24 Works

Supplemental material: Astrocyte biomarkers in Alzheimer’s disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Bruna Bellaver, João Pedro Ferrari-Souza, Lucas Uglione Da Ros, Stephen F. Carter, Elena Rodriguez-Vieitez, Agneta Nordberg, Luc Pellerin, Pedro Rosa-Neto, Douglas Teixeira Leffa & Eduardo R. Zimmer
Objective: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine whether fluid and imaging astrocyte biomarkers are altered in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods: PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched for articles reporting fluid or imaging astrocyte biomarkers in AD. Pooled effect sizes were determined with mean differences (SMD) using the Hedge’s G method with random-effects to determine biomarker performance. Adapted questions from QUADAS-2 were applied for quality assessment. A protocol for this study...

Sleep/wake transitions in sheep

Will Schneider
Sleep disturbance is a common and disruptive symptom of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Huntington’s disease (HD). In HD patients, sleep fragmentation appears at an early stage of disease, although features of the earliest sleep abnormalities in presymptomatic HD are not fully established. Here we used novel automated analysis of quantitative electroencephalography to study transitions between wake and non-rapid eye movement sleep in a sheep model of presymptomatic HD. We found that while the...

Spatial and taxonomic biases in bat records: Drivers and conservation implications in a megadiverse country

Veronica Zamora-Gutierrez, Veronica Zamora‐Gutierrez, Tatsuya Amano & Kate E. Jones
Biases in data availability have serious consequences on scientific inferences that can be derived. The potential consequences of these biases could be more detrimental in the less-studied megadiverse regions, often characterized by high biodiversity and serious risks of human threats, as conservation and management actions could be misdirected. Here, focusing on 134 bat species in Mexico, we analyze spatial and taxonomic biases and their drivers in occurrence data; and identify priority areas for further data...

SARS-CoV-2 viability after exposure to titanium dioxide coated tiles

Ravindra Gupta & Petra Mlcochova
Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission occurs via airborne droplets and surface contamination. Droplets or other body fluids from infected individuals can contaminate surfaces and viable virus has been detected on such surfaces, including surgical masks, for hours, even days depending on different factors including humidity, temperature and type of surface. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) coating of surfaces is a promising infection control measure, though to date has not been tested against SARS-CoV-2....

Score-dependency: Over-reliance on performing music from notation reduces aural pitch replication skills

Chris Corcoran
Background in music performance. Most music is performed or improvised by ear, but Western classical musicians primarily perform music from notated scores. Background in music perception. Classical musicians have greater difficulties playing melodies by ear than musicians with other backgrounds (Woody & Lehman, 2010). This ties in with Harris and de Jong’s (2015) finding that non-improvising musicians exhibit less activation in the right auditory cortex than improvising musicians. The right auditory cortex is known to...

Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) data on tree crown morphology and neighbourhood competition from both Cuellar and Alto Tajo, Spain

Harry Owen, Emily Lines & William Flynn
1. Tree crown morphology is a key driver of forest dynamics, determining not only the competitiveness of an individual but also the competitive effect exerted on neighbouring trees. Multiple ecological theories, including Metabolic Scaling Theory (MST), predict crown morphology from first principles, but typically lack consideration of competition. The accurate quantification of crown morphology to test theoretical predictions, and the canopy interactions that could alter them, has historically been limited by the simplicity and associated...

Buoys with looming eyes deter seaducks and could potentially reduce seabird bycatch in gillnets

Yann Rouxel, Rory Crawford, Ian R. Cleasby, Pete Kibel, Ellie Owen, Veljo Volke, Alexandra K. Schnell & Steffen Oppel
Bycatch of seabirds in gillnet fisheries is a global conservation issue with an estimated 400,000 seabirds killed each year. To date, no underwater deterrents trialled have consistently reduced seabird bycatch across operational fisheries. Using a combination of insights from land-based strategies, seabirds’ diving behaviours and their cognitive abilities, we developed a floating device exploring the effect of large eyespots and looming movement to prevent vulnerable seabirds from diving into gillnets. Here, we tested whether this...

