91 Works

Archives and Special Collections Linked Data: Navigating between Notes and Nodes

Erin Blake, Itza A. Carbajal, Regine Heberlein, Sarah Horowitz, Jason Kovari, VANESSA LACEY, Cory Lampert, Holly Mengel, Cory Nimer, Maria Oldal, Merrilee Proffitt, Nathan Putnam, Arielle Rambo, Elizabeth Roke, Eric de Ruijter, Dan Santamaria, Karen Smith-Yoshimura, Weatherly Stephan, Bruce Washburn & Chela Weber

Signals interpreted as archaic introgression are driven primarily by accelerated evolution in Africa

William Amos
Non-African humans appear to carry a few percent archaic DNA due to ancient inter-breeding. This modest legacy and its likely recent timing imply that most introgressed fragments will be rare and hence will occur mainly in the heterozygous state. I tested this prediction by calculating D statistics, a measure of legacy size, for pairs of humans where one of the pair was conditioned always to be either homozygous or heterozygous. Using coalescent simulations, I confirmed...

Wolbachia affect behavior and possibly reproductive compatibility but not thermoresistance, fecundity, and morphology in a novel transinfected host, Drosophila nigrosparsa

Matsapume Detcharoen, Wolfgang Arthofer, Francis Jiggins, Florian Steiner & Birgit Schlick-Steiner
Wolbachia, intracellular endosymbionts, are estimated to infect about half of all arthropod species. These bacteria manipulate their hosts in various ways for their maximum benefits. The rising global temperature may accelerate species migration and, thus, horizontal transfer of Wolbachia may occur across species previously not in contact. We transinfected and then cured the alpine fly Drosophila nigrosparsa with Wolbachia strain wMel to study its effects on this species. We found low Wolbachia titer, possibly cytoplasmic...

Can behaviour impede evolution? persistence of singing effort after morphological song loss in crickets

Jack Rayner, Will Schneider & Nathan Bailey
Evolutionary loss of sexual signals is widespread. Examining the consequences for behaviours associated with such signals can provide insight into factors promoting or inhibiting trait loss. We tested whether a behavioural component of a sexual trait, male calling effort, has been evolutionary reduced in silent populations of Hawaiian field crickets (Teleogryllus oceanicus). Cricket song requires energetically costly wing movements, but ‘flatwing’ males have feminised wings that preclude song and protect against a lethal, eavesdropping parasitoid....

Data from: Differential divergence in autosomes and sex chromosomes is associated with intra-island diversification at a very small spatial scale in a songbird lineage

Yann Bourgeois, Joris Bertrand, Boris Delahaie, Helene Holota, Christophe Thebaud & Borja Mila
Recently diverged taxa showing marked phenotypic and ecological diversity are optimal systems to understand the genetic processes underlying speciation. We used genome-wide markers to investigate the diversification of the Reunion grey white eye (Zosterops borbonicus) on the small volcanic island of Reunion (Mascarene archipelago), where this species complex exhibits four geographic forms that are parapatrically distributed across the island and differ strikingly in plumage colour. One form restricted to the highlands is separated by a...

Small scale variability in soil moisture drives infection of vulnerable juniper populations by invasive forest pathogen

Flora Donald, Sarah Green, Kate Searle, Nik J. Cunniffe & Bethan V. Purse
The oomycete plant pathogen, Phytophthora austrocedri, is an aggressive killer of cypress trees causing severe mortality of Chilean cedar (Austrocedrus chilensis) in Argentina since the 1940s and now common juniper (Juniperus communis s.l.) in the UK. Rapid mortality of key UK juniper populations was first observed in the early 2000s; the causal agent of mortality was confirmed as P. austrocedri in 2012 and the pathogen has now been widely detected - but is not ubiquitous...

Teaching and learning in ecology: a horizon scan of emerging challenges and solutions

Zenobia Lewis, Julia Cooke, Yoseph Araya, Karen Bacon, Joanna Bagniewska, Lesley Batty, Tom Bishop, Moya Burns, Magda Charalambous, David Daversa, Liam Dougherty, Miranda Dyson, Adam Fisher, Dan Forman, Cristina Garcia, Ewan Harney, Thomas Hesselberg, Elizabeth John, Robert Knell, Kadmiel Maseyk, Alice Mauchline, Julie Peacock, Angelo Pernetto, Jeremy Pritchard, William Sutherland … & Nicholas Worsfold
We currently face significant, anthropogenic, global environmental challenges and therole of ecologists in mitigating these challenges is arguably more important than ever. Consequently there is an urgent need to recruit and train future generations of ecologists, both those whose main area is ecology, but also those involved in the geological, biological and environmental sciences. Here we present the results of a horizon scanning exercise that identified current and future challenges facing the teaching of ecology,...

