64 Works

Data from: Developmental plasticity for male secondary sexual traits in a group of polyphenic tropical butterflies

Andrew J. Balmer, Paul M. Brakefield, Oskar Brattström & Erik Van Bergen
Many organisms alter their investment in secondary sexual traits to optimise the fitness trade-off between reproduction and survival. Though seasonal variation in the expression of sexual traits is evident (e.g. conspicuous breeding plumage in birds), little attention has been given to short-lived organisms that inhabit relatively stable environments throughout their own lifetime but are exposed to strong environmental variation across generations. Some insects have evolved seasonal polyphenism to cope with intergenerational variation in environmental selection,...

Data from: Riparian reserves help protect forest bird communities in oil palm dominated landscapes

Simon L. Mitchell, David P. Edwards, Henry Bernard, David Coomes, Tommaso Jucker, Zoe G. Davies & Matthew J. Struebig
1. Conversion of forest to oil palm agriculture is a significant and continuing threat to tropical biodiversity. Despite this, little is known about the value of riparian reserves in oil palm and how these conservation set-asides might best be managed to maintain biodiversity. 2. We characterised bird communities of 28 sites in an oil palm-forest mosaic in Sabah, Malaysia using 6104 encounters from 840 point counts. Sites included oil palm riparian reserves of various vegetation...

Data from: From cacti to carnivores: improved phylotranscriptomic sampling and hierarchical homology inference provide further insight into the evolution of Caryophyllales

Joseph Frederic Walker, Ya Yang, Tao Feng, Alfonso Timoneda, Jessica Mikenas, Vera Hutchison, Caroline Edwards, Ning Wang, Sonia Ahluwalia, Julia Olivieri, Nathanael Walker-Hale, Lucas C. Majure, Raúl Puente, Gudrun Kadereit, Maximillian Lauterbach, Urs Eggli, Hilda Flores-Olvera, Helga Ochoterena, Samuel F. Brockington, Michael J. Moore & Stephen A. Smith
Premise of the Study— The Caryophyllales contains ~12,500 species and is known for its cosmopolitan distribution, convergence of trait evolution, and extreme adaptations. Some relationships within the Caryophyllales, like those of many large plant clades, remain unclear and phylogenetic studies often recover alternative hypotheses. We explore the utility of broad and dense transcriptome sampling across the order for resolving evolutionary relationships in Caryophyllales. Methods— We generated 84 transcriptomes and combined these with 224 publicly available...

Data from: Coadapted genomes and selection on hybrids: Fisher's geometric model explains a variety of empirical patterns

Alexis Simon, Nicolas Bierne & John J. Welch
Natural selection plays a variety of roles in hybridization, speciation and admixture. Most research has focused on two extreme cases: crosses between closely-related inbred lines, where hybrids are fitter than their parents, or crosses between effectively isolated species, where hybrids suffer severe breakdown. But many natural populations must fall into intermediate regimes, with multiple types of gene interaction, and these are more difficult to study. Here, we develop a simple fitness landscape model, and show...

Data from: Cambrian petalonamid Stromatoveris phylogenetically links Ediacaran biota to later animals

Jennifer Hoyal Cuthill, Jian Han & Jennifer F. Hoyal Cuthill
Macro-organisms of the Ediacaran period (635-541 Ma) were large and morphologically complex, with some living in aphotic habitats, presenting the possibility that they were early animals. However, ‘bizarre’ Ediacaran morphologies and mouldic preservation have frustrated comparison to later taxa. Consequently, both the positions of Ediacaran biota in the tree of life and the origins of the Metazoa have been unresolved. Here we provide phylogenetic evidence to identify Ediacaran macro-biota as animals, based on 206 new...

Data from: Sexually dimorphic gene expression and transcriptome evolution provides mixed evidence for a fast‐Z effect in Heliconius

Ana Pinharanda, Marjolaine Rousselle, Simon H. Martin, Joseph J. Hanly, John W. Davey, Sujai Kumar, Nicolas Galtier & Chris D. Jiggins
Sex chromosomes have different evolutionary properties compared to autosomes due to their hemizygous nature. In particular, recessive mutations are more readily exposed to selection, which can lead to faster rates of molecular evolution. Here, we report patterns of gene expression and molecular evolution for a group of butterflies. First, we improve the completeness of the Heliconius melpomene reference annotation, a neotropical butterfly with a ZW sex determination system. Then, we analyse RNA from male and...