Identification of a novel sex determining chromosome in cichlid fishes that acts as XY or ZW in different lineages

Anna Fiona Feller, Vera Ogi, Ole Seehausen & Joana Isabel Meier
Sex determination systems are highly conserved among most vertebrates with genetic sex determination, but can be variable and evolve rapidly in some. Here, we study sex determination in a clade with exceptionally high sex chromosome turnover rates. We identify the sex determining chromosomes in three interspecific crosses of haplochromine cichlid fishes from Lakes Victoria and Malawi. We find evidence for different sex determiners in each cross. In the Malawi cross and one Victoria cross the...

Supporting data for ‘DFENS: Diffusion chronometry using Finite Elements and Nested Sampling’

Euan Mutch, John Maclennan, Oliver Shorttle, John Rudge & David Neave
This is supporting data for the manuscript entitled 'DFENS: Diffusion chronometry using Finite Elements and Nested Sampling' by E. J. F. Mutch, J. Maclennan, O. Shorttle, J. F. Rudge and D. Neave. Preprint here: https://doi.org/10.1002/essoar.10503709.1 Data Set S1. ds01.csv Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) profile data of olivine crystals used in this study. Standard deviations are averaged values of standard deviations from counting statistics and repeat measurements of secondary standards. Data Set S2. ds02.csv Plagioclase compositional...

Data from: Abundance data applied to a novel model invertebrate host sheds new light on parasite community assembly in nature

Joshua Brian & David Aldridge
Understanding how environmental drivers influence the assembly of parasite communities, in addition to how parasites may interact at an infracommunity level, are fundamental requirements for the study of parasite ecology. Knowledge of how parasite communities are assembled will help to predict the risk of parasitism for hosts, and model how parasite communities may change under variable conditions. However, studies frequently rely on presence-absence data and examine multiple host species or sites, metrics which may be...

COMSOL models of fluid flow in the sarcomere

Sage Malingen, Kaitlyn Hood, Eric Lauga, Anette Hosoi & Thomas Daniel
A highly organized and densely packed lattice of molecular machinery within the sarcomeres of muscle cells powers contraction. Although many of the proteins that drive contraction have been studied extensively, the mechanical impact of fluid shearing within the lattice of molecular machinery has received minimal attention. It was recently proposed that fluid flow augments substrate transport in the sarcomere, however, this analysis used analytical models of fluid flow in the molecular machinery that could not...

Progression of clinical features in Lewy body dementia can be detected over six months

Elie Matar, Elie Matar, Simon R. White, John-Paul Taylor, Alan Thomas, Ian G. McKeith, Joseph P. M. Kane, Ajenthan Surendranathan, Glenda M. Halliday, Simon J. G. Lewis & John T. O'Brien
Objective: This study aimed to quantify the trajectory and magnitude of change of the key clinical features and corresponding symptom domains of Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson’s disease dementia (PDD) including global cognition, parkinsonism, recurrent visual hallucinations, cognitive fluctuations and sleep disturbance. Methods: 116 patients with Lewy body dementia (DLB=72, PDD=44) underwent assessment at baseline, 3 and 6 months as part of a prospective multi-centre randomized control trial. Linear mixed models were constructed...

Data from: Social transmission in the wild reduces predation pressure on novel prey signals

Liisa Hämäläinen, William Hoppitt, Hannah Rowland, Johanna Mappes, Anthony Fulford, Sebastian Sosa & Rose Thorogood
Social transmission of information is taxonomically widespread and could have profound effects on the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of animal communities. Demonstrating this in the wild, however, has been challenging. Here we show by field experiment that social transmission among predators can shape how selection acts on prey defences. Using artificial prey and a novel approach in statistical analyses of social networks, we find that blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) and great tit (Parus major) predators...

