46 Works

Data from: Determinants of parasitoid communities of willow-galling sawflies: habitat overrides physiology, host plant, and space

Tommi Nyman, Sanna A. Leppänen, Gergely Várkonyi, Mark R. Shaw, Reijo Koivisto, Trond Elling Barstad, Veli Vikberg & Heikki Roininen
Studies on the determinants of plant–herbivore and herbivore–parasitoid associations provide important insights into the origin and maintenance of global and local species richness. If parasitoids are specialists on herbivore niches rather than on herbivore taxa, then alternating escape of herbivores into novel niches and delayed resource tracking by parasitoids could fuel diversification at both trophic levels. We used DNA barcoding to identify parasitoids that attack larvae of seven Pontania sawfly species that induce leaf galls...

Data from: Human disturbance increases functional but not structural variability of stream fungal communities

Mikko Tolkkinen, Heikki Mykrä, Annamari M. Markkola & Timo Muotka
Temporal stability of ecosystem functions is often regulated by the same environmental factors that also shape diversity. Therefore, species diversity, ecosystem functions and their environmental regulators should be considered together to understand and predict the consequences of anthropogenic disturbances on ecosystems. We studied the influence of land-use disturbance (agriculture) and a natural stressor (low pH due to specific geology) on the temporal variability (variability among successive years) of fungal decomposer communities and leaf decomposition rates...

Data from: Palaeontology meets metacommunity ecology: The Maastricthian dinosaur fossil record of North America as a case study

Jorge García-Girón, Jani Heino, Janne Alahuhta, Alfio Alessandro Chiarenza & Steve Brusatte
Documenting the patterns and potential associated processes of ancient biotas has always been a central challenge in palaeontology. Over the last decades, intense debate has focused on the organisation of dinosaur–dominated communities, yet no general consensus has been reached on how these communities were organised in a spatial context and if primarily affected by abiotic or biotic agents. Here, we used analytical routines typically applied in metacommunity ecology to provide novel insights into dinosaurian distributions...

Riparian forests can mitigate warming and ecological degradation of agricultural headwater streams

Jarno Turunen, Vasco Elbrecht, Dirk Steinke & Jukka Aroviita
1. Riparian forests are commonly advocated as a key management option to mitigate the effects of agriculture on headwater stream biodiversity and ecosystem functions. However, the benefits of riparian forests might be reduced by uninterrupted catchment-scale pollution. 2.We studied the effects of riparian land use on multiple ecological endpoints in headwater streams in an agricultural landscape. We studied stream habitat characteristics, water temperature and algal accrual, and macrophyte, benthic macroinvertebrate and fish communities in 11...

Data from: Inferring the effects of potential dispersal routes on the metacommunity structure of stream insects: as the crow flies, as the fish swims or as the fox runs?

Olli-Matti Kärnä, Mira Grönroos, Harri Antikainen, Jan Hjort, Jari Ilmonen, Lauri Paasivirta & Jani Heino
1. Metacommunity research relies largely on proxies for inferring the effect of dispersal on local community structure. Overland and watercourse distances have been typically used as such proxies. A good proxy for dispersal should, however, take into account more complex landscape features that can affect an organism's movement and dispersal. The cost distance approach does just that, allowing determining the path of least resistance across a landscape. 2. Here, we examined the distance decay of...

Urbanization extends flight phenology and leads to local adaptation of seasonal plasticity in Lepidoptera

Thomas Merckx, Matthew Nielsen, Janne Heliölä, Mikko Kuussaari, Lars Pettersson, Juha Pöyry, Juha Tiainen, Karl Gotthard & Sami Kivelä
Urbanization is globally gaining force and challenges biodiversity but has recently also emerged as an agent of evolutionary change. Seasonal phenology and life-cycle regulation are essential processes that urbanization is likely to alter through both the urban-heat-island effect (UHI) and artificial-light-at-night (ALAN). However, how UHI and ALAN affect the evolution of seasonal adaptations has received little attention. Here, we test for urban evolution of seasonal life-history plasticity, specifically changes in the photoperiodic induction of diapause...

Data from: No biotic homogenisation across decades but consistent effects of landscape position and pH on macrophyte communities in boreal lakes

Marja Lindholm, Janne Alahuhta, Jani Heino & Heikki Toivonen
It has been predicted that spatial beta diversity shows a decreasing trend in the Anthropocene due to increasing human impact, causing biotic homogenisation. We aimed to discover if vascular aquatic macrophyte communities show different spatial patterns in beta diversity in relation to land use and environmental characteristics in different decades from 1940s to 2010s. We aimed to discover if spatial structures differ between species-, phylogeny- and functional-based beta diversity. We used presence-absence data of aquatic...

