91 Works

Archives and Special Collections Linked Data: Navigating between Notes and Nodes

Erin Blake, Itza A. Carbajal, Regine Heberlein, Sarah Horowitz, Jason Kovari, VANESSA LACEY, Cory Lampert, Holly Mengel, Cory Nimer, Maria Oldal, Merrilee Proffitt, Nathan Putnam, Arielle Rambo, Elizabeth Roke, Eric de Ruijter, Dan Santamaria, Karen Smith-Yoshimura, Weatherly Stephan, Bruce Washburn & Chela Weber

Temperature-mediated plasticity in incubation schedules is unlikely to evolve to buffer embryos from climatic challenges in a seasonal songbird

Alexandra Cones, Andrea Liebl, Thomas Houslay & Andrew Russell
Phenotypic plasticity is hypothesised to facilitate adaptive responses to challenging conditions, such as those resulting from climate change. However, the key predictions of this ‘rescue hypothesis’, that variation in plasticity exists and can evolve to buffer unfavourable conditions, remain rare. Here, we investigate among-female variation in temperature-mediated plasticity of incubation schedules and consequences for egg temperatures using the chestnut-crowned babbler (Pomatostomus ruficeps) from temperate regions of inland south-eastern Australia. Given phenological advances in this seasonal...

How butterflies keep their cool: physical and ecological traits influence thermoregulatory ability and population trends.

Andrew Bladon, Matthew Lewis, Eleanor Bladon, Sam Buckton, Stuart Corbett, Steven Ewing, Matthew Hayes, Gwen Hitchcock, Richard Knock, Colin Lucas, Adam McVeigh, Rosa Menendez, Jonah Walker, Tom Fayle & Edgar Turner
Understanding which factors influence the ability of individuals to respond to changing temperatures is fundamental to species conservation under climate change. We investigated how a community of butterflies responded to fine-scale changes in air temperature, and whether species-specific responses were predicted by ecological or morphological traits. Using data collected across a UK reserve network, we investigated the ability of 29 butterfly species to buffer thoracic temperature against changes in air temperature. First, we tested whether...

Teaching and learning in ecology: a horizon scan of emerging challenges and solutions

Zenobia Lewis, Julia Cooke, Yoseph Araya, Karen Bacon, Joanna Bagniewska, Lesley Batty, Tom Bishop, Moya Burns, Magda Charalambous, David Daversa, Liam Dougherty, Miranda Dyson, Adam Fisher, Dan Forman, Cristina Garcia, Ewan Harney, Thomas Hesselberg, Elizabeth John, Robert Knell, Kadmiel Maseyk, Alice Mauchline, Julie Peacock, Angelo Pernetto, Jeremy Pritchard, William Sutherland … & Nicholas Worsfold
We currently face significant, anthropogenic, global environmental challenges and therole of ecologists in mitigating these challenges is arguably more important than ever. Consequently there is an urgent need to recruit and train future generations of ecologists, both those whose main area is ecology, but also those involved in the geological, biological and environmental sciences. Here we present the results of a horizon scanning exercise that identified current and future challenges facing the teaching of ecology,...

The Geometry and Genetics of Hybridization

Hilde Schneemann, Bianca De Sanctis, Denis Roze, Nicolas Bierne & John Welch
When divergent populations form hybrids, hybrid fitness can vary with genome composition, current environmental conditions, and the divergence history of the populations. We develop analytical predictions for hybrid fitness, which incorporate all three factors. The predictions are based on Fisher's geometric model, and apply to a wide range of population genetic parameter regimes and divergence conditions, including allopatry and parapatry, local adaptation and drift. Results show that hybrid fitness can be decomposed into intrinsic effects...

Data from: Group size elevates inequality in cooperative behaviour

Shay Rotics & Tim Clutton-Brock
In cooperatively breeding species where rearing effort is shared among multiple group members, increases in group size typically reduce average per capita contributions to offspring care in all group members (load-lightening) but it is not known how changes in group size affect the distribution of workload among group members. The socioeconomic collective action theory suggests that, in larger groups, the incentives for free riding are stronger, leading to greater inequalities in work-division among group members....