Data from: Diabetes mellitus, glycemic traits, and cerebrovascular disease: A Mendelian randomization study

Marios Georgakis, Eric Harshfield, Rainer Malik, Nora Franceschini, Claudia Langenberg, Nicholas Wareham, Hugh Markus & Martin Dichgans
Objective: We employed Mendelian randomization (MR) to explore the effects of genetic predisposition to type 2 diabetes (T2D), hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and β-cell dysfunction on risk of stroke subtypes and related cerebrovascular phenotypes. Methods: We selected instruments for genetic predisposition to T2D (74,124 cases, 824,006 controls), HbA1c levels (n=421,923), fasting glucose levels (n=133,010), insulin resistance (n=108,557), and β-cell dysfunction (n=16,378) based on published genome-wide association studies. Applying two-sample MR, we examined associations with ischemic stroke...

China’s Emergence in the World Economy and Business Cycles in Latin America

Ambrogio Cesa-Bianchi, Hashem Pesaran, Alessandro Rebucci & TengTeng Xu
The international business cycle is very important for Latin America’s economic performance as the recent global crisis vividly illustrated. This paper investigates how changes in trade linkages between China, Latin America, and the rest of the world have altered the transmission mechanism of international business cycles to Latin America. Evidence based on a Global Vector Autoregressive (GVAR) model for 5 large Latin American economies and all major advanced and emerging economies of the world shows...

Data from: 11C-PK11195-PET brain imaging of the mitochondrial translocator protein in mitochondrial disease

Jelle Van Den Ameele, Young T. Hong, Roido Manavaki, Antonina Kouli, Heather Biggs, Zoe McIntyre, Rita Horvath, Patrick Yu-Wai-Man, Evan Reid, Caroline H. Williams-Gray, Edward T. Bullmore, Franklin I. Aigbirhio, Tim D. Fryer & Patrick F. Chinnery
Objective: To explore the possibilities of radioligands against the mitochondrial outer membrane protein TSPO as biomarkers for mitochondrial disease, we performed positron emission tomography (PET)-MR brain imaging with [11C]PK11195 in 14 patients with genetically confirmed mitochondrial disease and 33 matched controls. Methods: A case-control study of PET-MR imaging with the TSPO radioligand [11C]PK11195. Results: 46% of symptomatic patients had volumes of abnormal radiotracer binding greater than the 95th percentile in controls. [11C]PK11195 binding was generally...

Improving assessments of data-limited populations using life-history theory

Cat Horswill, Andrea Manica, Francis Daunt, Mark Newell, Sarah Wanless, Matthew Wood & Jason Matthiopoulos
1. Predicting how populations may respond to climate change and anthropogenic pressures requires detailed knowledge of demographic traits, such as survival and reproduction. However, the availability of these data varies greatly across space and taxa. Therefore, it is common practice to conduct population assessments by filling in missing values from surrogate species or other populations of the same species. Using these independent surrogate values concurrently with observed data neglects the life‐history trade‐offs that connect the...

Integrating stakeholders’ perspectives and spatial modelling to develop scenarios of future land use and land cover change in northern Tanzania

Rebecca Kariuki, Linus Munishi, Colin Courtney-Mustaphi, Claudia Capitani, Anna Shoemaker, Paul Lane & Rob Marchant
Rapid rates of land use and land cover change (LULCC) in eastern Africa and limited instances of genuinely equal partnerships involving scientists, communities and decision makers challenge the development of robust pathways toward future environmental and socioeconomic sustainability. We use a participatory modelling tool, Kesho, to assess the biophysical, socioeconomic, cultural and governance factors that influenced past (1959-1999) and present (2000-2018) LULCC in northern Tanzania and to simulate four scenarios of land cover change to...