Data from: Decomposition of coarse woody debris in a long-term litter manipulation experiment: a focus on nutrient availability

Evan M. Gora, Emma J. Sayer, Benjamin L. Turner & Edmund V. J. Tanner
1.The majority of aboveground carbon in tropical forests is stored in wood, which is returned to the atmosphere during decomposition of coarse woody debris. However, the factors controlling wood decomposition have not been experimentally manipulated over time scales comparable to the length of this process. 2.We hypothesized that wood decomposition is limited by nutrient availability and tested this hypothesis in a long-term litter addition and removal experiment in a lowland tropical forest in Panama. Specifically,...

Data from: Age-related variation in non-breeding foraging behaviour and carry-over effects on fitness in an extremely long-lived bird

Thomas A. Clay, Elizabeth J. Pearmain, Rona A.R. McGill, Andrea Manica, Richard A. Phillips & Rona A. R. McGill
1. Senescence has been widely documented in wild vertebrate populations, yet the proximate drivers of age-related declines in breeding success, including allocation trade-offs and links with foraging performance, are poorly understood. For long-lived, migratory species, the non-breeding period represents a critical time for investment in self-maintenance and restoration of body condition, which in many species is linked to fitness. However, the relationships between age, non-breeding foraging behaviour and fitness remain largely unexplored. 2. We performed...

Data from: Reproduction triggers adaptive increases in body size in female mole-rats

Jack Thorley, Nathan Katlein, Katy Goddard, Markus Zoettl & Tim Clutton-Brock
In social mole-rats, breeding females are larger and more elongated than nonbreeding female helpers. The status-related morphological divergence is thought to arise from modifications of skeletal growth following the death or removal of the previous breeder and the transition of their successors from a nonbreeding to a breeding role. However, it is not clear what changes in growth are involved, whether they are stimulated by the relaxation of reproductive suppression or by changes in breeding...

Data from: Killer whales (Orcinus orca) in Iceland show weak genetic structure among diverse isotopic signatures and observed movement patterns

Sara B. Tavares, Filipa I.P. Samarra, Sonia Pascoal, Jeff A. Graves, Patrick J.O. Miller, Filipa I. P. Samarra & Patrick J. O. Miller
Local adaption through ecological niche specialization can lead to genetic structure between and within populations. In the Northeast Pacific, killer whales (Orcinus orca) of the same population have uniform specialized diets that are non-overlapping with other sympatric, genetically divergent and socially isolated killer whale ecotypes. However, killer whales in Iceland show intra-population variation of isotopic niches and observed movement patterns: some individuals appear to specialise on herring and follow it year-round while others feed upon...

Data from: Variability in commercial demand for tree saplings affects the probability of introducing exotic forest diseases

Vasthi Alonso Chavez, Christopher A. Gilligan & Frank Van Den Bosch
1. Several devastating forest pathogens are suspected or known to have entered the UK through imported planting material. The nursery industry is a key business of the tree trade network. Variability in demand for trees makes it difficult for nursery owners to predict how many trees to produce in their nursery. When in any given year, the demand for trees is larger than the production, nursery owners buy trees from foreign sources to match market...

Data from: Human variation in the shape of the birth canal is significant and geographically structured

Lia Betti & Andrea Manica
The human birth canal shows a tight fit with the size of the neonate, which can lead to obstetric complications. This is not the case in other apes, and has been explained as the outcome of conflicting evolutionary pressures for bipedal locomotion and parturition of a highly-encephalised fetus. Despite the suggested evolutionary constraints on the female pelvis, we show that women are, in fact, extremely variable in the shape of the bony birth canal, with...

Data from: The early-life environment and individual plasticity in life history

Ornela De Gasperin, Ana Duarte, Sinead English, Alfredo Attisano & Rebecca M. Kilner
We tested whether the early-life environment can influence the extent of individual plasticity in a life history trait. We asked: can the early-life environment explain why, in response to the same adult environmental cue, some individuals invest more than others in current reproduction? And can it additionally explain why investment in current reproduction trades off against survival in some individuals, but is positively correlated with survival in others? We addressed these questions using the burying...