Environmental variables and occurrence of 13 fish species

Tapio Sutela, Teppo Vehanen, Pekka Jounela & Jukka Aroviita
Species-environment relationships were studied between the occurrence of 13 fish and lamprey species and 9 mainly map-based environmental variables of Finnish boreal small streams. A self-organizing map (SOM) analysis showed strong relationships between the fish species and environmental variables in a single model (explained variance 55.9%). Besides basic environmental variables such as altitude, catchment size, and mean temperature, landcover variables were also explored. A logistic regression analysis indicated that the occurrence probability of brown trout,...

Data from: Effects of dispersal mode on the environmental and spatial correlates of nestedness and species turnover in pond communities

Matthew J. Hill, Jani Heino, Ian Thornhill, David B. Ryves & Paul J. Wood
Advances in metacommunity theory have made a significant contribution to understanding the drivers of variation in biological communities. However, there has been limited empirical research exploring the expression of metacommunity theory for two fundamental components of beta diversity: nestedness and species turnover. In this paper, we examine the influence of local environmental and a range of spatial variables (hydrological connectivity, proximity and overall spatial structure) on total beta diversity and the nestedness and turnover components...

Stochastic processes and ecological connectivity drive stream invertebrate community responses to short-term drought

Romain Sarremejane, Amélie Truchy, Brendan McKie, Heikki Mykrä, Richard Johnson, Ari Huusko, Ryan Sponseller & Timo Muotka
1. Community responses to and recovery from disturbances depend on local (e.g. presence of refuges) and regional (connectivity to recolonization sources) factors. Droughts are becoming more frequent in boreal regions, and are likely to constitute a severe disturbance for boreal stream communities where organisms largely lack adaptations to such hydrological extremes. 2. We conducted an experiment in 24 seminatural stream flumes to assess the effects of local and regional factors on the responses of benthic...

Data from: Measuring β‐diversity by remote sensing: a challenge for biodiversity monitoring

Duccio Rocchini, Sandra Luque, Nathalie Pettorelli, Lucy Bastin, Daniel Doktor, Nicolò Faedi, Hannes Feilhauer, Jean-Baptiste Féret, Giles M. Foody, Yoni Gavish, Sergio Godinho, William E. Kunin, Angela Lausch, Pedro J. Leitao, Matteo Marcantonio, Markus Neteler, Carlo Ricotta, Sebastian Schmidtlein, Petteri Vihervaara, Martin Wegmann & Harini Nagendra
Biodiversity includes multiscalar and multitemporal structures and processes, with different levels of functional organization, from genetic to ecosystemic levels. One of the mostly used methods to infer bio- diversity is based on taxonomic approaches and community ecology theories. However, gathering extensive data in the field is difficult due to logistic problems, especially when aiming at modelling biodiversity changes in space and time, which assumes statistically sound sampling schemes. In this context, airborne or satellite remote...

Data from: Widespread increases in iron concentration in European and North American freshwaters

Caroline Björnerås, Gesa A. Weyhenmeyer, Chris D. Evans, Mark O. Gessner, Hans-Peter Grossart, Külli Kangur, Ilga Kokorite, Pirkko Kortelainen, Hjalmar Laudon, Jouni Lehoranta, Noah Lottig, Don T. Monteith, Peter Nõges, Tiina Nõges, Filip Oulehle, Gunnhild Riise, James A. Rusak, Antti Räike, Janis Sire, Shannon Sterling & Emma Kritzberg
Recent reports of increasing iron (Fe) concentrations in freshwaters are of concern, given the fundamental role of Fe in biogeochemical processes. Still, little is known about the frequency and geographical distribution of Fe trends, or about the underlying drivers. We analyzed temporal trends of Fe concentrations across 340 water bodies distributed over 10 countries in northern Europe and North America in order to gain a clearer understanding of where, to what extent, and why Fe...

Identifying biotic drivers of population dynamics in a benthic–pelagic community

Louise Forsblom, Andreas Lindén, Jonna Engström-Öst, Maiju Lehtiniemi & Erik Bonsdorff
Benthic species and communities are linked to pelagic zooplankton through life-stages encompassing both benthic and pelagic habitats and through a mutual dependency on primary producers as a food source. Many zooplankton taxa contribute to the sedimentary system as benthic eggs. Our main aim was to investigate the nature of the population level biotic interactions between and within these two seemingly independent communities, both dependent on the pelagic primary production, while simultaneously accounting for environmental drivers...