Clustering of loci controlling species differences in male chemical bouquets of sympatric Heliconius butterflies

Kelsey Byers, Kathy Darragh, Sylvia Fernanda Garza, Diana Abondano Almeida, Ian Warren, Pasi Rastas, Richard Merrill, Stefan Schulz, W. Owen McMillan & Chris Jiggins
The degree to which loci promoting reproductive isolation cluster in the genome – i.e. the genetic architecture of reproductive isolation - can influence the tempo and mode of speciation. Tight linkage between these loci can facilitate speciation in the face of gene flow. Pheromones play a role in reproductive isolation in many Lepidoptera species, and the role of endogenously-produced compounds as secondary metabolites decreases the likelihood of pleiotropy associated with many barrier loci. Heliconius butterflies...

Can behaviour impede evolution? persistence of singing effort after morphological song loss in crickets

Jack Rayner, Will Schneider & Nathan Bailey
Evolutionary loss of sexual signals is widespread. Examining the consequences for behaviours associated with such signals can provide insight into factors promoting or inhibiting trait loss. We tested whether a behavioural component of a sexual trait, male calling effort, has been evolutionary reduced in silent populations of Hawaiian field crickets (Teleogryllus oceanicus). Cricket song requires energetically costly wing movements, but ‘flatwing’ males have feminised wings that preclude song and protect against a lethal, eavesdropping parasitoid....

Data from: Differential divergence in autosomes and sex chromosomes is associated with intra-island diversification at a very small spatial scale in a songbird lineage

Yann Bourgeois, Joris Bertrand, Boris Delahaie, Helene Holota, Christophe Thebaud & Borja Mila
Recently diverged taxa showing marked phenotypic and ecological diversity are optimal systems to understand the genetic processes underlying speciation. We used genome-wide markers to investigate the diversification of the Reunion grey white eye (Zosterops borbonicus) on the small volcanic island of Reunion (Mascarene archipelago), where this species complex exhibits four geographic forms that are parapatrically distributed across the island and differ strikingly in plumage colour. One form restricted to the highlands is separated by a...

Signals interpreted as archaic introgression are driven primarily by accelerated evolution in Africa

William Amos
Non-African humans appear to carry a few percent archaic DNA due to ancient inter-breeding. This modest legacy and its likely recent timing imply that most introgressed fragments will be rare and hence will occur mainly in the heterozygous state. I tested this prediction by calculating D statistics, a measure of legacy size, for pairs of humans where one of the pair was conditioned always to be either homozygous or heterozygous. Using coalescent simulations, I confirmed...

Data from: Multimodal mimicry of hosts in a radiation of parasitic finches

Gabriel Jamie, Steven M. Van Belleghem, Benedict G. Hogan, Silky Hamama, Collins Moya, Jolyon Troscianko, Mary Stoddard, Rebecca Kilner & Claire Spottiswoode
Brood parasites use the parental care of others to raise their young and sometimes employ mimicry to dupe their hosts. The brood-parasitic finches of the genus Vidua are a textbook example of the role of imprinting in sympatric speciation. Sympatric speciation is thought to occur in Vidua because their mating traits and host preferences are strongly influenced by their early host environment. However, this alone may not be sufficient to isolate parasite lineages, and divergent...

Disentangling sources of gene tree discordance in phylogenomic datasets: testing ancient hybridizations in Amaranthaceae s.l.

Diego F. Morales-Briones, Gudrun Kadereit, Delphine Tefarikis, Michael Moore, Stephen Smith, Samuel Brockington, Alfonso Timoneda, Won Yim, John Cushman & Ya Yang
Gene tree discordance in large genomic datasets can be caused by evolutionary processes such as incomplete lineage sorting and hybridization, as well as model violation, and errors in data processing, orthology inference, and gene tree estimation. Species tree methods that identify and accommodate all sources of conflict are not available, but a combination of multiple approaches can help tease apart alternative sources of conflict. Here, using a phylotranscriptomic analysis in combination with reference genomes, we...

