57 Works

Data from: Does evolutionary history correlate with contemporary extinction risk by influencing range size dynamics?

Andrew J. Tanentzap, Javier Igea, Matthew G. Johnston & Matthew J. Larcombe
Extinction threatens many species, yet is predicted by few factors across the plant Tree of Life (ToL). Taxon age is one factor that may associate with extinction if occupancy of geographic and adaptive zones varies with time, but evidence for such an association has been equivocal. Age-dependent occupancy can also influence diversification rates and thus extinction risk where new taxa have small range and population sizes. To test how age, diversification, and range size were...

Temporal Human Pressure Index

Jonas Geldmann, Lucas Joppa & Neil D. Burgess
It is widely accepted that the main driver of the observed decline in biological diversity is increasing human pressure on Earth’s ecosystems. However, the spatial patterns of change in human pressure and their relation to conservation efforts are less well known. We developed a spatially and temporally explicit map of global change in human pressure over two decades between 1990 and 2010 at a resolution of 10 km2. We evaluated 22 spatial data sets representing...

Dielectric induced surface wave radiation loss

Tobias Schaich, Trevor Morsman, Anas Al Rawi & Mike Payne
Data and source code for the article "Dielectric Induced Surface Wave Radiation Loss" submitted to the Proceedings of the Royal Society A.

Assessing the potential for indirect interactions between tropical tree species via shared insect seed predators

Harriet Downey, Owen T. Lewis, Michael B. Bonsall, Alan Ward & Sofia Gripenberg.
Natural enemies of plants have the potential to influence the dynamics of plant populations and the structure of plant communities. In diverse tropical forests research on the effects of plant enemies has largely focused on the diversity-enhancing effects of highly specialised enemies, while the community-level effects of enemies with broader diets have rarely been considered. We investigated the community of insect seed predators interacting with seven tree species in the family Lauraceae on Barro Colorado...

Quantifying the structure and dynamics of fish shoals under predation threat in three-dimensions

Maksym Romenskyy, James Herbert-Read, Christol Ioannou, Alex Szorkovszky, Ashley Ward & David Sumpter
Detailed quantifications of how predators and their grouping prey interact in three dimensions (3D) remain rare. Here we record the structure and dynamics of fish shoals (Pseudomugil signifer) in 3D both with and without live predators (Philypnodon grandiceps) under controlled laboratory conditions. Shoals adopted two distinct types of shoal structure; ‘sphere-like’ geometries at depth, and flat ‘carpet-like’ structures at the water’s surface, with shoals becoming more compact in both horizontal and vertical planes in the...

Data from: Comparative phylogeography of three host sea anemones in the Indo-Pacific

Pablo Saenz-Agudelo, Madeleine Emms, Emily Giles, Remy Gatins, Gerrit Nanninga, Anna Scott, Jean Paul Hobbs, Ashley Frisch, Suzanne Mills, Ricardo Beldade & Michael Berumen
Aim The mutualistic relationship between anemones and anemonefishes is one of the most iconic examples of symbiosis. However, while anemonefishes have been extensively studied in terms of genetic connectivity, such information is lacking entirely for host sea anemones. Here, we provide the first information on the broad-scale population structure and phylogeographic patterns of three species of host sea anemone, Heteractis magnifica, Stichodactyla mertensii, and Entacmaea quadricolor. We evaluate if there is concordance in genetic structure...

Data from: Release from intralocus sexual conflict? Evolved loss of a male sexual trait demasculinises female gene expression

Jack G. Rayner, Sonia Pascoal & Nathan W. Bailey
The loss of sexual ornaments is observed across taxa, and pleiotropic effects of such losses provide an opportunity to gain insight into underlying dynamics of sex-biased gene expression and intralocus sexual conflict (IASC). We investigated this in a Hawaiian field cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus, in which an X-linked genotype (flatwing) feminises males’ wings and eliminates their ability to produce sexually selected songs. We profiled adult gene expression across somatic and reproductive tissues of both sexes. Despite...