Clustering of loci controlling species differences in male chemical bouquets of sympatric Heliconius butterflies

Kelsey Byers, Kathy Darragh, Sylvia Fernanda Garza, Diana Abondano Almeida, Ian Warren, Pasi Rastas, Richard Merrill, Stefan Schulz, W. Owen McMillan & Chris Jiggins
The degree to which loci promoting reproductive isolation cluster in the genome – i.e. the genetic architecture of reproductive isolation - can influence the tempo and mode of speciation. Tight linkage between these loci can facilitate speciation in the face of gene flow. Pheromones play a role in reproductive isolation in many Lepidoptera species, and the role of endogenously-produced compounds as secondary metabolites decreases the likelihood of pleiotropy associated with many barrier loci. Heliconius butterflies...

Data from: Group size elevates inequality in cooperative behaviour

Shay Rotics & Tim Clutton-Brock
In cooperatively breeding species where rearing effort is shared among multiple group members, increases in group size typically reduce average per capita contributions to offspring care in all group members (load-lightening) but it is not known how changes in group size affect the distribution of workload among group members. The socioeconomic collective action theory suggests that, in larger groups, the incentives for free riding are stronger, leading to greater inequalities in work-division among group members....

The Geometry and Genetics of Hybridization

Hilde Schneemann, Bianca De Sanctis, Denis Roze, Nicolas Bierne & John Welch
When divergent populations form hybrids, hybrid fitness can vary with genome composition, current environmental conditions, and the divergence history of the populations. We develop analytical predictions for hybrid fitness, which incorporate all three factors. The predictions are based on Fisher's geometric model, and apply to a wide range of population genetic parameter regimes and divergence conditions, including allopatry and parapatry, local adaptation and drift. Results show that hybrid fitness can be decomposed into intrinsic effects...

Temperature-mediated plasticity in incubation schedules is unlikely to evolve to buffer embryos from climatic challenges in a seasonal songbird

Alexandra Cones, Andrea Liebl, Thomas Houslay & Andrew Russell
Phenotypic plasticity is hypothesised to facilitate adaptive responses to challenging conditions, such as those resulting from climate change. However, the key predictions of this ‘rescue hypothesis’, that variation in plasticity exists and can evolve to buffer unfavourable conditions, remain rare. Here, we investigate among-female variation in temperature-mediated plasticity of incubation schedules and consequences for egg temperatures using the chestnut-crowned babbler (Pomatostomus ruficeps) from temperate regions of inland south-eastern Australia. Given phenological advances in this seasonal...

Disentangling sources of gene tree discordance in phylogenomic datasets: testing ancient hybridizations in Amaranthaceae s.l.

Diego F. Morales-Briones, Gudrun Kadereit, Delphine Tefarikis, Michael Moore, Stephen Smith, Samuel Brockington, Alfonso Timoneda, Won Yim, John Cushman & Ya Yang
Gene tree discordance in large genomic datasets can be caused by evolutionary processes such as incomplete lineage sorting and hybridization, as well as model violation, and errors in data processing, orthology inference, and gene tree estimation. Species tree methods that identify and accommodate all sources of conflict are not available, but a combination of multiple approaches can help tease apart alternative sources of conflict. Here, using a phylotranscriptomic analysis in combination with reference genomes, we...

Data from: Multimodal mimicry of hosts in a radiation of parasitic finches

Gabriel Jamie, Steven M. Van Belleghem, Benedict G. Hogan, Silky Hamama, Collins Moya, Jolyon Troscianko, Mary Stoddard, Rebecca Kilner & Claire Spottiswoode
Brood parasites use the parental care of others to raise their young and sometimes employ mimicry to dupe their hosts. The brood-parasitic finches of the genus Vidua are a textbook example of the role of imprinting in sympatric speciation. Sympatric speciation is thought to occur in Vidua because their mating traits and host preferences are strongly influenced by their early host environment. However, this alone may not be sufficient to isolate parasite lineages, and divergent...

