Maag, Luca Börger, Tim H. Clutton-Brock & Arpat Ozgul
1. Dispersal is a key process governing the dynamics of socially and spatially structured populations, and involves three distinct stages: emigration, transience, and settlement. At each stage, individuals have to make movement decisions, which are influenced by social, environmental, and individual factors. Yet, a comprehensive understanding of the drivers that influence such decisions is still lacking, particularly for the transient stage during which free-living individuals are inherently difficult to follow. 2. Social circumstances such as...

Data from: Plant-pollinator networks in semi-natural grasslands are resistant to the loss of pollinators during blooming of mass-flowering crops

Ainhoa Magrach, Anna Holzschuh, Ignasi Bartomeus, Verena Riedinger, Stuart P.M. Roberts, , Ante Vujic, Jennifer B. Wickens, Victoria J. Wickens, Riccardo Bommarco, Juan P. Gonzalez-Varo, Simon G. Potts, Henrik G. Smith, Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter, Montserrat Vilà, Andrea Holzschuh & Stuart P. M. Roberts
Mass-flowering crops lead to spatial redistributions of pollinators and to transient shortages within nearby semi-natural grasslands, but the impacts on plant-pollinator interactions remain largely unexplored. Here, we characterised which pollinator species are attracted by oilseed rape and how this affected the structure of plant-pollinator networks in nearby grasslands. We surveyed 177 networks from three countries (Germany, Sweden and United Kingdom) in 24 landscapes with high crop cover, and compared them to 24 landscapes with low...

Data from: Forecasting potential routes for movement of endemic birds among important sites for biodiversity in the Albertine Rift under projected climate change

Robert Bagchi, David G. Hole, Stuart H.M. Butchart, Yvonne C. Collingham, Lincoln D. Fishpool, Andrew J. Plumptre, Isaiah Owiunji, Hamlet Mugabe, Stephen Willis & Stephen G. Willis
The ability of species to shift their distributions in response to climate change may be impeded by lack of suitable climate or habitat between species’ current and future ranges. We examined the potential for climate and forest cover to limit the movement of bird species among sites of biodiversity importance in the Albertine Rift, East Africa, a biodiversity hotspot. We forecasted future distributions of suitable climate for 12 Albertine Rift endemic bird species using species...

Registration Year

  • 2017

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Cambridge
  • Lund University
  • University of Oxford
  • University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
  • Oberlin College
  • Estación Biológica de Doñana
  • University of North Carolina
  • Royal Society for the Protection of Birds
  • New York University
  • British Antarctic Survey