Data from: Moving from frugivory to seed dispersal: incorporating the functional outcomes of interactions in plant-frugivore networks

Benno I. Simmons, William J. Sutherland, Lynn V. Dicks, Jörg Albrecht, Nina Farwig, Daniel Garcia, Pedro Jordano & Juan P. González-Varo
1.There is growing interest in understanding the functional outcomes of species interactions in ecological networks. For many mutualistic networks, including pollination and seed dispersal networks, interactions are generally sampled by recording animal foraging visits to plants. However, these visits may not reflect actual pollination or seed dispersal events, despite these typically being the ecological processes of interest. 2.Frugivorous animals can act as seed dispersers, by swallowing entire fruits and dispersing their seeds, or as pulp...

Data from: Anisotropic growth is achieved through the additive mechanical effect of material anisotropy and elastic asymmetry

Firas Bou Daher, Yuanjie Chen, Behruz Bozorg, Jack Clough, Henrik Jönsson & Siobhan A. Braybrook
Fast directional growth is a necessity for the young seedling; after germination, it needs to quickly penetrate the soil to begin its autotrophic life. In most dicot plants, this rapid escape is due to the anisotropic elongation of the hypocotyl, the columnar organ between the root and the shoot meristems. Anisotropic growth is common in plant organs and is canonically attributed to cell wall anisotropy produced by oriented cellulose fibers. Recently, a mechanism based on...

Data from: Y chromosome sequences reveal a short Beringian Standstill, rapid expansion, and early population structure of Native American founders

Thomaz Pinotti, Susana Revollo, Cézar Paz-Y-Miño, Ricardo Fujita, Fabrício Rodrigues Santos, Chris Tyler-Smith, Toomas Kivisild, Qasim Ayub, Anders Bergström, Yali Xue, Cinthia Cuellar, Dominique Ohasi, Daniela R. Lacerda, Marilza S. Jota, José E. Santos & Arne Solli
The Americas were the last inhabitable continents to be occupied by humans, with a growing multidisciplinary consensus for entry 15-25 thousand years ago (kya) from northeast Asia via the former Beringia land bridge. Autosomal DNA analyses have dated the separation of Native American ancestors from the Asian gene pool to 23 kya or later, and mtDNA analyses to ~25 kya, followed by isolation (‘Beringian Standstill’) for 2.4-9 ky and then a rapid expansion throughout the...

Data from: Of puzzles and pavements: a quantitative exploration of leaf epidermal cell shape

Róza V. Vőfély, Joseph Gallagher, Grace D. Pisano, Madelaine Bartlett & Siobhan A. Braybrook
Epidermal cells of leaves are diverse: tabular pavement cells, trichomes, and stomatal complexes. Pavement cells from the monocot Zea mays (maize) and the eudicot Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) have highly undulate anticlinal walls. The molecular basis for generating these undulating margins has been extensively investigated in these species. This has led to two assumptions: first, that particular plant lineages are characterized by particular pavement cell shapes; and second, that undulatory cell shapes are common enough to...

Data from: Multiple stages of tree seedling recruitment are altered in tropical forests degraded by selective logging

Rajeev Pillay, Fangyuan Hua, Bette A. Loiselle, Henry Bernard & Robert J. Fletcher
Tropical forest degradation is a global environmental issue. In degraded forests, seedling recruitment of canopy trees is vital for forest regeneration and recovery. We investigated how selective logging, a pervasive driver of tropical forest degradation, impacts canopy tree seedling recruitment, focusing on an endemic dipterocarp Dryobalanops lanceolata in Sabah, Borneo. During a mast-fruiting event in intensively logged and nearby unlogged forest, we examined four stages of the seedling recruitment process: seed production, seed predation, and...

Data from: Screening of candidate substrates and coupling ions of transporters by thermostability shift assays

Homa Majd, Martin S. King, Shane M. Palmer, Anthony C. Smith, Liam D. H. Elbourne, Ian T. Paulsen, David Sharples, Peter J. F. Henderson, Edmund R. S. Kunji, Peter JF Henderson, Liam DH Elbourne & Edmund RS Kunji
Substrates of most transport proteins have not been identified, limiting our understanding of their role in physiology and disease. Traditional identification methods use transport assays with radioactive compounds, but they are technically challenging and many compounds are unavailable in radioactive form or are prohibitively expensive, precluding large-scale trials. Here, we present a high-throughput screening method that can identify candidate substrates from libraries of unlabeled compounds. The assay is based on the principle that transport proteins...

