208 Works

Data from: State-dependent behavior alters endocrine-energy relationship: implications for conservation and management

Brett R. Jesmer, Jacob R. Goheen, Kevin L. Monteith & Matthew J. Kauffman
Glucocorticoids (GC) and triiodothyronine (T3) are two endocrine markers commonly used to quantify resource limitation, yet the relationships between these markers and the energetic state of animals has been studied primarily in small-bodied species in captivity. Free-ranging animals, however, adjust energy intake in accordance with their energy reserves, a behavior known as state-dependent foraging. Further, links between life-history strategies and metabolic allometries cause energy intake and energy reserves to be more strongly coupled in small...

Data from: Causes of variation in biotic interaction strength and phenotypic selection along an altitudinal gradient

Eduardo T. Mezquida & Craig W. Benkman
Understanding the causes of variation in biotic interaction strength and phenotypic selection remains one of the outstanding goals of evolutionary ecology. Here we examine the variation in strength of interactions between two seed predators, common crossbills (Loxia curvirostra) and European red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris), and mountain pine (Pinus uncinata) at and below tree limit in the Pyrenees, and how this translates into phenotypic selection. Seed predation by crossbills increased whereas seed predation by squirrels decreased...

Data from: Founder events, isolation, and inbreeding: Intercontinental genetic structure of the domestic ferret

Kyle D. Gustafson, Michelle G. Hawkins, Tracy L. Drazenovich, Robert Church, Susan A. Brown & Holly B. Ernest
Domestication and breeding for human-desired morphological traits can reduce population genetic diversity via founder events and artificial selection, resulting in inbreeding depression and genetic disorders. The ferret (Mustela putorius furo) was domesticated from European polecats (M. putorius), transported to multiple continents, and has been artificially selected for several traits. The ferret is now a common pet, a laboratory model organism, and feral ferrets can impact native biodiversity. We hypothesized global ferret trade resulted in distinct...

Data from: Resilience and regime change in a southern Rocky Mountain ecosystem during the past 17000 years

Thomas A. Minckley, Robert K. Shriver, Bryan N. Shuman & B Shuman
Paleoecological records indicate that subalpine forests in western North America have been resilient in response to multiple influences, including severe droughts, insect outbreaks, and widely varying fire regimes, over many millennia. One hypothesis for explaining this ecosystem resilience centers on the disruption of forest dynamics by frequent disturbance and climatic variability, and the resulting development of non- steady-state regimes dominated by early-succession conifers with broad climatic tolerances, such as lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia...

Data from: The interaction of exposure and warming tolerance determines fish species vulnerability to warming stream temperatures

Annika W. Walters, Caitlin P. Mandeville & Frank J. Rahel
Species vulnerability to climate change involves an interaction between the magnitude of change (exposure) and a species’ tolerance to change. We evaluated fish species vulnerability to predicted stream temperature increases by examining warming tolerances across the Wyoming fish assemblage. Warming tolerance combines stream temperature with a thermal tolerance metric to estimate how much warming beyond current conditions a species can withstand. Brown trout, rainbow trout, and burbot had the lowest warming tolerances and highest proportion...

Data from: The network motif architecture of dominance hierarchies

Daizaburo Shizuka & David B. McDonald
The widespread existence of dominance hierarchies has been a central puzzle in social evolution, yet we lack a framework for synthesizing the vast empirical data on hierarchy structure in animal groups. We applied network motif analysis to compare the structures of dominance networks from data published over the past 80 years. Overall patterns of dominance relations, including some aspects of non-interactions, were strikingly similar across disparate group types. For example, nearly all groups exhibited high...

Data from: Plasticity of animal genome architecture unmasked by rapid evolution of a pelagic tunicate

France Denoeud, Simon Henriet, Sutada Mungpakdee, Jean-Marc Aury, Corinne Da Silva, Henner Brinkmann, Jana Mikhaleva, Lisbeth C. Olsen, Claire Jubin, Cristian Cañestro, Jean-Marie Bouquet, Gemma Danks, Julie Poulain, Coen Campsteijn, Marcin Adamski, Ismael Cross, Fekadu Yadetie, Matthieu Muffato, Alexandra Louis, Stephen Butcher, Georgia Tsagkogeorga, Anke Konrad, Sarabdeep Singh, Marit F. Jensen, Evelyne Huynh Cong … & Daniel Chourrout
Genomes of animals as different as sponges and humans show conservation of global architecture. Here we show that multiple genomic features including transposon diversity, developmental gene repertoire, physical gene order, and intron-exon organization are shattered in the tunicate Oikopleura, belonging to the sister group of vertebrates and retaining chordate morphology. Ancestral architecture of animal genomes can be deeply modified and may therefore be largely nonadaptive. This rapidly evolving animal lineage thus offers unique perspectives on...

