75 Works

Spatial and taxonomic biases in bat records: Drivers and conservation implications in a megadiverse country

Veronica Zamora-Gutierrez, Veronica Zamora‐Gutierrez, Tatsuya Amano & Kate E. Jones
Biases in data availability have serious consequences on scientific inferences that can be derived. The potential consequences of these biases could be more detrimental in the less-studied megadiverse regions, often characterized by high biodiversity and serious risks of human threats, as conservation and management actions could be misdirected. Here, focusing on 134 bat species in Mexico, we analyze spatial and taxonomic biases and their drivers in occurrence data; and identify priority areas for further data...

Cucurbit[8]uril and Blue-Box: High-Energy Water Release Overwhelms Electrostatic Interactions

Frank Biedermann, Michele Vendruscolo, Oren A. Scherman, Alfonso De Simone & Werner M. Nau
The design of high-affinity and analyte-selective receptors operating in aqueous solutions is an outstanding problem in supramolecular chemistry. Directing the focus toward the unique properties of water, we present here a new strategy toward this goal and support it by molecular dynamics simulations and calorimetric measurements. We illustrate the procedure in the case of self-assembled 1:1 complexes of the rigid macrocycle cucurbit[8]uril (CB8) and dicationic auxiliary guests (AG). These CB8•AG complexes contain residual water molecules...

RESPONDER: Observations of crevasses, crevasse ponding, and surface stress across west Greenland, 2017 - 2019

Thomas Chudley & Poul Christoffersen
Datasets from the Resolving subglacial properties, hydrological networks and dynamic evolution of ice flow on the Greenland Ice Sheet (RESPONDER) project as published in the paper by Chudley et al. entitled "Controls on water storage and drainage in crevasses on the Greenland Ice Sheet". This dataset consists of remotely sensed observations of water-filled crevasses across a marine-terminating sector of the west Greenland Ice Sheet between 2017 and 2019.The dataset presented here includes all data necessary...

Forecasts, neural networks, and results from the paper: 'Seasonal Arctic sea ice forecasting with probabilistic deep learning'

Tom R. Andersson & J. Scott Hosking
This dataset encompasses data produced in the study 'Seasonal Arctic sea ice forecasting with probabilistic deep learning', published in Nature Communications. The study introduces a new Arctic sea ice forecasting AI system, IceNet, which predicts monthly-averaged sea ice probability (SIP; probability of sea ice concentration > 15%) up to 6 months ahead at 25 km resolution. The study demonstrated IceNet's superior seasonal forecasting skill over a state-of-the-art physics-based sea ice forecasting system, ECMWF SEAS5, and...

AI3SD Video: Skills4Scientists - Poster & Careers Symposium - Poster Compilation

András Vekassy, Aspen Fenzl, Erhan Gulsen, Hewan Zewdu, Jamie Longio, Maximilian Hoffman, Rhyan Barrett, Rubaiyat Khondaker, Anna Catton, Hongyang Dong, Kevin Calvache, Kaylee Patel, King Wong, Louis Greenhalgh, Rebecca Jane Clements, Thomas Allam, Sarah Scripps, Gavin Man, Samuel Munday, Michael Blakey, Graeme M. Day, Chris-Kriton Skylaris, Simon J. Coles, Stephen Gow & William Brocklesby
This video forms part of the Skills4Scientists Series which has been organised as a joint venture between the Artificial Intelligence for Scientific Discovery Network+ (AI3SD) and the Physical Sciences Data-Science Service (PSDS). This series ran over summer 2021 and aims to educate and improve scientists skills in a range of areas including research data management, python, version control, ethics, and career development. This series is primarily aimed at final year undergraduates / early stage PhD...

ddRAD of Hawaiian Ariamnes spiders

Ellie Armstrong, Benoît Perez-Lamarque, Ke Bi, Leontine Becking, Jun Lim, Tyler Linderoth, Rosemary Gillespie & Henrik Krehenwinkel
The diversification of a host organism can be influenced by both the external environment and its assemblage of microbes. Here, we use a young lineage of spiders, coupled with a chronologically arranged series of volcanic mountains, to determine the evolutionary history of a host and its associated microbial communities, altogether forming the “holobiont”. Using the stick spider Ariamnes waikula (Araneae, Theridiidae) on the island of Hawaiʻi, and outgroup taxa on older islands, we tested whether...