Towards genetic modification of plant-parasitic nematodes: Delivery of macromolecules to male germlines and expression of exogenous mRNA in second stage juveniles

Sebastian Eves-Van Den Akker, Olaf Kranse & Helen Beasley
Plant-parasitic nematodes are a current and future threat to food security, causing an estimated 100 billion USD in crop losses each year. The most problematic are the obligate sedentary endoparasites (primarily root knot nematodes and cyst nematodes). Progress in understanding their biology is held back by a lack of tools for functional genetics. Forward genetics is largely restricted to studies of natural variation in populations, and reverse genetics is entirely reliant on RNA interference. There...

Supplemental material for: NINDS consensus diagnostic criteria for Traumatic Encephalopathy Syndrome

Douglas Katz, Charles Bernick, David Dodick, Jesse Mez, Megan Mariani, Charles Adler, Michael Alosco, Laura Balcer, Sarah Banks, William Barr, David Brody, Robert Cantu, Kristen Dams-O'Connor, Yonas Geda, Barry Jordan, Thomas McAllister, Elaine Peskind, Ronald Petersen, Jennifer Wether, Ross Zafonte, Eimear Foley, Debra Babcock, Walter Koroshetz, Ann McKee, Martha Shenton … & Robert Stern
Objective: To develop evidence-informed, expert consensus research diagnostic criteria for Traumatic Encephalopathy Syndrome (TES), the clinical disorder associated with neuropathologically diagnosed Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE). Methods: A panel of 20 expert clinician-scientists in neurology, neuropsychology, psychiatry, neurosurgery, and physical medicine and rehabilitation, from 11 academic institutions, participated in a modified Delphi procedure to achieve consensus, initiated at the First NINDS Consensus Workshop to Define the Diagnostic Criteria for TES, April, 2019. Prior to consensus, panelists...

Data from: A molecular phylogeny of forktail damselflies (genus Ischnura) reveals a dynamic macroevolutionary history of female colour polymorphisms

Rachel Blow, Beatriz Willink & Erik Svensson
Colour polymorphisms are popular study systems among biologists interested in evolutionary dynamics, genomics, sexual selection and sexual conflict. In many damselflies, such as in the globally distributed genus Ischnura (forktails), female colour polymorphisms occur in some species. Female-polymorphic species contain two or three female morphs, one of which is male-coloured (androchrome or male mimic) and co-exists with sexually dimorphic (heterochrome) females. These female colour polymorphisms are considered to be maintained by frequency-dependent sexual conflict, but...

Populations of high-value predators reflect the traits of their prey dataset

Cayetano Gutierrez Canovas, Thomas Worthington, David Noble, Daniel Perkins, Ian Vaughan, Guy Woodward, Steve Ormerod & Isabelle Durance
The extent to which prey traits combine to influence the abundance of predators is still poorly understood, particularly for mixed predators in sympatry and in aquatic ecosystems. In this study, we characterise prey use and distribution in iconic bird (grey wagtails and Eurasian dippers) and fish species (brown trout and Atlantic salmon) to assess whether prey traits could predict populations of these four riverine predators. Specifically, we hypothesised that: (i) Prey key traits would predict...

Fish avoid visually noisy environments where prey targeting is reduced

Joanna Attwell, Christos Ioannou, Chris Reid & James Herbert-Read
The environment contains different forms of ecological no­­­ise that can reduce the ability of animals to detect information. Here we ask whether animals adapt their behaviour to either exploit or avoid areas of their environment with increased dynamic visual noise. Three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) were immersed into environments with a simulated form of naturally occurring visual noise – moving light bands that form on underwater substrates caused by the refraction of light through surface waves....

Separating planetary reflex Doppler shifts from stellar variability in the wavelength domain (code)

Andrew Collier Cameron, E. B. Ford, S. Shahaf & A. Mortier

Registration Year

  • 2021
    24

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    21
  • Text
    2
  • Software
    1

Affiliations

  • University of Cambridge
    24
  • University of Washington
    2
  • Macquarie University
    2
  • Estación Biológica de Doñana
    1
  • University of Strasbourg
    1
  • Centre for Ecology and Hydrology
    1
  • University of Glasgow
    1
  • University of Gloucestershire
    1
  • Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre
    1
  • Lund University
    1