Data from: Recombination rate variation shapes barriers to introgression across butterfly genomes

Simon H. Martin, John W. Davey, Camilo Salazar & Chris D. Jiggins
Hybridisation and introgression can dramatically alter the relationships among groups of species, leading to phylogenetic discordance across the genome and between populations. Introgression can also erode species differences over time, but selection against introgression at certain loci acts to maintain post-mating species barriers. Theory predicts that species barriers made up of many loci throughout the genome should lead to a broad correlation between introgression and recombination rate, which determines the extent to which selection on...

Data from: Decreased brain connectivity in smoking contrasts with increased connectivity in drinking

Wei Cheng, Edmund T. Rolls, Trevor W. Robbins, Weikang Gong, Zhaowen Liu, Wujun Lv, Jingnan Du, Hongkai Wen, Liang Ma, Erin Burke Quinlan, Hugh Garavan, Eric Artiges, Dimitri Papadopoulos Orfanos, Michael N. Smolka, Gunter Schumann, Keith Kendrick & Jianfeng Feng
In a group of 831 participants from the general population in the Human Connectome Project, smokers exhibited low overall functional connectivity, and more specifically of the lateral orbitofrontal cortex which is associated with non-reward mechanisms, the adjacent inferior frontal gyrus, and the precuneus. Participants who drank a high amount had overall increases in resting state functional connectivity, and specific increases in reward-related systems including the medial orbitofrontal cortex and the cingulate cortex. Increased impulsivity was...

Data from: A Western route of prehistoric human migration from Africa into the Iberian Peninsula

Gloria Gonzalez-Fortes, Francesca Tassi, Emiliano Trucchi, Kirstin Henneberger, Johanna L.A. Paijmans, Daviz Diez-Del-Molino, Hannes Schroeder, Cecilio Barroso, Francisco J. Bermudez, Cecilio Barroso-Medina, Ana M.S. Bettencourt, Hugo A. Sampaio, Aurora Grandal-D'Anglade, Antonio Salas, Arturo De Lombera-Hermida, Ramon Fabregas, Manuel Vaquero, Susana Alonso, Maria Lozano, Xavier Rodríguez-Alvarez, Carlos Fernández-Rodríguez, Andrea Manica, Michael Hofreiter & Guido Barbujani
Being at the Western fringe of Europe, Iberia had a peculiar prehistory and a complex pattern of Neolithization. A few studies, all based on modern populations, reported the presence of DNA of likely African origin in this region, generally concluding it was the result of recent gene flow, probably during the Islamic period. Here we provide evidence of much older gene flow from Africa to Iberia by sequencing whole genomes from four human remains from...

Effects of BCG vaccination against Bovine Tuberculosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis Date

V. Srikrishnan, A. Conlan, L. Easterling, C. Herrara, P. Dandapat, M. Veerasami, G. Ameni, D. Bakker, M. Vordermeier & V. Kapur
Despite the effective control of Bovine Tuberculosis (bTB) in many countries using test-and-slaughter, more than 50 million cattle are still likely to be infected worldwide, highlighting the urgent need for alternative interventions such as vaccines to reduce disease burden and control spread of bTB. Vaccination may be particularly important in regions where the disease is endemic, and test-and-slaughter is neither practical nor acceptable socio-economically. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has been in experimental use in cattle for...

Polysome fractionation analysis reveals features important for human nonsense-mediated mRNA decay

James Lloyd, Courtney French & Steven Brenner
Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is a translation-dependent mRNA surveillance pathway that eliminates transcripts with premature termination codons. Several studies have tried defined the features governing which transcripts are targeted to NMD. However, these approaches often rely on inhibiting core NMD factors, which often have roles in non-NMD processes within the cell. Based on reports that NMD-targeted transcripts are often bound by a single ribosome, we analyzed RNA-Seq data from a polysome fractionation experiment (TrIP-Seq) to...

Oak-associated biodiversity in the UK (OakEcol)

R.J. Mitchell, P.E. Bellamy, C.J. Ellis, R.L. Hewison, N.G. Hodgetts, G.R. Iason, N.A. Littlewood, S. Newey, J.A. Stockan & A.F.S. Taylor
This dataset contains a list of all known birds, bryophytes, fungi, invertebrates, lichens and mammals that use oak (Quercus petraea and Quercus robur) in the UK. In total 2300 species are listed in the dataset. For each species we provide a level of association with oak, ranging from obligate (only found on oak) to cosmopolitan (found on a wide range of other tree species). Data on the ecology of each oak associated species is provided:...

