52 Works

Dataset associated with \"Volcanic ash ice nucleation activity is variably reduced by aging in water and sulfuric acid: the effects of leaching, dissolution, and precipitation\"

William Fahy, Elena Maters, Rona Giese-Miranda, Michael P. Adams, Leif G. Jahn, Ryan Sullivan & Benjamin Murray
Volcanic ash nucleates ice when immersed in supercooled water, giving it the potential to influence weather and climate from local to global scales. However, the ice nucleation activity (INA) of ash can be modified by interaction with various chemical species during atmospheric transport. In the experimental study associated with this dataset, we show that the INA of two mineralogically distinct ash samples from Fuego and Astroni volcanoes is variably reduced when immersed in water or...

Sulawesi and Celebes Sea Ocean-bottom Seismic Network

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This network is comprised of 12 off-shore broadband ocean-bottom seismometers (60s-1) made by the Chinese Academy of Sciences, The observation spans from August 2010 to August 2020 and the research is targeting the lithosphere structure of the North Sulawesi Subduction system and the Palu-Koro Transform Faults.

Data from: A new approach for investigating spatial relationships of ichnofossils: a case study of Ediacaran–Cambrian animal traces

Emily Mitchell, Scott Evans, Zhe Chen & Shuhai Xiao
Abstract — Trace fossils record foraging behaviours, the search for resources in patchy environments, of animals in the rock record. Quantification of the strength, density and nature of foraging behaviours enables the investigation of how these may have changed through time. Here, we present a novel approach to explore such patterns using spatial point process analyses to quantify the scale and strength of ichnofossil spatial distributions on horizontal bedding planes. To demonstrate the utility of...

Recognition of discrete export signals in flagellar subunits during bacterial Type III secretion

Owain Bryant, Paraminder Dhillon, Colin Hughes & Gillian Fraser
Type III Secretion Systems (T3SS) deliver subunits from the bacterial cytosol to nascent cell surface flagella. Early flagellar subunits that form the rod and hook substructures are unchaperoned and contain their own export signals. A gate recognition motif (GRM) docks them at the FlhBc component of the FlhAB-FliPQR export gate, but the gate must then be opened and subunits must be unfolded to pass through the flagellar channel. This induced us to seek further signals...

Data from: A whole-ecosystem method for experimentally suppressing ants on a small scale

Amelia S. C. Hood, Anak Agung Ketut Aryawan, Andreas D. Advento, Wahyu R. Suberkah, Adham Ashton-Butt, Sudharto Ps, Jean-Pierre Caliman, Mohammad Naim, William A. Foster & Edgar C. Turner
Ant suppression experiments have emerged as a powerful method for assessing the role of ants in ecosystems. However, traditional methods have been limited to canopy ants, and not assessed the role of ants on and below ground. Recent advances have enabled whole-ecosystem ant suppression in large plots, but large-scale experiments are not always feasible. Here, we develop a small-scale, whole-ecosystem suppression method. We compare techniques for monitoring suppression experiments, and assess whether habitat complexity in...

Observational data and model output for sediment nutrient cycling at Patagonian fjords

Hong Chin Ng, Jon R. Hawkings, Jemma L. Wadham, Katharine R. Hendry, Tim M. Conway, Sebastien Bertrand, Matthias Sieber, Brent A. Summers, Felipe S. Freitas, James P.J. Ward, Helena V. Pryer & Sandra Arndt
Glacier meltwater supplies a significant amount of silicon (Si) and iron (Fe) sourced from weathered bedrock to downstream ecosystems. However, the extent to which these essential nutrients reach the ocean is regulated by the nature of the benthic cycling of dissolved Si and Fe within fjord systems, given the rapid deposition of reactive particulate fractions at fjord heads. The dataset is used to examine the benthic cycling of the two nutrients at Patagonian fjord heads...

Design with and by marginalized people in humanitarian makerspaces

Lucia Corsini, Santosh Jagtap & James Moultrie

Last Interglacial summer air temperature observations for the Arctic

Maria Vittoria Guarino & Louise Sime
These 21 Last Interglacial (LIG) summer surface air temperature (SSAT) observations were compiled to assess LIG Arctic sea ice (Guarino et al 2020). Twenty of the observations were also previously used in the IPCC-AR5 report. Each observation is thought to be of summer LIG air temperature anomaly relative to present day and is located in the circum-Arctic region. All sites are from north of 51N. There are 7 terrestrial based temperature records; 8 lacustrine records;...

DNA replication dynamics during erythrocytic schizogony in the malaria parasites Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium knowlesi

Catherine Merrick & Jennifer McDonald
Malaria parasites are unusual, early-diverging protozoans with non-canonical cell cycles. They do not undergo binary fission, but divide primarily by schizogony. This is a mode of replication involving asynchronous production of multiple nuclei within the same cytoplasm, culminating in a single mass cytokinesis event. The rate and efficiency of parasite replication is fundamentally important to malarial disease, which tends to be severe in hosts with high parasite loads. Here, we have studied for the first...