Data from: Behavior and nutritional condition buffer a large-bodied endotherm against direct and indirect effects of climate

Ryan A. Long, R. Terry Bowyer, Warren P. Porter, Paul Mathewson, Kevin Lee Monteith & John G. Kie
Temporal changes in net energy balance of animals strongly influence fitness; consequently, natural selection should favor behaviors that increase net energy balance by buffering individuals against negative effects of environmental variation. The relative importance of behavioral responses to climate-induced variation in costs versus supplies of energy, however, is uncertain, as is the degree to which such responses are mediated by current stores of energy. We evaluated relationships among behavior, nutritional condition (i.e., energetic state), and...

Data from: Circadian rhythms vary over the growing season and correlate with fitness components

Matthew J. Rubin, Marcus T. Brock, Amanda M. Davis, Zachary M. German, Mary Knapp, Stephen M. Welch, Stacey L. Harmer, Julin N. Maloof, Seth J. Davis & Cynthia Weinig
Circadian clocks have evolved independently in all three domains of life, suggesting that internal mechanisms of time-keeping are adaptive in contemporary populations. However, the performance consequences of either discrete or quantitative clock variation have rarely been tested in field settings. Clock sensitivity of diverse segregating lines to the environment remains uncharacterized as do the statistical genetic parameters that determine evolutionary potential. In field studies with Arabidopsis thaliana, we found that major perturbations to circadian cycle...

Data from: Re-evaluating neonatal-age models for ungulates: does model choice affect survival estimates?

Troy W. Grovenburg, Kevin L. Monteith, Christopher N. Jacques, Robert W. Klaver, Christopher S. DePerno, Todd J. Brinkman, Kyle B. Monteith, Sophie L. Gilbert, Joshua B. Smith, Vernon C. Bleich, Christopher C. Swanson & Jonathan A. Jenks
New-hoof growth is regarded as the most reliable metric for predicting age of newborn ungulates, but variation in estimated age among hoof-growth equations that have been developed may affect estimates of survival in staggered-entry models. We used known-age newborns to evaluate variation in age estimates among existing hoof-growth equations and to determine the consequences of that variation on survival estimates. During 2001–2009, we captured and radiocollared 174 newborn (≤24-hrs old) ungulates: 76 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus...

Data from: Context-dependent effects of large wildlife declines on small mammal communities in central Kenya

Hillary S. Young, Douglas J. McCauley, Rodolfo Dirzo, Jacob R. Goheen, Bernard Agwanda, Cara Brook, Erik O. Castillo, Adam W. Ferguson, Stephen N. Kinyua, Molly M. McDonough, Todd M. Palmer, Robert M. Pringle, Truman P. Young & Kristofer M. Helgen
Many species of large wildlife have declined drastically worldwide. These reductions often lead to profound shifts in the ecology of entire communities and ecosystems. However, the effects of these large wildlife declines on other taxa likely hinge upon both underlying abiotic properties of these systems and on the types of secondary anthropogenic changes associated with wildlife loss, making impacts difficult to predict. To better understand how these important contextual factors determine the consequences of large-wildlife...

Data from: ProtASR: an evolutionary framework for ancestral protein reconstruction with selection on folding stability

Miguel Arenas, Claudia C. Weber, David A. Liberles & Ugo Bastolla
The computational reconstruction of ancestral proteins provides information on past biological events and has practical implications for biomedicine and biotechnology. Currently available tools for ancestral sequence reconstruction (ASR) are often based on empirical amino acid substitution models that assume that all sites evolve at the same rate and under the same process. However, this assumption is frequently violated because protein evolution is highly heterogeneous due to different selective constraints among sites. Here, we present ProtASR,...