Sunflower seed predation rates in Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function in Tropical Agriculture (BEFTA) plots, Kandista and Ujun Tanjung estates, Indonesia

A. E. Eycott, E.C. Turner, S. H. Luke & A. D. Advento
Data comprise sunflower seed predation rates (i.e. number of seeds remaining) after 24 hours under different treatments in 18 experimental plots plots established in 2013 as part of the Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function in Tropical Agriculture (BEFTA) programme. Eighteen plots were examined across three estates – plots in Ujung Tanjung and Kandista estates were planted in 1987 to 1992 and are mature or over-mature oil palm, while Libo plots were replanted in 2014. Plots were...

Data from: Hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance induce gravid uterine defects in association with mitochondrial dysfunction and aberrant ROS production

Min Hu, Yuehui Zhang, Xiaozhu Guo, Wenyan Jia, Guoqi Liu, Jiao Zhang, Juan Li, Peng Cui, Amanda N. Sferruzzi-Perrie, Yanhua Han, Xiaoke Wu, Hongxia Ma, Mats Brännström, Linus R. Shao & Håkan Billig
Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are at increased risk of miscarriage, which often accompanies the hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance seen in these patients. However, neither the combinatorial interaction between these two PCOS-related etiological factors nor the mechanisms of their actions in the uterus during pregnancy are well understood. We hypothesised that hyperandrogensim and insulin resistance exert a causative role in miscarriage by inducing defects in uterine function that are accompanied by mitochondrial-mediated oxidative stress,...

Data from: Seasonal variation in food availability and relative importance of dietary items in the Gambian epauletted fruit bat (Epomophorus gambianus)

Kofi Amponsah-Mensah, Andrew A. Cunningham, James L.N. Wood & Yaa Ntiamoa-Baidu
1. The Gambian epauletted fruit bat (Epomophorus gambianus) is very common across a variety of West African habitats, but very little information is available on its feeding ecology or its contribution to ecosystem function. 2. We investigated seasonal variation in food availability and the relative importance of dietary items used by this species in a forest-savannah transitional ecosystem. Dietary items were identified from 1,470 samples of faecal and ejecta pellets which had been collected under...

Data from: Genetic diversity, demographic history and neo-sex chromosomes in the Critically Endangered Raso lark

Elisa G. Dierickx, Simon Yung Wa Sin, Pieter Van Veelen, M. De L. Brooke, Yang Liu, Scott V. Edwards & Simon H. Martin
Small effective population sizes could expose island species to inbreeding and loss of genetic variation. Here, we investigate factors shaping genetic diversity in the Raso lark, which has been restricted to a single islet for approximately 500 years, with a population size of a few hundred. We assembled a reference genome for the related Eurasian skylark and then assessed diversity and demographic history using RAD-seq data (75 samples from Raso larks and two related mainland...

Data from: Were the floods in the UK 2007 and Germany 2013 game-changers?

Stephen Platt
This dataset concerns recovery after major floods in the UK 2007 and Germany 2013. It contains two sheets. The first sheet contains data from a survey of residents and local businesses in Catcliffe, between Sheffield and Rotherham in South Yorkshire and in Dreiflüsse-Eck, the “Three Rivers Corner” in Passau in Bavaria conducted in late 2018 and early 2019. The second sheet conatisn data from a survey with flood experts in the UK and Germany. The...

Spectrum of mutational signatures in T-cell lymphoma reveals a key role for UV radiation in mycosis fungoides and Sezary syndrome

Christine Jones, Andrea Degasperi, Vieri Grandi, Tracey Mitchell & Serena Nik-Zainal
T-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas develop following transformation of tissue resident T-cells. We performed a meta-analysis of mutational catalogues derived from whole exome sequencing data from 403 patients with eight subtypes of T-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma to identify mutational signatures and recurrent gene mutations associated with specific causal peaks within these signatures. Signature 1, indicative of age-related deamination, was prevalent across all T-cell lymphoma subtypes, reflecting the derivation of these malignancies from memory T-cell subsets. The majority of...