Visual complexity of egg patterns predicts egg rejection according to Weber’s law

Tanmay Dixit
Visual complexity is ubiquitous in the natural world. Drivers of such complexity include selection in coevolutionary arms races between antagonistically-interacting species. However, in general the causes and consequences of biological complexity are understudied, in part because complexity is difficult to quantify in a biologically relevant manner. Here, we address this gap by studying egg pattern complexity and its perception in hosts (tawny-flanked prinias Prinia subflava) of brood parasites (cuckoo finches Anomalospiza imberbis). Using field data...

Data condition dependence in biosynthesized chemical defenses of an aposematic and mimetic Heliconius butterfly

Anniina Mattila, Chris Jiggins & Marjo Saastamoinen
Aposematic animals advertise their toxicity or unpalatability with bright warning coloration. However, acquiring and maintaining chemical defenses can be energetically costly, and consequent associations with other important traits could shape chemical defense evolution. Here, we have tested whether chemical defenses are involved in energetic trade-offs with other traits, or whether the levels of chemical defenses are condition dependent, by studying associations between biosynthesized cyanogenic toxicity and a suite of key life-history and fitness traits in...

Cuckoos that care: conspecific brood parasitism in subsocial wasps

Jeremy Field, Charlie Savill & William Foster
Hosts and brood parasites are a classic example of evolutionary conflict. Parasites lay eggs in foreign nests but typically provide no further offspring care, imposing costs on hosts. In the subsocial wasp Ammophila pubescens, eggs were often replaced by unrelated foreign females, and hosts could respond by substituting new eggs of their own. Remarkably, foreign females usually provisioned the offspring in host nests, often while hosts were also provisioning. We used field data to investigate...

Data from: Correcting a bias in the computation of behavioral time budgets that are based on supervised learning

Yehezkel Resheff, Hanna Bensch, Markus Zottl & Shay Rotics
Supervised learning of behavioral modes from body-acceleration data has become a widely used research tool in Behavioral Ecology over the past decade. One of the primary usages of this tool is to estimate behavioral time budgets from the distribution of behaviors as predicted by the model. These serve as the key parameters to test predictions about the variation in animal behavior. In this paper we show that the widespread computation of behavioral time budgets is...

New opabiniid diversifies the weirdest wonders of the euarthropod stem group

Joanna Wolfe, Stephen Pates, Rudy Lerosey-Aubril, Allison C. Daley & Javier Ortega-Hernández
Once considered ‘weird wonders’ of the Cambrian, the emblematic Burgess Shale animals Anomalocaris and Opabinia are now recognized as lower stem group euarthropods and have provided crucial data for constraining the polarity of key morphological characters in the group. Anomalocaris and its relatives (radiodonts) had a worldwide distribution and survived until at least the Devonian. However, despite intense study, Opabinia remains the only formally described opabiniid to date. Here we reinterpret a fossil from the...

Spatial clustering of trumpetfish shadowing behaviour in the Caribbean Sea revealed by citizen science

Samuel Matchette, Emily Mitchell & James Herbert-Read
The West Atlantic trumpetfish (Aulostomus maculatus) performs an unusual hunting strategy, termed shadowing, whereby a trumpetfish swims closely behind or next to another ‘host’ species to facilitate the capture of prey. Despite trumpetfish being observed throughout the Caribbean, observations of this behaviour appear to be concentrated to a handful of localities. Here we assess the degree of geographical clustering of shadowing behaviour throughout the Caribbean Sea, and identify ecological features associated with the likelihood of...

Key features of inhibitor binding to the human mitochondrial pyruvate carrier hetero-dimer

Sotiria Tavoulari, Tom Schirris, Vasiliki Mavridou, Chancievan Thangaratnarajah, Martin King, Daniel Jones, Shujing Ding, Ian Fearnley & Edmund Kunji
Objective: The mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) has emerged as a promising drug target for metabolic disorders, including non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and diabetes, metabolically dependent cancers and neurodegenerative diseases. A range of structurally diverse small molecule inhibitors have been proposed but the nature of their interaction with MPC is not understood. Moreover, the composition of the functional human MPC is still debated. The goal of this study was to characterize the human MPC protein in vitro, to...

The overlooked complexity of avian brood parasite–host relationships

James A. Kennerley, Marius Somveille, Mark E. Hauber, Nicole M. Richardson, Andrea Manica & William E. Feeney
The interactions between avian brood parasites and their hosts have become widely recognised as model systems for studying coevolutionary processes. These systems have traditionally been viewed as relationships between one species of brood parasite and one species of host; however, with most brood parasites being known to parasitise multiple species of host and hosts often being subject to parasitism by multiple brood parasite species, opportunities to examine the ecology and evolution of multispecies interactions have...

Using deep convolutional neural networks to forecast spatial patterns of Amazonian deforestation: supporting data and outputs

James Ball, Katerina Petrova, David Coomes & Seth Flaxman
1. Tropical forests are subject to diverse deforestation pressures while their conservation is essential to achieve global climate goals. Predicting the location of deforestation is challenging due to the complexity of the natural and human systems involved but accurate and timely forecasts could enable effective planning and on-the-ground enforcement practices to curb deforestation rates. New computer vision technologies based on deep learning can be applied to the increasing volume of Earth observation data to generate...