Dynamic visual noise promotes social attraction in a shoaling fish

Samuel Matchette & James Herbert-Read
Gathering information from the environment allows animals to make informed behavioural decisions, with individuals sampling information either privately, or via social cues from group members. Because environmental noise can disrupt the ability of animals to gather information from their environment, social behaviour could be disrupted by environmental noise, or adapted to mitigate the costs and risks associated with compromised perception in noisy environments. Here we test how the presence of water caustics, a natural form...

UK Web Archive Annual Report April 2020 - March 2021

The UK Web Archive is a shared resource and collaborative activity of the six UK legal deposit libraries. Since April 2013 it has been a cornerstone of our collecting under legal deposit. This report covers an exceptional year, which has highlighted the strengths, resilience and adaptability of staff across the legal deposit libraries in responding to collection challenges and maintaining services to users. In this year, we have curated a detailed collection to document the...

Metabarcoding for parallel identification of species, sex and diet of obligate scavengers: an application to globally-threatened Gyps vultures

Mousumi Ghosh-Harihar, Nehal Gurung, Harsh Shukla, Ishani Sinha, Awadhesh Pandit, Vibhu Prakash, Rhys E. Green & Uma Ramakrishnan
After suffering a massive decline (~99%) in numbers caused by feeding on livestock carcasses containing the nephrotoxic drug diclofenac, critically endangered Gyps vultures now persist in low numbers in the Indian subcontinent, mostly concentrated within or near National Parks. This spatial association might be attributed to availability of wild ungulate carcasses free from toxic veterinary drugs. Hence, quantification of vulture diets is critical to test this hypothesis. We describe a validated “field-to-benchtop-to-desktop” metabarcoding workflow for...

Data from: Diabetes mellitus, glycemic traits, and cerebrovascular disease: A Mendelian randomization study

Marios Georgakis, Eric Harshfield, Rainer Malik, Nora Franceschini, Claudia Langenberg, Nicholas Wareham, Hugh Markus & Martin Dichgans
Objective: We employed Mendelian randomization (MR) to explore the effects of genetic predisposition to type 2 diabetes (T2D), hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and β-cell dysfunction on risk of stroke subtypes and related cerebrovascular phenotypes. Methods: We selected instruments for genetic predisposition to T2D (74,124 cases, 824,006 controls), HbA1c levels (n=421,923), fasting glucose levels (n=133,010), insulin resistance (n=108,557), and β-cell dysfunction (n=16,378) based on published genome-wide association studies. Applying two-sample MR, we examined associations with ischemic stroke...

Data from: Social transmission in the wild reduces predation pressure on novel prey signals

Liisa Hämäläinen, William Hoppitt, Hannah Rowland, Johanna Mappes, Anthony Fulford, Sebastian Sosa & Rose Thorogood
Social transmission of information is taxonomically widespread and could have profound effects on the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of animal communities. Demonstrating this in the wild, however, has been challenging. Here we show by field experiment that social transmission among predators can shape how selection acts on prey defences. Using artificial prey and a novel approach in statistical analyses of social networks, we find that blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) and great tit (Parus major) predators...

Phylogenetic conflicts, combinability, and deep phylogenomics in plants

Stephen Smith, Joseph Walker, Joseph Brown & Nathanael Hale
Studies have demonstrated that pervasive gene tree conflict underlies several important phylogenetic relationships where different species tree methods produce conflicting results. Here, we present a means of dissecting the phylogenetic signal for alternative resolutions within a dataset in order to resolve recalcitrant relationships and, importantly, identify what the dataset is unable to resolve. These procedures extend upon methods for isolating conflict and concordance involving specific candidate relationships and can be used to identify systematic error...

Phylogenetic signal and bias in paleontology

Robert Asher & Martin Smith
An unprecedented amount of evidence now illuminates the phylogeny of living mammals and birds on the Tree of Life. We use this tree to measure phylogenetic value of data typically used in paleontology (bones and teeth) from six datasets derived from five published studies. We ask three interrelated questions: 1) Can these data adequately reconstruct known parts of the Tree of Life? 2) Is accuracy generally similar for studies using morphology, or do some morphological...

