73 Works

Supporting data for ‘DFENS: Diffusion chronometry using Finite Elements and Nested Sampling’

Euan Mutch, John Maclennan, Oliver Shorttle, John Rudge & David Neave
This is supporting data for the manuscript entitled 'DFENS: Diffusion chronometry using Finite Elements and Nested Sampling' by E. J. F. Mutch, J. Maclennan, O. Shorttle, J. F. Rudge and D. Neave. Preprint here: https://doi.org/10.1002/essoar.10503709.1 Data Set S1. ds01.csv Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) profile data of olivine crystals used in this study. Standard deviations are averaged values of standard deviations from counting statistics and repeat measurements of secondary standards. Data Set S2. ds02.csv Plagioclase compositional...

Phenotypic plasticity in chemical defence allows butterflies to diversify host use strategies

Erika De Castro, Jamie Musgrove, Søren Bak, Owen McMillan & Chris Jiggins
Hostplant specialization is a major force driving ecological niche partitioning and diversification in insect herbivores. The cyanogenic defences of Passiflora plants keeps most herbivores at bay, but not larvae of Heliconius butterflies, which can both sequester and biosynthesize cyanogenic compounds. Here, we demonstrate that both Heliconius cydno chioneus, a host plant generalist, and H. melpomene rosina, a specialist, have remarkable plasticity in their chemical defence. When feeding on Passiflora species with cyanogenic compounds they can...

Data from: Improving the resolution of canine genome-wide association studies using genotype imputation: a study of two breeds

Christopher Jenkins, Sally Ricketts, Cathryn Mellersh, Ellen Schofield & Luisa De Risio
Genotype imputation using a reference panel that combines high-density array data and publicly available whole genome sequence consortium variant data is potentially a cost-effective method to increase the density of extant lower-density array datasets. In this study three datasets (two Border Collie; one Italian Spinone) generated using a legacy array (Illumina CanineHD, 173,662 SNPs) were utilised to assess the feasibility and accuracy of this approach and to gather additional evidence for the efficacy of canine...

Identification of a novel sex determining chromosome in cichlid fishes that acts as XY or ZW in different lineages

Anna Fiona Feller, Vera Ogi, Ole Seehausen & Joana Isabel Meier
Sex determination systems are highly conserved among most vertebrates with genetic sex determination, but can be variable and evolve rapidly in some. Here, we study sex determination in a clade with exceptionally high sex chromosome turnover rates. We identify the sex determining chromosomes in three interspecific crosses of haplochromine cichlid fishes from Lakes Victoria and Malawi. We find evidence for different sex determiners in each cross. In the Malawi cross and one Victoria cross the...

Data from: Abundance data applied to a novel model invertebrate host sheds new light on parasite community assembly in nature

Joshua Brian & David Aldridge
Understanding how environmental drivers influence the assembly of parasite communities, in addition to how parasites may interact at an infracommunity level, are fundamental requirements for the study of parasite ecology. Knowledge of how parasite communities are assembled will help to predict the risk of parasitism for hosts, and model how parasite communities may change under variable conditions. However, studies frequently rely on presence-absence data and examine multiple host species or sites, metrics which may be...

COMSOL models of fluid flow in the sarcomere

Sage Malingen, Kaitlyn Hood, Eric Lauga, Anette Hosoi & Thomas Daniel
A highly organized and densely packed lattice of molecular machinery within the sarcomeres of muscle cells powers contraction. Although many of the proteins that drive contraction have been studied extensively, the mechanical impact of fluid shearing within the lattice of molecular machinery has received minimal attention. It was recently proposed that fluid flow augments substrate transport in the sarcomere, however, this analysis used analytical models of fluid flow in the molecular machinery that could not...

Contributions of genetic and non-genetic sources to variation in cooperative behaviour in a cooperative mammal

Thomas Houslay, Johanna Nielsen & Tim Clutton-Brock
The evolution of cooperative behaviour is a major area of research among evolutionary biologists and behavioural ecologists, yet there are few estimates of its heritability or of its evolutionary potential and long-term studies of identifiable individuals are required to disentangle genetic and non-genetic components of cooperative behaviour. Here we use long-term data on over 1800 individually recognisable wild meerkats (Suricata suricatta) collected over 30 years and a multi-generational genetic pedigree to partition phenotypic variation in...