How butterflies keep their cool: physical and ecological traits influence thermoregulatory ability and population trends.

Andrew Bladon, Matthew Lewis, Eleanor Bladon, Sam Buckton, Stuart Corbett, Steven Ewing, Matthew Hayes, Gwen Hitchcock, Richard Knock, Colin Lucas, Adam McVeigh, Rosa Menendez, Jonah Walker, Tom Fayle & Edgar Turner
Understanding which factors influence the ability of individuals to respond to changing temperatures is fundamental to species conservation under climate change. We investigated how a community of butterflies responded to fine-scale changes in air temperature, and whether species-specific responses were predicted by ecological or morphological traits. Using data collected across a UK reserve network, we investigated the ability of 29 butterfly species to buffer thoracic temperature against changes in air temperature. First, we tested whether...

Derived global responses of annual river flow to catchment forestation through time, between 1900 and 2018

L. Bentley & D.A. Coomes
This dataset reports the responses of annual river flow to forestation in 43 catchments and contains 770 data points. Data shows the change in river flow following forestation at annual time scales, along control river flow measurements and associated metadata from primary and secondary sources. Data collection, processing and interpretation were performed by Laura Bentley and David A. Coomes between January 2018 and October 2019. Forestation was defined as a change in land cover from...

Data from: Resegmentation is an ancestral feature of the gnathostome vertebral skeleton

Katharine E. Criswell & J. Andrew Gillis
The vertebral skeleton is a defining feature of vertebrate animals. However, the mode of vertebral segmentation varies considerably between major lineages. In tetrapods, adjacent somite halves recombine to form a single vertebra through the process of ‘resegmentation’. In teleost fishes, there is considerable mixing between cells of the anterior and posterior somite halves, without clear resegmentation. To determine whether resegmentation is a tetrapod novelty, or an ancestral feature of jawed vertebrates, we tested the relationship...

A practical approach to measuring the biodiversity impacts of land conversion

América P. Durán, Jonathan M. H. Green, Christopher D. West, Piero Visconti, Neil Burgess, Malika Virah-Sawmy & Andrew Balmford
1. Further progress in reducing biodiversity loss relies on the improved quantification of the connections between drivers of habitat loss and subsequent biodiversity impacts. To this end, biodiversity impact metrics should be able to report linked trends in specific human activities and changes in biodiversity state, accounting for both the ecology of different species, and the cumulative effects of historical habitat losses. These characteristics are not currently captured within a single metric. 2. Here we...

Weight loss, insulin resistance, and study design confound results in a meta-analysis of animal models of fatty liver

Harriet Hunter, Dana De Gracia Hahn, Amedine Duret, Yu Ri Im, Qinrong Cheah, Jiawen Dong, Madison Fairey, Clarissa Hjalmarsson, Alice Li, Hong Kai Lim, Lorcan McKeown, Claudia-Gabriela Mitrofan, Raunak Rao, Mrudula Utukuri, Ian A Rowe & Jake Mann
The classical drug development pipeline necessitates studies using animal models of human disease to gauge future efficacy in humans, however there is a low conversion rate from success in animals to humans. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a complex chronic disease without any established therapies and a major field of animal research. We performed a meta-analysis with meta-regression of 603 interventional rodent studies (10,364 animals) in NAFLD to assess which variables influenced treatment response....

Tracking the Near East origins and European dispersal of the house mouse

Thomas CUCCHI, Katerina Papayianni, Sophie Cersoy, Laetitia Aznar-Cormano, Antoine Zazzo, Régis Debruyne, Rémi Berthon, Adrian Bălășescu, Alan Simmons, François Valla, Yannis Hamilakis, Fanis Mavridis, Marjan Mashkour, Jamshid Darvish, Roohollah Siahsarvi, Fereidoun Biglari, Cameron A. Petrie, Lloyd Weeks, Alireza Sardari, Sepideh Maziar, Christiane Denys, David Orton, Emma Jenkins, Melinda Zeder, Jeremy B. Searle … & Jean-Denis Vigne
The house mouse (Mus musculus) is one of the most invasive mammals and an evolutionary model. However, the timing and components of its origin and dispersal remain poorly documented. To track its synanthropisation and subsequent biological invasion during the develoment of complex human societies, we analyzed 829 Mus specimens from 43 archaeological contexts in Southwestern Asia and Southeastern Europe, dating between 40,000 and 3,000 cal. BP, combining geometric morphometris numerical taxonomy with ancient mitochondrial DNA...