Data from: Constraints on trait combinations explain climatic drivers of biodiversity: the importance of trait covariance in community assembly

John M. Dwyer & Daniel C. Laughlin
Trade-offs maintain diversity and structure communities along environmental gradients. Theory indicates that if covariance among functional traits sets a limit on the number of viable trait combinations in a given environment, then communities with strong multidimensional trait constraints should exhibit low species diversity. We tested this prediction in winter annual plant assemblages along an aridity gradient using multilevel structural equation modelling. Univariate and multivariate functional diversity measures were poorly explained by aridity, and were surprisingly...

Data from: Landscape-scale eco-evolutionary dynamics: selection by seed predators and fire determine a major reproductive strategy

Matt V. Talluto & Craig W. Benkman
Recent work in model systems has demonstrated significant effects of rapid evolutionary change on ecological processes (eco-evolutionary dynamics). Fewer studies have addressed whether eco-evolutionary dynamics structure natural ecosystems. We investigated variation in the frequency of serotiny in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta), a widespread species in which postfire seedling density and ecosystem structure are largely determined by serotiny. Serotiny, the retention of mature seeds in cones in a canopy seed bank, is thought to be an...

Data from: Evaluating distributional shifts in home range estimates

Justin G. Clapp & Jeffrey L. Beck
A variety of methods are commonly used to quantify animal home ranges using location data acquired with telemetry. High-volume location data from global positioning system (GPS) technology provide researchers the opportunity to identify various intensities of use within home ranges, typically quantified through utilization distributions (UDs). However, the wide range of variability evident within UDs constructed with modern home range estimators is often overlooked or ignored during home range comparisons, and challenges may arise when...

Data from: Stick insect genomes reveal natural selection's role in parallel speciation

Victor Soria-Carrasco, Zachariah Gompert, Aaron A. Comeault, Timothy E. Farkas, Thomas L. Parchman, J. Spencer Johnston, C. Alex Buerkle, Jeffrey L. Feder, Jens Bast, Tanja Schwander, Scott P. Egan, Bernard J. Crespi & Patrik Nosil
Natural selection can drive the repeated evolution of reproductive isolation, but the genomic basis of parallel speciation remains poorly understood. We analyzed whole-genome divergence between replicate pairs of stick insect populations that are adapted to different host plants and undergoing parallel speciation. We found thousands of modest-sized genomic regions of accentuated divergence between populations, most of which are unique to individual population pairs. We also detected parallel genomic divergence across population pairs involving an excess...

Data from: Rarity does not limit genetic variation or preclude subpopulation structure in the geographically restricted desert forb Astragalus lentiginosus var. piscinensis

Joshua G. Harrison, Matthew L. Forister, Stephanie R. Mcknight, Erin Nordin & Thomas L. Parchman
Premise of the study: Characteristics of rare taxa include small population sizes and limited geographical ranges. The genetic consequences of rarity are poorly understood for most taxa. A small geographical range could result in reduced opportunity for isolation by distance or environment, thereby limiting genetic structure and variation, but few studies explore genetic structure at small spatial scales with sufficient resolution to test this hypothesis. Moreover, few comparative genetic studies exist among infrataxa differing in...

Data from: Population genomic diversity and structure at the discontinuous southern range of the Great Gray Owl in North America

Beth Mendelsohn & Holly Ernest
Species' distributions are often discontinuous near the edge of the range where the environment may be more variable than the core of the range. Range discontinuity can reduce or cut off gene flow to small peripheral populations and lead to genetic drift and subsequent loss of genetic diversity. The southern extent of the Great Gray Owl ( Strixnebulosa) range in North America is discontinuous, unlike their northern core range across the boreal forests. We sampled...

Water availability dictates how plant traits predict demographic rates

Alice Stears, Peter Adler, Dana Blumenthal, Julie Kray, Kevin Mueller, Troy Ocheltree, Kevin Wilcox & Daniel Laughlin
A major goal in ecology is to make generalizable predictions of organism responses to environmental variation based on their traits. However, straightforward relationships between traits and fitness are rare and likely vary with environmental context. Characterizing how traits mediate demographic responses to the environment may enhance predictions of organism responses to global change. We synthesized 15 years of demographic data and species-level traits in a shortgrass steppe to determine whether the effects of leaf and...