A possible Cambrian stem-group gnathiferan-chaetognath from the Weeks Formation (Miaolingian) of Utah

Simon Conway Morris, Ru Smith, Jennifer Hoyal Cuthill, Enrico Bonino & Rudy Lerosey-Aubril
In recent years the plethora of “weird wonders”, the vernacular for the apparently extinct major bodyplans documented in many of the Cambrian Lagerstätten, has been dramatically trimmed. This is because various taxa have either been assigned to known phyla or at least accommodated in larger monophyletic assemblages. Nevertheless, a number of Cambrian taxa retain their enigmatic status. To this intriguing roster we add Dakorhachis thambus n. gen. n. sp., from the Miaolingian (Guzhangian) Weeks Formation...

Long-term movements and home range changes: rapid territory shifts in meerkats

Bart Kranstauber, Tim Clutton-Brock & Marta Manser
1. Territoriality and stable home ranges are a common space use pattern among animals. These ranges provide its inhabitants with important resources and thus favourable territories are associated with an increased fitness. While the role of territory quality and changes of territory ownership have often been investigated, the changes of territorial boundaries have been less studied. 2. Here we investigated space use changes in a social mammal species, applying a novel analytical approach, calculating long-term...

Data from: Bony lesions in early tetrapods and the evolution of mineralized tissue repair

Eva Herbst, Michael Doube, Timothy Smithson, Jenny Clack & John Hutchinson
Bone healing is an important survival mechanism, allowing vertebrates to recover from injury and disease. Here we describe newly recognized paleopathologies in the hindlimbs of the early tetrapods Crassigyrinus scoticus and Eoherpeton watsoni from the Early Carboniferous of Cowdenbeath, Scotland. These pathologies are among the oldest known instances of bone healing in tetrapod limb bones in the fossil record (about 325 Myr old). X-ray microtomographic imaging of the internal bone structure of these lesions shows...

Data from: The distribution of plants and seed dispersers in response to habitat fragmentation in an artificial island archipelago

Jiajia Liu, Ferry Slik, David Coomes, Richard T. Corlett, Yanping Wang, Maxwell Wilson, Guang Hu, Ping Ding & Mingjian Yu
Aim: Small, old-growth forest fragments generally have more small-seeded plants than large patches, due to the disappearance of large seed dispersing vertebrates. This pattern may differ for secondary forest fragments where differential migration ability rather than persistence of seed dispersers may be driving plant community assembly. In this paper, we investigated the effect of habitat fragmentation on seed dispersers and plant community structure in regenerating forests. Location: The Thousand Island Lake, China. Taxon: Plants, birds...

Data from: Areal differences in depth cue integration between monkey and human

Marcelo Armendariz, Hiroshi Ban, Andrew E Welchman & Wim Vanduffel
Electrophysiological evidence suggested primarily the involvement of area MT in depth cue integration in macaques, as opposed to human imaging data pinpointing area V3B/KO. To clarify this conundrum, we decoded monkey fMRI responses evoked by stimuli signaling near or far depths defined by binocular disparity, relative motion and their combination, and we compared results with those from an identical experiment previously performed in humans.Responses in macaque area MT are more discriminable when two cues concurrently...

Data from: Long-term impacts of changed grazing regimes on the vegetation of heterogeneous upland grasslands

Robin J. Pakeman, Debbie A. Fielding, Liese Everts & Nick A. Littlewood
1. Marginal agricultural land, which in the UK refers particularly to upland grazings, will see changes in management driven by markets, subsidies, grants and environmental change with implications for biodiversity. 2. Using a large-scale, long-term grazing experiment in the UK uplands we assessed the impact of intensification (tripling sheep numbers), abandonment (removal of sheep) and grazer diversification (partial replacement of sheep by cattle) on vegetation composition in a heterogenous area of grassland. 3. Species benefiting...

Registration Year

  • 2019

Resource Types

  • Dataset
  • Collection


  • University of Cambridge
  • University of Edinburgh
  • University of Zurich
  • Plymouth University
  • University of Vermont
  • University of Aberdeen
  • King's College London
  • University of East Anglia
  • Griffith University
  • James Hutton Institute