Data from: Genome-wide association analysis of type 2 diabetes in the EPIC-InterAct study

Lina Cai, Eleanor Wheeler, Nicola D. Kerrison, Jian'an Luan, Panos Deloukas, Paul W. Franks, Pilar Amiano, Eva Ardanaz, Catalina Bonet, Guy Fagherazzi, Leif C. Groop, Rudolf Kaaks, José María Huerta, Giovanna Masala, Peter M. Nilsson, Kim Overvad, Valeria Pala, Salvatore Panico, Miguel Rodriguez-Barranco, Olov Rolandsson, Carlotta Sacerdote, Matthias B. Schulze, Annemieke M.W. Spijkeman, Anne Tjonneland, Rosario Tumino … & Nicholas J. Wareham
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a global public health challenge. Whilst the advent of genome-wide association studies has identified >400 genetic variants associated with T2D, our understanding of its biological mechanisms and translational insights is still limited. The EPIC-InterAct project, centred in 8 countries in the European Prospective Investigations into Cancer and Nutrition study, is one of the largest prospective studies of T2D. Established as a nested case-cohort study to investigate the interplay between genetic...

Benefits of cooperation in captive Damaraland mole rats

Thomas Houslay, Philippe Vullioud, Markus Zöttl & Tim Clutton-Brock
Although the social mole rats are commonly classified as eusocial breeders on the grounds that groups include a single breeding female (the ‘queen’) and a number of non-breeding individuals (‘helpers’) of both sexes, alloparental care is not highly developed in these species and there is no direct evidence that the presence or number of non-breeders is associated with reductions in the workload of the ‘queen’. An alternative interpretation of mole rat groups is that the...

Signalling adjustments to direct and indirect environmental effects on signal perception in meerkats

Gabriella Gall, Pauline Toni, Tim Clutton-Brock & Marta Manser
The efficiency of communication between animals is determined by the perception range of signals. With changes in the environment, signal transmission between a sender and a receiver can be affected both directly, where the signal’s propagation quality itself is affected, and indirectly, where for example the spacing between signaller and receiver is impacted. Here we investigated how meerkats (Suricata suricatta) in the Kalahari Desert adjust to these challenges in the context of maintaining group cohesion...

Hybridization and transgressive exploration of colour pattern and wing morphology in Heliconius butterflies

Claire Mérot, Vincent Debat, Yann Le Poul, Richard M Merrill, Russell E Naisbit, Adélie Tholance, Chris Jiggins & Mathieu Joron
Hybridization can generate novel phenotypes distinct from those of parental lineages, a phenomenon known as transgressive trait variation. Transgressive phenotypes might negatively or positively affect hybrid fitness, and increase available variation. Closely related species of Heliconius butterflies regularly produce hybrids in nature and hybridization is thought to play a role in the diversification of novel wing colour patterns despite strong stabilizing selection due to interspecific mimicry. Here, we studied wing phenotypes in first and second...

High temperatures drive offspring mortality in a cooperatively breeding bird

Amanda Bourne, Susan Cunningham, Claire Spottiswoode & Amanda Ridley
An improved understanding of life history responses to current environmental variability is required to predict species-specific responses to anthopogenic climate change. Previous research has suggested that cooperation in social groups may buffer individuals against some of the negative effects of unpredictable climates. We use a 15-year dataset on a cooperative-breeding arid-zone bird, the southern pied babbler Turdoides bicolor, to test i) whether environmental conditions and group size correlate with survival of young during three development...

The evolutionary dynamics and fitness landscape of clonal hematopoiesis

Caroline J. Watson, A.L. Papula, Gladys Y.P. Poon, Wing H. Wong, Andrew L. Young, Todd E. Druley, Daniel S. Fisher & Jamie R. Blundell
Somatic mutations acquired in healthy tissues as we age are major determinants of cancer risk. Whether variants confer a fitness advantage or rise to detectable frequencies by change remains largely unknown. Blood sequencing data from ∼50,000 individuals reveals how mutation, genetic drift and fitness shape the genetic diversity of healthy blood (clonal hematopoiesis). We show that positive selection, not drift, is the major force shaping clonal hematopoiesis, provide bounds on the number of hematopoietic stem...

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  • University of Cambridge
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  • Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive
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  • Royal Society for the Protection of Birds
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  • Oklahoma State University
    3
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