Data from: Counting crows: flock structure and subgroup size variation in an urban population of crows

Florian Uhl, Max Ringler, Rachael Miller, Sarah A. Deventer, Thomas Bugnyar & Christine Schwab
Social complexity arises from the formation of social relationships like social bonds and dominance hierarchies. In turn, these aspects may be affected by the degree of fission-fusion dynamics, i.e. changes in group size and composition over time. Whilst fission-fusion dynamics has been studied in mammals, birds have received comparably little attention, despite some species having equally complex social lives. Here, we investigated the influence of environmental factors on aspects of fission-fusion dynamics in a free-ranging...

Data from: Do replicates of independent guppy lineages evolve similarly in a predator-free laboratory environment?

Kiyoko M. Gotanda, Amy Pack, Caroline Leblond & Andrew P. Hendry
The Trinidadian guppy is emblematic of parallel and convergent evolution, with repeated demonstrations that predation regime is a driver of adaptive trait evolution. A classic and foundational experiment in this system was conducted by John Endler 40 years ago, where male guppies placed into low-predation environments in the laboratory evolved increased color in a few generations. However, Endler’s experiment did not employ the now typical design for a parallel/convergent evolution study, which would employ replicates...

Data from: Superior stimulation of female fecundity by subordinate males provides a mechanism for telegony

Sonia Pascoal, Benjamin J.M. Jarrett, Emma Evans, Rebecca M. Kilner & Benjamin J. M. Jarrett
When females mate promiscuously, rival males compete to fertilise the ova. In theory, a male can increase his success at siring offspring by inducing the female to lay more eggs, as well as by producing more competitive sperm. Here we report that the evolutionary consequences of fecundity stimulation extend beyond rival males, by experimentally uncovering effects on offspring. With experiments on the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides, we show that smaller subordinate males are better able...

Data from: Coping with the climate: cuticular hydrocarbon acclimation of ants under constant and fluctuating conditions

Philipp Peter Sprenger, Lars Holm Burkert, Berengere Abou, Walter Federle & Florian Menzel
Terrestrial arthropods achieve waterproofing by a layer of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs). At the same time, CHCs also serve as communication signals. To maintain waterproofing under different climate conditions, insects adjust the chemical composition of their CHC layer, but this may affect the communication via CHC. The detailed acclimatory changes of CHCs and how these influence their physical properties are still unknown. Here, we studied acclimation in two closely related ant species with distinct CHC profiles,...

Data from: Detection of human disease conditions by single-cell morpho-rheological phenotyping of blood

Nicole Toepfner, Christoph Herold, Oliver Otto, Philipp Rosendahl, Angela Jacobi, Martin Kräter, Julia Stächele, Leonard Menschner, Maik Herbig, Laura Ciuffreda, Lisa Ranford-Cartwright, Michal Grzybek, Ünal Coskun, Elisabeth Reithuber, Genevieve Garriss, Peter Mellroth, Birgitta Henriques Normark, Nicola Tregay, Meinolf Suttorp, Martin Bornhäuser, Edwin R. Chilvers, Reinhard Berner, Jochen Guck, Birgitta Henriques-Normark & Leonhard Menschner
Blood is arguably the most important bodily fluid and its analysis provides crucial health status information. A first routine measure to narrow down diagnosis in clinical practice is the differential blood count, determining the frequency of all major blood cells. What is lacking to advance initial blood diagnostics is an unbiased and quick functional assessment of blood that can narrow down the diagnosis and generate specific hypotheses. To address this need, we introduce the continuous,...

Data from: Comparisons of reproductive function and fatty acid fillet quality between triploid and diploid farm Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

David S. Murray, Martin J. Kainz, Laura Hebberecht, Kris R. Sales, Kjetil Hindar & Matthew J.G. Gage
Triploidy could prevent escaped farm salmon breeding in the wild, while also improving nutrient quality within farmed fillets. Despite these potential advantages, triploid Atlantic salmon have not been widely used in aquaculture, and their reproductive function has yet to be fully evaluated. Here, we compare reproductive function and fillet composition between triploid and diploid farm salmon under standard aquaculture rearing conditions. We show that female triploids are sterile and do not develop gonads. In contrast,...

Registration Year

  • 2018
    64

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    64

Affiliations

  • University of Cambridge
    64
  • University of Copenhagen
    4
  • University of Edinburgh
    3
  • University of East Anglia
    3
  • University of St Andrews
    3
  • University of California Los Angeles
    3
  • University of Lausanne
    2
  • British Antarctic Survey
    2
  • University of Oslo
    2
  • University of Leeds
    2