79 Works

Score-dependency: Over-reliance on performing music from notation reduces aural pitch replication skills

Chris Corcoran
Background in music performance. Most music is performed or improvised by ear, but Western classical musicians primarily perform music from notated scores. Background in music perception. Classical musicians have greater difficulties playing melodies by ear than musicians with other backgrounds (Woody & Lehman, 2010). This ties in with Harris and de Jong’s (2015) finding that non-improvising musicians exhibit less activation in the right auditory cortex than improvising musicians. The right auditory cortex is known to...

Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) data on tree crown morphology and neighbourhood competition from both Cuellar and Alto Tajo, Spain

Harry Owen, Emily Lines & William Flynn
1. Tree crown morphology is a key driver of forest dynamics, determining not only the competitiveness of an individual but also the competitive effect exerted on neighbouring trees. Multiple ecological theories, including Metabolic Scaling Theory (MST), predict crown morphology from first principles, but typically lack consideration of competition. The accurate quantification of crown morphology to test theoretical predictions, and the canopy interactions that could alter them, has historically been limited by the simplicity and associated...

SARS-CoV-2 viability after exposure to titanium dioxide coated tiles

Ravindra Gupta & Petra Mlcochova
Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission occurs via airborne droplets and surface contamination. Droplets or other body fluids from infected individuals can contaminate surfaces and viable virus has been detected on such surfaces, including surgical masks, for hours, even days depending on different factors including humidity, temperature and type of surface. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) coating of surfaces is a promising infection control measure, though to date has not been tested against SARS-CoV-2....

Spatial and taxonomic biases in bat records: Drivers and conservation implications in a megadiverse country

Veronica Zamora-Gutierrez, Veronica Zamora‐Gutierrez, Tatsuya Amano & Kate E. Jones
Biases in data availability have serious consequences on scientific inferences that can be derived. The potential consequences of these biases could be more detrimental in the less-studied megadiverse regions, often characterized by high biodiversity and serious risks of human threats, as conservation and management actions could be misdirected. Here, focusing on 134 bat species in Mexico, we analyze spatial and taxonomic biases and their drivers in occurrence data; and identify priority areas for further data...

Buoys with looming eyes deter seaducks and could potentially reduce seabird bycatch in gillnets

Yann Rouxel, Rory Crawford, Ian R. Cleasby, Pete Kibel, Ellie Owen, Veljo Volke, Alexandra K. Schnell & Steffen Oppel
Bycatch of seabirds in gillnet fisheries is a global conservation issue with an estimated 400,000 seabirds killed each year. To date, no underwater deterrents trialled have consistently reduced seabird bycatch across operational fisheries. Using a combination of insights from land-based strategies, seabirds’ diving behaviours and their cognitive abilities, we developed a floating device exploring the effect of large eyespots and looming movement to prevent vulnerable seabirds from diving into gillnets. Here, we tested whether this...

Effects of COVID-19 lockdown restrictions on parents’ attitudes towards green space and time spent outside by children in Cambridgeshire and North London, United Kingdom

Kate Howlett & Edgar C. Turner
1. In the United Kingdom, children are spending less time outdoors and are more disconnected from nature than previous generations. However, interaction with nature at a young age can benefit wellbeing and long-term support for conservation. Green space accessibility in the UK varies between rural and urban areas and is lower for children than for adults. It is possible that COVID-19 lockdown restrictions may have influenced these differences. 2. In this study, we assessed parents’...

Prevalence and polymorphism of a mussel transmissible cancer in Europe__GenotypeKASPdatasetMytilus

Maurine Hammel, Alexis Simon, Christine Arbiol, Antonio Villalba, Erika A.V. Burioli, Jean-François Pépin, Jean-Baptiste Lamy, Abdellah Benabdelmouna, Ismael Bernard, Maryline Houssin, Guillaume M. Charrière, Delphine Destoumieux-Garzon, Jonh Welch, Michael J. Metzger & Nicolas Bierne
Transmissible cancers are parasitic malignant cell lineages that acquired the ability to infect new hosts from the same species, or sometimes related species. First described in dogs and Tasmanian devils, transmissible cancers were later discovered in some marine bivalves affected by a leukemia-like disease. In Mytilus mussels, two lineages of Bivalve Transmissible Neoplasia (BTN), both emerged in a M. trossulus founder individual, have been described to date (MtrBTN1 and MtrBTN2). Here, we performed an extensive...