Small scale variability in soil moisture drives infection of vulnerable juniper populations by invasive forest pathogen

Flora Donald, Sarah Green, Kate Searle, Nik J. Cunniffe & Bethan V. Purse
The oomycete plant pathogen, Phytophthora austrocedri, is an aggressive killer of cypress trees causing severe mortality of Chilean cedar (Austrocedrus chilensis) in Argentina since the 1940s and now common juniper (Juniperus communis s.l.) in the UK. Rapid mortality of key UK juniper populations was first observed in the early 2000s; the causal agent of mortality was confirmed as P. austrocedri in 2012 and the pathogen has now been widely detected - but is not ubiquitous...

Wolbachia affect behavior and possibly reproductive compatibility but not thermoresistance, fecundity, and morphology in a novel transinfected host, Drosophila nigrosparsa

Matsapume Detcharoen, Wolfgang Arthofer, Francis Jiggins, Florian Steiner & Birgit Schlick-Steiner
Wolbachia, intracellular endosymbionts, are estimated to infect about half of all arthropod species. These bacteria manipulate their hosts in various ways for their maximum benefits. The rising global temperature may accelerate species migration and, thus, horizontal transfer of Wolbachia may occur across species previously not in contact. We transinfected and then cured the alpine fly Drosophila nigrosparsa with Wolbachia strain wMel to study its effects on this species. We found low Wolbachia titer, possibly cytoplasmic...

Gesinnungsethik und Verantwortungsethik: Warum das politische Personal immer wieder gern Max Weber zitiert

Dirk Kaesler
Welche Bedeutung haben Webers Überlegungen zu Führung und Verantwortung 100 Jahre nach seinem Tod? Lässt sich am Beispiel der protestantisch geprägten Kanzlerin Angela Merkel oder am Beispiel von ausgewählten Institutionen und ihrem Führungsteam zeigen, wie die Vorstellungen Webers in der Realität umgesetzt werden können? Gibt es gar eine Renaissance dieser Vorstellungen?

The signal detection problem of aposematic prey revisited: integrating prior social and personal experience

Rose Thorogood & Liisa Hämäläinen
Data collected during three separate experiments using the "novel world" (Alatalo & Mappes, Nature 1996) approach to test how social information changes predator discrimination of novel aposematic prey from a cryptic palatable alternative. Experiments were conducted with great tits (Parus major), captured from the wild and released afterwards, at the University of Jyväskylä Research Station, Konnevesi, Finland (62.6° N, 26.3° E) during three winters (2013-2014, 2016-2017, 2017-2018). Social information was provided by video playback of...

Speedy revelations: how alarm calls can convey rapid, reliable information about urgent danger

Jessica McLachlan & Robert Magrath
In the perpetual struggle between high-speed predators and their prey, individuals need to react in the blink of an eye to avoid capture. Alarm calls that warn of danger therefore need to do so sufficiently rapidly that listeners can escape in time. Paradoxically, many species produce more elements in their alarm calls when signalling about more immediate danger, thereby increasing the reliability of transmission of critical information but taking longer to convey the urgent message....

Ecological mechanisms explaining interactions within plant-hummingbird networks: morphological matching increases towards lower latitudes

Jesper Sonne, Jeferson Vizentin-Bugoni, Pietro K. Maruyama, Andréa C. Araújo, Edgar Chávez-González, Aline G. Coelho, Peter A. Cotton, Oscar H. Marín-Gómez, Carlos Lara, Liliana R. Lasprilla, Caio G. Machado, Maria A. Maglianesi, Tiago S. Malucelli, Ana M. Martín-González, Genilda M. Oliveira, Paulo E. Oliveira, Raul Ortiz-Pulido, Márcia A. Rocca, Licléia C. Rodrigues, Ivan Sazima, Benno I. Simmons, Boris Tinoco, Isabela G. Varassin, Marcelo F. Vasconcelos, Bob O’Hara … & Bo Dalsgaard
Interactions between species are influenced by different ecological mechanisms, such as morphological matching, phenological overlap, and species abundances. How these mechanisms explain interaction frequencies across environmental gradients remains poorly understood. Consequently, we also know little about the mechanisms that drive the geographical patterns in network structure, such as complementary specialization and modularity. Here, we use data on morphologies, phenologies and abundances to explain interaction frequencies between hummingbirds and plants at a large geographic scale. For...