A new method to reconstruct quantitative food webs and nutrient flows from isotope tracer addition experiments

Andres Lopez-Sepulcre, Matthieu Bruneaux, Sarah Michelle Collins, Rana El-Sabaawi, Alexander S Flecker & Steven A Thomas
Understanding how nutrients flow through food webs is central in ecosystem ecology. Tracer addition experiments are powerful tools to reconstruct nutrient flows by adding an isotopically enriched element into an ecosystem, and tracking its fate through time. Historically, the design and analysis of tracer studies have varied widely, ranging from descriptive studies to modeling approaches of varying complexity. Increasingly, isotope tracer data is being used being used to compare ecosystems and analyze experimental manipulations. Currently,...

Gross primary production responses to warming, elevated CO2 , and irrigation: quantifying the drivers of ecosystem physiology in a semiarid grassland

Elise Pendall, Edmund M. Ryan, Kiona Ogle, Drew Peltier, David G. Williams, Anthony P. Walker, Martin G. De Kauwe, Belinda E. Medlyn, William Parton, Shinichi Asao, Bertrand Guenet, Anna B. Harper, Xingjie Lu, Kristina A. Luus, Sönke Zaehle, Shijie Shu, Christian Werner & Jianyang Xia
Determining whether the terrestrial biosphere will be a source or sink of carbon (C) under a future climate of elevated CO2 (eCO2) and warming requires accurate quantification of gross primary production (GPP), the largest flux of C in the global C cycle. We evaluated 6 years (2007–2012) of flux‐derived GPP data from the Prairie Heating and CO2 Enrichment (PHACE) experiment, situated in a grassland in Wyoming, USA. The GPP data were used to calibrate a...

Biogeographic parallels in thermal tolerance and gene expression variation under temperature stress in a widespread bumble bee

Meaghan Pimsler, Kennan Oyen, James Herndon, Jason Jackson, James Strange, Michael Dillon & Jeff Lozier
Global temperature changes have emphasized the need to understand how species adapt to thermal stress across their ranges. Genetic mechanisms may contribute to variation in thermal tolerance, providing evidence for how organisms adapt to local environments. We determine physiological thermal limits and characterize genome-wide transcriptional changes at these limits in bumble bees using laboratory-reared Bombus vosnesenskii workers. We analyze bees reared from latitudinal (35.7–45.7°N) and altitudinal (7–2154 m) extremes of the species’ range to correlate...

Data for degrees earned by faculty teaching in soil science preparatory programs at universities in the USA

Eric Brevik & Karen Vaughan
In the early 2000s some were concerned that few soil science graduate students were receiving their bachelor’s degrees in soil science. However, no studies were conducted to investigate this or how it may have changed over time. Information available on university webpages for faculty in the USA was used to determine the faculty’s bachelor’s, master’s, and doctoral degree disciplines. Faculty rank was used to determine if a change had occurred in the percent of faculty...

Ecological consequences of large herbivore exclusion in an African savanna: 12 years of data from the UHURU experiment

Jesse Alston, Courtney Reed, Leo Khasoha, Bianca Brown, Gilbert Busienei, Nathaniel Carlson, Tyler Coverdale, Megan Dudenhoeffer, Marissa Dyck, John Ekeno, Abdikadir Hassan, Rhianna Hohbein, Rhiannon Jakopak, Buas Kimiti, Samson Kurukura, Peter Lokeny, Allison Louthan, Simon Musila, Paul Musili, Tosca Tindall, Sarah Weiner, Tyler Kartzinel, Todd Palmer, Robert Pringle & Jacob Goheen
Diverse communities of large mammalian herbivores (LMH), once widespread, are now rare. LMH exert strong direct and indirect effects on community structure and ecosystem functions, and measuring these effects is important for testing ecological theory and for understanding past, current, and future environmental change. This in turn requires long-term experimental manipulations, owing to the slow and often nonlinear responses of populations and assemblages to LMH removal. Moreover, the effects of particular species or body-size classes...

Chinook salmon environmental data and allele frequency matrix

Yara Alshwairikh, Rebekah Horn, Travis Seaborn, Shawn Narum, Lisette Waits, William Swain, Steve Stephens-Cardenas, Jenny Olsson & Shayla Kroeze
Many species that undergo long breeding migrations, such as anadromous fishes, face highly heterogeneous environments along their migration corridors and at their spawning sites. These environmental challenges encountered at different life stages may act as strong selective pressures and drive local adaptation. However, the relative influence of environmental conditions along the migration corridor compared to the conditions at spawning sites on driving selection is still unknown. In this study, we performed genome-environment associations (GEA) to...

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