Count Data Regression Analysis: Concepts, Overdispersion Detection, Zero-inflation Identification, and Applications with R

Luiz Paulo Fávero, Rafael de Freitas Souza, Patrícia Belfiore, Hamilton Luiz Corrêa & Michael F. C. Haddad
In this paper is proposed a straightforward model selection approach that indicates the most suitable count regression model based on relevant data characteristics. The proposed selection approach includes four of the most popular count regression models (i.e. Poisson, negative binomial, and respective zero-inflated frameworks). Moreover, it addresses two of the most relevant problems commonly found in real-world count datasets, namely overdispersion and zero-inflation. The entire selection approach may be performed using the programme language R,...

Inhibitory control, exploration behaviour and manipulated ecological context are associated with foraging flexibility in the great tit

Jenny Coomes, Gabrielle Davidson, Michael Reichert, Ipek Kulahci, Camille Troisi & John Quinn
​​​​​Organisms are constantly under selection to respond effectively to diverse, sometimes rapid, changes in their environment, but not all individuals are equally plastic in their behaviour. Although cognitive processes and personality are expected to influence individual behavioural plasticity, the effects reported are highly inconsistent, which we hypothesise is because ecological context is usually not considered. We explored how one type of behavioural plasticity, foraging flexibility, was associated with inhibitory control (assayed using a detour-reaching task)...

Temperature stress induces mites to help their carrion beetle hosts by eliminating rival blowflies

Syuan-Jyun Sun & Rebecca Kilner
Ecological conditions are known to change the expression of mutualisms though the causal agents driving such changes remain poorly understood. Here we show that temperature stress modulates the harm threatened by a common enemy, and thereby induces a phoretic mite to become a protective mutualist. Our experiments focus on the interactions between the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides, an associated mite species Poecilochirus carabi and their common enemy, blowflies, when all three species reproduce on the...

Re-emergence and diversification of a specialised antennal lobe morphology in ithomiine butterflies

Billy J Morris, Antoine Couto, Asli Aydin & Stephen H Montgomery
How an organism’s sensory system functions is central to how it navigates its environment. The insect olfactory system is a prominent model for investigating how ecological factors impact sensory reception and processing. Notably, work in Lepidoptera led to the discovery of vastly expanded structures, termed macroglomerular complexes (MGCs), within the primary olfactory processing centre. MGCs typically process pheromonal cues, are usually larger in males, and provide classic examples of how variation in the size of...

Cucurbit[8]uril and Blue-Box: High-Energy Water Release Overwhelms Electrostatic Interactions

Frank Biedermann, Michele Vendruscolo, Oren A. Scherman, Alfonso De Simone & Werner M. Nau
The design of high-affinity and analyte-selective receptors operating in aqueous solutions is an outstanding problem in supramolecular chemistry. Directing the focus toward the unique properties of water, we present here a new strategy toward this goal and support it by molecular dynamics simulations and calorimetric measurements. We illustrate the procedure in the case of self-assembled 1:1 complexes of the rigid macrocycle cucurbit[8]uril (CB8) and dicationic auxiliary guests (AG). These CB8•AG complexes contain residual water molecules...

China’s Emergence in the World Economy and Business Cycles in Latin America

Ambrogio Cesa-Bianchi, Hashem Pesaran, Alessandro Rebucci & TengTeng Xu
The international business cycle is very important for Latin America’s economic performance as the recent global crisis vividly illustrated. This paper investigates how changes in trade linkages between China, Latin America, and the rest of the world have altered the transmission mechanism of international business cycles to Latin America. Evidence based on a Global Vector Autoregressive (GVAR) model for 5 large Latin American economies and all major advanced and emerging economies of the world shows...