Irreproducibility in searches of scientific literature: a comparative analysis

Gabor Pozsgai, Gabor Lövei, Liette Vasseur, Geoff Gurr, Péter Batáry, Janos Korponai, Nick Littlewood, Jian Liu, Arnold Móra, John Obrycki, Olivia Reynolds, Jenni Stockan, Heather VanVolkenburg, Jie Zhang, Wenwu Zhou & Minsheng You
1. Repeatability is the cornerstone of science and it is particularly important for systematic reviews. However, little is known on how researchers’ choice of database and search platform influence the repeatability of systematic reviews. Here, we aim to unveil how the computer environment and the location where the search was initiated from influence hit results. 2. We present a comparative analysis of time-synchronized searches at different institutional locations in the world, and evaluate the consistency...

Data from: Gravity and active acceleration limit the ability of killer flies (Coenosia attenuata) to steer towards prey when attacking from above

Sergio Rossoni, Samuel Fabian, Gregory Sutton & Paloma Gonzalez-Bellido
Insects that predate aerially usually contrast prey against the sky and attack upwards. However, killer flies (Coenosia attenuata) can attack prey flying below them, performing what we term 'aerial dives'. During these dives, killer flies accelerate up to 36 m/s2. Although the trajectories of the killer fly's dives appear highly variable, proportional navigation explains them, as long as the model has the lateral acceleration limit of a real killer fly. The trajectory's steepness is explained...

Improving assessments of data-limited populations using life-history theory

Cat Horswill, Andrea Manica, Francis Daunt, Mark Newell, Sarah Wanless, Matthew Wood & Jason Matthiopoulos
1. Predicting how populations may respond to climate change and anthropogenic pressures requires detailed knowledge of demographic traits, such as survival and reproduction. However, the availability of these data varies greatly across space and taxa. Therefore, it is common practice to conduct population assessments by filling in missing values from surrogate species or other populations of the same species. Using these independent surrogate values concurrently with observed data neglects the life‐history trade‐offs that connect the...

Data from: 11C-PK11195-PET brain imaging of the mitochondrial translocator protein in mitochondrial disease

Jelle Van Den Ameele, Young T. Hong, Roido Manavaki, Antonina Kouli, Heather Biggs, Zoe McIntyre, Rita Horvath, Patrick Yu-Wai-Man, Evan Reid, Caroline H. Williams-Gray, Edward T. Bullmore, Franklin I. Aigbirhio, Tim D. Fryer & Patrick F. Chinnery
Objective: To explore the possibilities of radioligands against the mitochondrial outer membrane protein TSPO as biomarkers for mitochondrial disease, we performed positron emission tomography (PET)-MR brain imaging with [11C]PK11195 in 14 patients with genetically confirmed mitochondrial disease and 33 matched controls. Methods: A case-control study of PET-MR imaging with the TSPO radioligand [11C]PK11195. Results: 46% of symptomatic patients had volumes of abnormal radiotracer binding greater than the 95th percentile in controls. [11C]PK11195 binding was generally...

Integrating demography and distribution modelling for the iconic Leontopodium alpinum Colm. in the Romanian Carpathians

Lacramioara M. Maghiar, Ilie A. Stoica & Andrew J. Tanentzap
Both climate change and human exploitation are major threats to plant life in mountain environments. One species that may be particularly sensitive to both of these stressors is the iconic alpine flower edelweiss (Leontopodium alpinum Colm.). Its populations have declined across Europe due to over-collection for its highly prized flowers. Edelweiss is still subject to harvesting across the Romanian Carpathians but no study has measured to what extent populations are vulnerable to anthropogenic change. Here...

Predictability of temporal variation in climate and the evolution of seasonal polyphenism in tropical butterflies

Sridhar Halali, Dheeraj Halali, Henry S. Barlow, Freerk Molleman, Ullasa Kodandaramaiah, Paul M. Brakefield & Oskar Brattström
Phenotypic plasticity in heterogeneous environments can provide tight environment-phenotype matching. However, the pre-requisite is a reliable environmental cue(s) that enables organisms to use current environmental information to induce the development of a phenotype with high fitness in a forthcoming environment. Here we quantify predictability in the timing of precipitation and temperature change to examine how this is associated with seasonal polyphenism in tropical Mycalesina butterflies. Seasonal precipitation in the tropics typically results in distinct selective...