Phenotypic variation in male Calopteryx splendens damselflies: The role of wing pigmentation and body size in thermoregulation

Linda Laakso, Jaakko Ilvonen & Jukka Suhonen
For an ectothermic insect, its color and size are important determinants of body temperature: dark colors absorb heat more efficiently, while larger bodies require more heat to reach a certain temperature. These dark colors are expressed using melanin, which has been intimately linked with an insect’s thermoregulatory capabilities. Melanin is also linked with immune defense and is often used as a secondary sexual character in insects. There is a potential trade-off situation between thermoregulatory capabilities,...

Data from: Multiple facets of stream macroinvertebrate alpha diversity are driven by different ecological factors across an extensive altitudinal gradient

Zhengfei Li, Xiaoming Jiang, Jun Wang, Xingliang Meng, Jani Heino & Zhicai Xie
Environmental filtering and spatial structuring are important ecological processes for the generation and maintenance of biodiversity. However, the relative importance of these ecological drivers for multiple facets of diversity is still poorly understood in highland streams. Here, we examined the responses of three facets of stream macroinvertebrate alpha diversity to local environmental, landscape-climate and spatial factors in a near-pristine highland riverine ecosystem. Taxonomic (species richness, Shannon diversity and evenness), functional (functional richness, evenness, divergence and...

Data from: Megaphylogeny resolves global patterns of mushroom evolution

Torda Varga, Krisztina Krizsán, Csenge Földi, Bálint Dima, Marisol Sánchez-García, Santiago Sánchez-Ramírez, Gergely J. Szöllősi, János G. Szarkándi, Viktor Papp, László Albert, William Andreopoulos, Claudio Angelini, Vladimír Antonín, Kerrie W. Barry, Neale L. Bougher, Peter Buchanan, Bart Buyck, Viktória Bense, Pam Catcheside, Mansi Chovatia, Jerry Cooper, Wolfgang Dämon, Dennis Desjardin, Péter Finy, József Geml … & László G. Nagy
Mushroom-forming fungi (Agaricomycetes) have the greatest morphological diversity and complexity of any group of fungi. They have radiated into most niches and fulfill diverse roles in the ecosystem, including wood decomposers, pathogens or mycorrhizal mutualists. Despite the importance of mushroom-forming fungi, large-scale patterns of their evolutionary history are poorly known, in part due to the lack of a comprehensive and dated molecular phylogeny. Here, using multigene and genome-based data, we assemble a 5,284-species phylogenetic tree...

Data from: Modelling of ships as a source of underwater noise

Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen, Lasse Johansson, Mattias Liefvendahl, Rickard Bensow, Peter Sigray, Martin Östberg, Ilkka Karasalo, Mathias Andersson, Heikki Peltonen & Jukka Pajala
In this paper, a methodology is presented for modelling underwater noise emissions from ships based on realistic vessel activity in the Baltic Sea region. This paper combines the Wittekind noise source model with the Ship Traffic Emission Assessment Model (STEAM) in order to produce regular updates for underwater noise from ships. This approach allows the construction of noise source maps, but requires parameters which are not commonly available from commercial ship technical databases. For this...

Data from: Contrasting the roles of section length and instream habitat enhancement for river restoration success: a field study on 20 European restoration projects

Daniel Hering, Jukka Aroviita, Annette Baattrup-Pedersen, Karel Brabec, Tom Buijse, Frauke Ecke, Nikolai Friberg, Marek Gielczewski, Kathrin Januschke, Jan Köhler, Benjamin Kupilas, Armin W. Lorenz, Susanne Muhar, Amael Paillex, Michaela Poppe, Torsten Schmidt, Stefan Schmutz, Jan Vermaat, Piet F. M. Verdonschot, Ralf C. M. Verdonschot, Jochem Kail & Christian Wolter
1. Restoration of river hydromorphology often has limited detected effects on river biota. One frequently discussed reason is that the restored river length is insufficient to allow populations to develop and give the room for geomorphologic processes to occur. 2. We investigated ten pairs of restored river sections of which one was a large project involving a long, intensively restored river section and one represented a smaller restoration effort. The restoration effect was quantified by...