Solutions to BAS-PRO model runs for Modelling 1-10MeV Proton Phase Space Density

Alexander Lozinski, Richard Horne, Sarah Glauert, Giulio Del Zanna & Seth Claudepierre
This dataset contains solution data produced by the BAS-PRO proton radiation belt model for the study "Modelling Inner Proton Belt Variability at Energies 1 to 10MeV using BAS-PRO". The solution data is in the form of 3D grids describing phase space density computed during dynamic simulations of Earth's proton belt over the modelling period 2014 to 2018. Three model runs are included: SA19, J81 and S16. Files were produced in May 2021. This work was...

Changes in gene expression and encapsulation in Drosophila melanogaster caused by exposure to parasitoid wasps

A.B. Leitão, A. Ramesh, J.P. Day, N. Hanna, A. Devi, M.P. Hayes & F.M. Jiggins
Data consists of gene expression estimates and encapsulation rates in wild caught Drosophila melanogaster larvae following exposure to different treatments. Treatments include injection with wasp homogenate, injection with oil and no injection. Also provided are functional enrichment categories for differentially expressed genes and library generation and read mapping metrics. The data were produced under the grant: NE/P00184X/1

Genotype data not consistent with clonal transmission of sea turtle fibropapillomatosis or goldfish schwannoma

Máire Ní Leathlobhair, Kelsey Yetsko, Jessica A. Farrell, Carmelo Iaria, Gabriele Marino, David J. Duffy & Elizabeth P. Murchison
Recent discoveries of transmissible cancers in multiple bivalve species suggest that direct transmission of cancer cells within species may be more common than previously thought, particularly in aquatic environments. Fibropapillomatosis occurs with high prevalence in green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) and the geographic range of disease has increased since fibropapillomatosis was first reported in this species. Widespread incidence of schwannomas, benign tumours of Schwann cell origin, reported in aquarium-bred goldfish (Carassius auratus), suggest an infectious...

Data and code for Caves, Dixit, Colebrook-Robjent, Hamusikili, Stevens, Thorogood, and Spottiswoode: Hosts elevate either within-clutch consistency or between-clutch distinctiveness of egg phenotypes in defence against brood parasites

Eleanor Caves, Tanmay Dixit, Martin Stevens, Rose Thorogood & Claire Spottiswoode
In host-parasite arms races, hosts can evolve signatures of identity to enhance detection of parasite mimics. In theory, signatures are most effective when within-individual variation is low (“consistency”), and between-individual variation is high (“distinctiveness”). However, empirical support for positive covariation in signature consistency and distinctiveness across species is mixed. Here we attempt to resolve this puzzle by partitioning distinctiveness according to how it is achieved: (1) greater variation within each trait, contributing to elevated “absolute...

Progression of clinical features in Lewy body dementia can be detected over six months

Elie Matar, Elie Matar, Simon R. White, John-Paul Taylor, Alan Thomas, Ian G. McKeith, Joseph P. M. Kane, Ajenthan Surendranathan, Glenda M. Halliday, Simon J. G. Lewis & John T. O'Brien
Objective: This study aimed to quantify the trajectory and magnitude of change of the key clinical features and corresponding symptom domains of Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson’s disease dementia (PDD) including global cognition, parkinsonism, recurrent visual hallucinations, cognitive fluctuations and sleep disturbance. Methods: 116 patients with Lewy body dementia (DLB=72, PDD=44) underwent assessment at baseline, 3 and 6 months as part of a prospective multi-centre randomized control trial. Linear mixed models were constructed...