Dataset from: Termite mounds house a diversity of taxa in oil palm plantations irrespective of understory management

Amelia S. C. Hood, Michael D. Pashkevich, Cecilia A. L. Dahlsjö, Andreas D. Advento, Anak Agung Ketut Aryawan, Jean‐Pierre Caliman, Mohammad Naim, Jason J. Head & Edgar C. Turner
We investigated the effects of oil palm understory vegetation management on termite mound activity and non-termite inhabitants. We found a diversity of taxa, most of which were unaffected by understory management. Mound volume and termite activity had taxa-specific effects on abundance. Preserving mounds in oil palm plantations will benefit biodiversity.

Tolerant pattern recognition: Evidence from phonotactic responses in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus (de Geer)

Adam Bent & Berthold Hedwig
When the amplitude modulation of species-specific acoustic signals is distorted in the transmission channel, signals become difficult to recognise by the receiver. Tolerant auditory pattern recognition systems, which after having perceived the correct species-specific signal transiently broaden their acceptance of communication signals, would be advantageous for animals as an adaptation to the constraints of the environment. Using a well-studied cricket species, Gryllus bimaculatus, we analysed tolerance in auditory steering responses to non-attractive “Odd” and “Silent”...

China’s Emergence in the World Economy and Business Cycles in Latin America

Ambrogio Cesa-Bianchi, Hashem Pesaran, Alessandro Rebucci & TengTeng Xu
The international business cycle is very important for Latin America’s economic performance as the recent global crisis vividly illustrated. This paper investigates how changes in trade linkages between China, Latin America, and the rest of the world have altered the transmission mechanism of international business cycles to Latin America. Evidence based on a Global Vector Autoregressive (GVAR) model for 5 large Latin American economies and all major advanced and emerging economies of the world shows...

Size Selective Supramolecular Cages from Aryl-Bisimidazolium Derivatives and Cucurbit[8]uril

Dezhi Jiao, Frank Biedermann & Oren A. Scherman
A series of bisimidazolium salts were synthesized as novel guests for the macrocyclic host molecule cucurbit[8]uril (CB[8]). These bisimidazolium-CB[8] binary complexes exhibited a unique cage structure with the imidazolium rings acting as lids, leading to a size-dependent binding selectivity by altering the hydrophobic linker between the two imidazolium moieties. This new class of CB[8] complexes was also capable of binding small solvent molecules, including acetone, acetonitrile, diethyl ether, and tetrahydrofuran (THF) in an aqueous environment.

Sleep/wake transitions in sheep

Will Schneider
Sleep disturbance is a common and disruptive symptom of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Huntington’s disease (HD). In HD patients, sleep fragmentation appears at an early stage of disease, although features of the earliest sleep abnormalities in presymptomatic HD are not fully established. Here we used novel automated analysis of quantitative electroencephalography to study transitions between wake and non-rapid eye movement sleep in a sheep model of presymptomatic HD. We found that while the...

Data for Concordance-based approaches in phylogenomics

Joseph Walker, Stephen Smith, Edwige Moyroud & Richard Hodel
Gene tree conflict is common and finding methods to analyze and alleviate the negative effects that conflict has on species tree analysis is a crucial part of phylogenomics. This study aims to expand the discussion of inferring species trees and molecular branch lengths when conflict is present. Conflict is typically examined in two ways: inferring its prevalence, and inferring the influence of the individual genes (how strongly one gene supports any given topology compared to...

Registration Year

  • 2021

Resource Types

  • Dataset
  • Report
  • Text
  • Audiovisual
  • Journal Article
  • Software


  • University of Cambridge
  • University of Washington
  • Natural Environment Research Council, UK Research & Innovation
  • Lund University
  • University of Zurich
  • University College London
  • University of Glasgow
  • University of California, San Diego
  • Oklahoma State University
  • University of Edinburgh