Data from: Establishing a community-wide DNA barcode library as a new tool for arctic research

H. Wirta, G. Várkonyi, C. Rasmussen, R. Kaartinen, N. M. Schmidt, P. D. N. Hebert, M. Barták, G. Blagoev, H. Disney, S. Ertl, P. Gjelstrup, D. J. Gwiazdowicz, L. Huldén, J. Ilmonen, J. Jakovlev, M. Jaschhof, J. Kahanpää, T. Kankaanpää, P. H. Krogh, R. Labbee, C. Lettner, V. Michelsen, S. A. Nielsen, T. R. Nielsen, L. Paasivirta … & T. Roslin
DNA sequences offer powerful tools for describing the members and interactions of natural communities. In this study, we establish the to-date most comprehensive library of DNA barcodes for a terrestrial site, including all known macroscopic animals and vascular plants of an intensively studied area of the High Arctic, the Zackenberg Valley in Northeast Greenland. To demonstrate its utility, we apply the library to identify nearly 20 000 arthropod individuals from two Malaise traps, each operated...

Data from: Habitat connectivity and in-stream vegetation control temporal variability of benthic invertebrate communities

Kaisa-Leena Huttunen, Heikki Mykrä, Jari Oksanen, Anna Astorga, Riku Paavola & Timo Muotka
One of the key challenges to understanding patterns of β diversity is to disentangle deterministic patterns from stochastic ones. Stochastic processes may mask the influence of deterministic factors on community dynamics, hindering identification of the mechanisms causing variation in community composition. We studied temporal β diversity (among-year dissimilarity) of macroinvertebrate communities in near-pristine boreal streams across 14 years. To assess whether the observed β diversity deviates from that expected by chance, and to identify processes...

Data from: Ecological niche features override biological traits and taxonomic relatedness as predictors of occupancy and abundance in lake littoral macroinvertebrates

Jani Heino & Kimmo T. Tolonen
The degree to which species ecological and biological traits determine their distribution and abundance has intrigued ecologists for a long time, and it has seen a revival in recent years. This topic is important because it provides information about the determinants of species rarity and their conservation implications. We examined the effects of niche breadth, niche position, biological traits and taxonomic relatedness on the interspecific occupancy-abundance relationship, as well as on occupancy and abundance, in...

Current climate overrides historical effects on species richness and range size of freshwater plants in Europe and North America

Janne Alahuhta, Harri Antikainen, Jan Hjort, Aveliina Helm & Jani Heino
1. The latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG) hypothesis suggests that species richness should be highest at low latitudes, whereas Rapoport’s rule states that largest ranges ought to be found for species at high latitudes. However, there is no consensus over these patterns and their underlying drivers in the freshwater realm. 2. We investigated species richness and mean range size of freshwater plants in 50 km × 50 km grid cells across Europe (40°N to 71°N) and...

Data from: The importance of phytoplankton biomolecule availability for secondary production

Elina T. Peltomaa, Sanni L. Aalto, Kristiina M. Vuorio & Sami J. Taipale
The growth and reproduction of animals is affected by their access to resources. In aquatic ecosystems, the availability of essential biomolecules for filter-feeding zooplankton depends greatly on phytoplankton. Here, we analyzed the biochemical composition, i.e., the fatty acid, sterol and amino acid profiles and concentrations as well as protein, carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus content of 17 phytoplankton monocultures representing the seven most abundant phytoplankton classes in boreal and sub-arctic lakes. To examine how the differences...

Data from: Rehabilitating the cyanobacteria – niche partitioning, resource use efficiency, and phytoplankton community structure during diazotrophic cyanobacterial blooms

Kalle Olli, Riina Klais & Timo Tamminen
1. Blooms of nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria are recurrent phenomena in marine and freshwater habitats, and their supplying role in aquatic biogeochemical cycles is generally considered vital. The objective of this study is to analyze if an increasing proportion of nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria affects (i) the composition of the non-diazotrophic component of ambient phytoplankton communities, and (ii) resource use efficiency (RUE; ratio of chl a to total nutrients) – an important ecosystem function. We hypothesize that diazotrophs increase...

Data from: Environmental degradation results in contrasting changes in the assembly processes of stream bacterial and fungal communities

Heikki Mykra, Mikko Tolkkinen & Jani Heino
Environmental degradation may have strong effects on community assembly processes. We examined the assembly of bacterial and fungal communities in anthropogenically altered and near-pristine streams. Using pyrosequencing of bacterial and fungal DNA from decomposed alder Alnus incana leaves, we specifically examined if environmental degradation deterministically decreases or increases the compositional turnover of bacterial and fungal communities. Our results showed that near-pristine streams and anthropogenically altered streams supported distinct fungal and bacterial communities. The mechanisms assembling...

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