Behavioural change during dispersal and its relationship to survival and reproduction in a cooperative breeder

Natasha Harrison, Nino Maag, Paul Haverkamp, André Ganswindt, Marta Manser, Tim Clutton-Brock, Arpat Ozgul & Gabriele Cozzi
(1) The ability of dispersing individuals to adjust their behaviour to changing conditions is instrumental in overcoming challenges and reducing dispersal costs, consequently increasing overall dispersal success. Understanding how dispersers’ behaviour and physiology change during the dispersal process, and how they differ from resident individuals, can shed light on the mechanisms by which dispersers increase survival and maximise reproduction. (2) By analysing individual behaviour and concentrations of faecal glucocorticoid metabolites (fGCM), a stress-associated biomarker, we...

Benzobis(imidazolium)-Cucurbit[8]uril Complexes for Binding and Sensing Aromatic Compounds in Aqueous Solution

Frank Biedermann, Urs Rauwald, Monika Cziferszky, Kyle A. Williams, Lauren D. Gann, Bi Y. Guo, Adam R. Urbach, Christopher W. Bielawski & Oren A. Scherman
Abstract The utilities of benzobis(imidazolium) salts (BBIs) as stable and fluorescent components of supramolecular assemblies involving the macrocyclic host, cucurbit[8]uril (CB[8]), are described...

Score-dependency: Over-reliance on performing music from notation reduces aural pitch replication skills

Chris Corcoran
Background in music performance. Most music is performed or improvised by ear, but Western classical musicians primarily perform music from notated scores. Background in music perception. Classical musicians have greater difficulties playing melodies by ear than musicians with other backgrounds (Woody & Lehman, 2010). This ties in with Harris and de Jong’s (2015) finding that non-improvising musicians exhibit less activation in the right auditory cortex than improvising musicians. The right auditory cortex is known to...

Count Data Regression Analysis: Concepts, Overdispersion Detection, Zero-inflation Identification, and Applications with R

Luiz Paulo Fávero, Rafael de Freitas Souza, Patrícia Belfiore, Hamilton Luiz Corrêa & Michael F. C. Haddad
In this paper is proposed a straightforward model selection approach that indicates the most suitable count regression model based on relevant data characteristics. The proposed selection approach includes four of the most popular count regression models (i.e. Poisson, negative binomial, and respective zero-inflated frameworks). Moreover, it addresses two of the most relevant problems commonly found in real-world count datasets, namely overdispersion and zero-inflation. The entire selection approach may be performed using the programme language R,...

Spatial and taxonomic biases in bat records: Drivers and conservation implications in a megadiverse country

Veronica Zamora-Gutierrez, Veronica Zamora‐Gutierrez, Tatsuya Amano & Kate E. Jones
Biases in data availability have serious consequences on scientific inferences that can be derived. The potential consequences of these biases could be more detrimental in the less-studied megadiverse regions, often characterized by high biodiversity and serious risks of human threats, as conservation and management actions could be misdirected. Here, focusing on 134 bat species in Mexico, we analyze spatial and taxonomic biases and their drivers in occurrence data; and identify priority areas for further data...

Temperature stress induces mites to help their carrion beetle hosts by eliminating rival blowflies

Syuan-Jyun Sun & Rebecca Kilner
Ecological conditions are known to change the expression of mutualisms though the causal agents driving such changes remain poorly understood. Here we show that temperature stress modulates the harm threatened by a common enemy, and thereby induces a phoretic mite to become a protective mutualist. Our experiments focus on the interactions between the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides, an associated mite species Poecilochirus carabi and their common enemy, blowflies, when all three species reproduce on the...

Prevalence and polymorphism of a mussel transmissible cancer in Europe__GenotypeKASPdatasetMytilus

Maurine Hammel, Alexis Simon, Christine Arbiol, Antonio Villalba, Erika A.V. Burioli, Jean-François Pépin, Jean-Baptiste Lamy, Abdellah Benabdelmouna, Ismael Bernard, Maryline Houssin, Guillaume M. Charrière, Delphine Destoumieux-Garzon, Jonh Welch, Michael J. Metzger & Nicolas Bierne
Transmissible cancers are parasitic malignant cell lineages that acquired the ability to infect new hosts from the same species, or sometimes related species. First described in dogs and Tasmanian devils, transmissible cancers were later discovered in some marine bivalves affected by a leukemia-like disease. In Mytilus mussels, two lineages of Bivalve Transmissible Neoplasia (BTN), both emerged in a M. trossulus founder individual, have been described to date (MtrBTN1 and MtrBTN2). Here, we performed an extensive...