Impacts of abiotic and biotic factors on terrestrial leeches in

Swapna Nelaballi, Benjamin J. Finkel, Andrew B. Bernard, Gene R. Estrada, Endro Setiawan, Tatang Mitra Setia, Tri Wahyu Susanto, Raden Rhanda, Surya N/A, Jakaria N/A, Dika Andika, Sylvain Lemoine, Sarah M. Jaffe, Elizabeth J. Barrow, Živa Justinek, Heiko U. Wittmer & Andrew J. Marshall
Haemadipsid leeches are ubiquitous inhabitants of tropical and sub-tropical forests in the Indo-Pacific region. They are increasingly used as indicator taxa for biomonitoring, yet very little is known about their basic ecology. For example, to date no study has assessed the occurrence and distribution of haemadipsid leeches across naturally occurring gradients within intact habitats. We analysed a long-term data set (2012-2020) on the closely related tiger (Haemadipsa picta) and brown (Haemadipsa spp.) leech species to...

Temporal change in the contribution of immigration to population growth in a wild seabird experiencing rapid population decline

Cat Horswill, Matt J. Wood & Andrea Manica
The source-sink paradigm predicts that populations in poorer-quality habitats (“sinks”) persist due to continued immigration from more-productive areas (“sources”). However, this categorisation of populations assumes that habitat quality is fixed through time. Globally, we are in an era of wide-spread habitat degradation, and consequently, there is a pressing need to examine dispersal dynamics in relation to local population change. We used an integrated population model to quantify immigration dynamics in a long-lived colonial seabird, the...

Data from: A longitudinal analysis of the growth rate and mass of tail feathers in a great tit population: ontogeny, genetic effects and relationship between traits

Ivan De La Hera, Michael S. Reichert, Gabrielle L. Davidson & John L. Quinn
Feathers have a diversity of functions in birds and are costly to produce, so their growth rate and mass can be reliable indicators of nutritional condition at the time of production. Despite the potential for feather metrics to advance our understanding of foraging, they are underused in avian ecology. One reason for this is the difficulty of interpreting whether individual variation is driven by ontogenetic, genetic, or environmental effects, which is exacerbated by the fact...

Data from: Robust single-image tree diameter estimation with mobile phones

Amelia Holcomb, Linzhe Tong & Srinivasan Keshav
Ground-based forest inventories are a key element of forest carbon monitoring, reporting, and verification schemes and a cornerstone of forest ecology research. Recent work using LiDAR-equipped mobile phones to automate parts of the forest inventory process assumes that tree trunks are well-spaced and visually unoccluded, or else requires manual intervention or offline processing to identify and measure tree trunks. In this paper, we design an algorithm that exploits a low-cost smartphone LiDAR sensor to estimate...

Parasitism dramatically alters the ecosystem services provided by freshwater mussels

Joshua Brian, Sam Reynolds & David Aldridge
Parasites can indirectly affect ecosystem function by altering host phenotype, but the trait-mediated impacts of parasitism at an ecosystem level remain poorly characterised. However, understanding the influence of parasites is central to understanding the ecosystem services provided by host species, especially in an era of global environmental change. We examined the effect of native (the trematode Rhipidocotyle campanula) and invasive (the bitterling fish Rhodeus amarus) parasites, and their interaction, on the clearance rates of unionid...

Roosting behavior and roost selection by Epomophorus gambianus (Pteropodidae) in a west African rural landscape

Kofi Amponsah-Mensah, Andrew A. Cunningham, James L. N. Wood & Yaa Ntiamoa-Baidu
Urbanization is driving many species to inhabit modified landscapes, but our understanding of how species respond to this remains limited. Bats are particularly vulnerable due to their life-history traits but have received little attention. We describe the roosting behavior and roost site selection, including maternity roosts, for the Gambian epauletted fruit bat (Epomophorus gambianus) within a modified forest-savannah transition ecological zone in Ghana, West Africa. We compared characteristics of roost and non-roost sites to test...

Data from: Darwin’s small and medium ground finches might have taste preferences, but not for human foods

Kiyoko Gotanda
Urbanization is rapidly changing ecological niches. On the inhabited Galapagos Islands, Darwin’s finches consume human-introduced foods preferentially; however, it remains unclear why. Here we presented pastry with flavour profiles typical of human foods (oily, salty, sweet) to small ground finches (Geospiza fuliginosa) and medium ground finches (Geospiza fortis) to test if latent taste preferences might drive selection of human foods. If human-food flavours were consumed more than a neutral or bitter control only at sites...

Registration Year

  • 2022

Resource Types

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  • Text


  • University of Cambridge
  • University of Southampton
  • British Antarctic Survey
  • Natural Environment Research Council
  • Zoological Society of London
  • University of Oxford
  • University of Cambridge (UK) Earth Sciences
  • University of Leeds
  • University of Zurich
  • University of Colorado Boulder