Data from: Extending the climatological concept of ‘Detection and Attribution’ to global change ecology in the Anthropocene

Ulf Buentgen, Fidel Gonzalez-Rouco, Juerg Luterbacher, Nils Christian Stenseth & Derek Johnson
Research into global change ecology is motivated by the need to understand the role of humans in changing biotic systems. Mechanistic understanding of ecological responses requires the separation of different climatic parameters and processes that often operate on diverse spatiotemporal scales. Yet most environmental studies do not distinguish the effects of internal climate variability from those caused by external, natural (e.g. volcanic, solar, orbital) or anthropogenic (e.g. greenhouse gases, ozone, aerosols, land-use) forcing factors. We...

Data from: Maxwell-Cattaneo magnetoconvection dataset

David Hughes, Ibrahim Eltayeb & Michael Proctor
We study the instability of a Bénard layer subject to a vertical uniform magnetic field, in which the fluid obeys the Maxwell-Cattaneo (MC) heat flux-temperature relation. We extend the work of Bissell (Proc. R. Soc. A, 472: 20160649, 2016) to non-zero values of the magnetic Prandtl number pm. With non-zero pm, the order of the dispersion relation is increased, leading to considerably richer behaviour. An asymptotic analysis at large values of the Chandrasekhar number Q...

Exploring intraspecific variation in migratory destinations to investigate the drivers of migration

Anne-Sophie Bonnet-Lebrun, Marius Somveille, Ana S.L. Rodrigues & Andrea Manica
Various benefits (e.g. tracking of resources and of climate niche) and costs (e.g. distance travelled) are hypothesized to drive seasonal animal migrations. Until now, these potential factors have been investigated together at the species level, but migratory movements are made at the individual level, leading to intraspecific variability. Here, we use ringing/recovery data from 1308 individuals belonging to thirteen North American bird species to analyse patterns in intraspecific variability of migratory destinations in order to...

‘The last channel’: Vision at the temporal margin of the field

Peter Veto, Peter B. M. Thomas, Philip Alexander, Thomas Wemyss & John D. Mollon
The human visual field, on the temporal side, extends to at least 90 degrees from the line of sight. Using a two-alternative forced-choice procedure in which observers are asked to report the direction of motion of a Gabor patch, and taking precautions to exclude unconscious eye movements in the direction of the stimulus, we show that the limiting eccentricity of image-forming vision can be established with precision. There are large, but reliable, individual differences in...

Forest microclimate dynamics drive plant responses to warming

Florian Zellweger, Pieter De Frenne & David Coomes
Climate warming is causing a shift in biological communities in favor of warm-affinity species (i.e., thermophilisation). However, species responses often lag behind climate warming and local microclimates modulated by vegetation and topography are usually ignored. Here we analyze multidecadal understorey microclimate dynamics in European forests and show that thermophilisation and the climatic lag in forest plant communities are primarily controlled by microclimate. Increasing tree canopy cover reduces warming rates inside forests, but loss of canopy...

Ecological and conceptual consequences of Arctic pollution

Ulf Buentgen & Alexander Kirdyanov
Though the effect of pollution on forest health and decline received much attention in the 1980s, it has not been considered to explain the ‘Divergence Problem’ in dendroclimatology; a decoupling of tree growth from rising air temperatures since the 1970s. Here we use physical and biogeochemical measurements of hundreds of living and dead conifers to reconstruct the impact of heavy industrialisation around Norilsk in northern Siberia. Moreover, we develop a forward model with surface irradiance...

A model of the optimal selection of crypto assets - simulation code

Silvia Bartolucci & Andrei Kirilenko
In the modelling we assume that crypto assets differ by two essential features: security (technological) and stability (governance). Investors make choices over crypto assets similarly to how they make choices by using a recommender app: the app presents each investor with a pair of crypto assets with certain security-stability characteristics to be compared. Each investor submits its preference for adopting one of the two assets to the app. The app, in turn, provides a recommendation...

Registration Year

  • 2020
    91

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    88
  • Text
    3

Affiliations

  • University of Cambridge
    91
  • University of Leeds
    5
  • University of Exeter
    5
  • Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute
    4
  • University of Oxford
    4
  • Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive
    3
  • Royal Society for the Protection of Birds
    3
  • Oklahoma State University
    3
  • University of Pretoria
    2
  • Princeton University
    2