Data from: 11C-PK11195-PET brain imaging of the mitochondrial translocator protein in mitochondrial disease

Jelle Van Den Ameele, Young T. Hong, Roido Manavaki, Antonina Kouli, Heather Biggs, Zoe McIntyre, Rita Horvath, Patrick Yu-Wai-Man, Evan Reid, Caroline H. Williams-Gray, Edward T. Bullmore, Franklin I. Aigbirhio, Tim D. Fryer & Patrick F. Chinnery
Objective: To explore the possibilities of radioligands against the mitochondrial outer membrane protein TSPO as biomarkers for mitochondrial disease, we performed positron emission tomography (PET)-MR brain imaging with [11C]PK11195 in 14 patients with genetically confirmed mitochondrial disease and 33 matched controls. Methods: A case-control study of PET-MR imaging with the TSPO radioligand [11C]PK11195. Results: 46% of symptomatic patients had volumes of abnormal radiotracer binding greater than the 95th percentile in controls. [11C]PK11195 binding was generally...

Data from: Social transmission in the wild reduces predation pressure on novel prey signals

Liisa Hämäläinen, William Hoppitt, Hannah Rowland, Johanna Mappes, Anthony Fulford, Sebastian Sosa & Rose Thorogood
Social transmission of information is taxonomically widespread and could have profound effects on the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of animal communities. Demonstrating this in the wild, however, has been challenging. Here we show by field experiment that social transmission among predators can shape how selection acts on prey defences. Using artificial prey and a novel approach in statistical analyses of social networks, we find that blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) and great tit (Parus major) predators...

Data from: Diabetes mellitus, glycemic traits, and cerebrovascular disease: A Mendelian randomization study

Marios Georgakis, Eric Harshfield, Rainer Malik, Nora Franceschini, Claudia Langenberg, Nicholas Wareham, Hugh Markus & Martin Dichgans
Objective: We employed Mendelian randomization (MR) to explore the effects of genetic predisposition to type 2 diabetes (T2D), hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and β-cell dysfunction on risk of stroke subtypes and related cerebrovascular phenotypes. Methods: We selected instruments for genetic predisposition to T2D (74,124 cases, 824,006 controls), HbA1c levels (n=421,923), fasting glucose levels (n=133,010), insulin resistance (n=108,557), and β-cell dysfunction (n=16,378) based on published genome-wide association studies. Applying two-sample MR, we examined associations with ischemic stroke...

Data from: Gravity and active acceleration limit the ability of killer flies (Coenosia attenuata) to steer towards prey when attacking from above

Sergio Rossoni, Samuel Fabian, Gregory Sutton & Paloma Gonzalez-Bellido
Insects that predate aerially usually contrast prey against the sky and attack upwards. However, killer flies (Coenosia attenuata) can attack prey flying below them, performing what we term 'aerial dives'. During these dives, killer flies accelerate up to 36 m/s2. Although the trajectories of the killer fly's dives appear highly variable, proportional navigation explains them, as long as the model has the lateral acceleration limit of a real killer fly. The trajectory's steepness is explained...

Improving assessments of data-limited populations using life-history theory

Cat Horswill, Andrea Manica, Francis Daunt, Mark Newell, Sarah Wanless, Matthew Wood & Jason Matthiopoulos
1. Predicting how populations may respond to climate change and anthropogenic pressures requires detailed knowledge of demographic traits, such as survival and reproduction. However, the availability of these data varies greatly across space and taxa. Therefore, it is common practice to conduct population assessments by filling in missing values from surrogate species or other populations of the same species. Using these independent surrogate values concurrently with observed data neglects the life‐history trade‐offs that connect the...

RESPONDER: Observations of crevasses, crevasse ponding, and surface stress across west Greenland, 2017 - 2019

Thomas Chudley & Poul Christoffersen
Datasets from the Resolving subglacial properties, hydrological networks and dynamic evolution of ice flow on the Greenland Ice Sheet (RESPONDER) project as published in the paper by Chudley et al. entitled "Controls on water storage and drainage in crevasses on the Greenland Ice Sheet". This dataset consists of remotely sensed observations of water-filled crevasses across a marine-terminating sector of the west Greenland Ice Sheet between 2017 and 2019.The dataset presented here includes all data necessary...

Irreproducibility in searches of scientific literature: a comparative analysis

Gabor Pozsgai, Gabor Lövei, Liette Vasseur, Geoff Gurr, Péter Batáry, Janos Korponai, Nick Littlewood, Jian Liu, Arnold Móra, John Obrycki, Olivia Reynolds, Jenni Stockan, Heather VanVolkenburg, Jie Zhang, Wenwu Zhou & Minsheng You
1. Repeatability is the cornerstone of science and it is particularly important for systematic reviews. However, little is known on how researchers’ choice of database and search platform influence the repeatability of systematic reviews. Here, we aim to unveil how the computer environment and the location where the search was initiated from influence hit results. 2. We present a comparative analysis of time-synchronized searches at different institutional locations in the world, and evaluate the consistency...