Buoys with looming eyes deter seaducks and could potentially reduce seabird bycatch in gillnets

Yann Rouxel, Rory Crawford, Ian R. Cleasby, Pete Kibel, Ellie Owen, Veljo Volke, Alexandra K. Schnell & Steffen Oppel
Bycatch of seabirds in gillnet fisheries is a global conservation issue with an estimated 400,000 seabirds killed each year. To date, no underwater deterrents trialled have consistently reduced seabird bycatch across operational fisheries. Using a combination of insights from land-based strategies, seabirds’ diving behaviours and their cognitive abilities, we developed a floating device exploring the effect of large eyespots and looming movement to prevent vulnerable seabirds from diving into gillnets. Here, we tested whether this...

Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) data on tree crown morphology and neighbourhood competition from both Cuellar and Alto Tajo, Spain

Harry Owen, Emily Lines & William Flynn
1. Tree crown morphology is a key driver of forest dynamics, determining not only the competitiveness of an individual but also the competitive effect exerted on neighbouring trees. Multiple ecological theories, including Metabolic Scaling Theory (MST), predict crown morphology from first principles, but typically lack consideration of competition. The accurate quantification of crown morphology to test theoretical predictions, and the canopy interactions that could alter them, has historically been limited by the simplicity and associated...

SARS-CoV-2 viability after exposure to titanium dioxide coated tiles

Ravindra Gupta & Petra Mlcochova
Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission occurs via airborne droplets and surface contamination. Droplets or other body fluids from infected individuals can contaminate surfaces and viable virus has been detected on such surfaces, including surgical masks, for hours, even days depending on different factors including humidity, temperature and type of surface. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) coating of surfaces is a promising infection control measure, though to date has not been tested against SARS-CoV-2....

Re-emergence and diversification of a specialised antennal lobe morphology in ithomiine butterflies

Billy J Morris, Antoine Couto, Asli Aydin & Stephen H Montgomery
How an organism’s sensory system functions is central to how it navigates its environment. The insect olfactory system is a prominent model for investigating how ecological factors impact sensory reception and processing. Notably, work in Lepidoptera led to the discovery of vastly expanded structures, termed macroglomerular complexes (MGCs), within the primary olfactory processing centre. MGCs typically process pheromonal cues, are usually larger in males, and provide classic examples of how variation in the size of...

Inhibitory control, exploration behaviour and manipulated ecological context are associated with foraging flexibility in the great tit

Jenny Coomes, Gabrielle Davidson, Michael Reichert, Ipek Kulahci, Camille Troisi & John Quinn
​​​​​Organisms are constantly under selection to respond effectively to diverse, sometimes rapid, changes in their environment, but not all individuals are equally plastic in their behaviour. Although cognitive processes and personality are expected to influence individual behavioural plasticity, the effects reported are highly inconsistent, which we hypothesise is because ecological context is usually not considered. We explored how one type of behavioural plasticity, foraging flexibility, was associated with inhibitory control (assayed using a detour-reaching task)...

Effects of COVID-19 lockdown restrictions on parents’ attitudes towards green space and time spent outside by children in Cambridgeshire and North London, United Kingdom

Kate Howlett & Edgar C. Turner
1. In the United Kingdom, children are spending less time outdoors and are more disconnected from nature than previous generations. However, interaction with nature at a young age can benefit wellbeing and long-term support for conservation. Green space accessibility in the UK varies between rural and urban areas and is lower for children than for adults. It is possible that COVID-19 lockdown restrictions may have influenced these differences. 2. In this study, we assessed parents’...

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Affiliations

  • University of Cambridge
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