AI3SD Video: Skills4Scientists - Poster & Careers Symposium - Poster Compilation

András Vekassy, Aspen Fenzl, Erhan Gulsen, Hewan Zewdu, Jamie Longio, Maximilian Hoffman, Rhyan Barrett, Rubaiyat Khondaker, Anna Catton, Hongyang Dong, Kevin Calvache, Kaylee Patel, King Wong, Louis Greenhalgh, Rebecca Jane Clements, Thomas Allam, Sarah Scripps, Gavin Man, Samuel Munday, Michael Blakey, Graeme M. Day, Chris-Kriton Skylaris, Simon J. Coles, Stephen Gow & William Brocklesby
This video forms part of the Skills4Scientists Series which has been organised as a joint venture between the Artificial Intelligence for Scientific Discovery Network+ (AI3SD) and the Physical Sciences Data-Science Service (PSDS). This series ran over summer 2021 and aims to educate and improve scientists skills in a range of areas including research data management, python, version control, ethics, and career development. This series is primarily aimed at final year undergraduates / early stage PhD...

UK Web Archive Annual Report April 2020 - March 2021

The UK Web Archive is a shared resource and collaborative activity of the six UK legal deposit libraries. Since April 2013 it has been a cornerstone of our collecting under legal deposit. This report covers an exceptional year, which has highlighted the strengths, resilience and adaptability of staff across the legal deposit libraries in responding to collection challenges and maintaining services to users. In this year, we have curated a detailed collection to document the...

Metabarcoding for parallel identification of species, sex and diet of obligate scavengers: an application to globally-threatened Gyps vultures

Mousumi Ghosh-Harihar, Nehal Gurung, Harsh Shukla, Ishani Sinha, Awadhesh Pandit, Vibhu Prakash, Rhys E. Green & Uma Ramakrishnan
After suffering a massive decline (~99%) in numbers caused by feeding on livestock carcasses containing the nephrotoxic drug diclofenac, critically endangered Gyps vultures now persist in low numbers in the Indian subcontinent, mostly concentrated within or near National Parks. This spatial association might be attributed to availability of wild ungulate carcasses free from toxic veterinary drugs. Hence, quantification of vulture diets is critical to test this hypothesis. We describe a validated “field-to-benchtop-to-desktop” metabarcoding workflow for...

Dynamic visual noise promotes social attraction in a shoaling fish

Samuel Matchette & James Herbert-Read
Gathering information from the environment allows animals to make informed behavioural decisions, with individuals sampling information either privately, or via social cues from group members. Because environmental noise can disrupt the ability of animals to gather information from their environment, social behaviour could be disrupted by environmental noise, or adapted to mitigate the costs and risks associated with compromised perception in noisy environments. Here we test how the presence of water caustics, a natural form...

Forecasts, neural networks, and results from the paper: 'Seasonal Arctic sea ice forecasting with probabilistic deep learning'

Tom R. Andersson & J. Scott Hosking
This dataset encompasses data produced in the study 'Seasonal Arctic sea ice forecasting with probabilistic deep learning', published in Nature Communications. The study introduces a new Arctic sea ice forecasting AI system, IceNet, which predicts monthly-averaged sea ice probability (SIP; probability of sea ice concentration > 15%) up to 6 months ahead at 25 km resolution. The study demonstrated IceNet's superior seasonal forecasting skill over a state-of-the-art physics-based sea ice forecasting system, ECMWF SEAS5, and...

Registration Year

  • 2021
    79

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    70
  • Text
    4
  • Report
    2
  • Audiovisual
    1
  • Journal Article
    1
  • Software
    1

Affiliations

  • University of Cambridge
    78
  • University of Oxford
    5
  • University of Washington
    4
  • Zhejiang University
    3
  • Lund University
    3
  • Natural Environment Research Council, UK Research & Innovation
    3
  • University of Zurich
    3
  • University College London
    3
  • Zhongkai University of Agriculture and Engineering
    2
  • Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences
    2