155 Works

Data from: Landscape-scale eco-evolutionary dynamics: selection by seed predators and fire determine a major reproductive strategy

Matt V. Talluto & Craig W. Benkman
Recent work in model systems has demonstrated significant effects of rapid evolutionary change on ecological processes (eco-evolutionary dynamics). Fewer studies have addressed whether eco-evolutionary dynamics structure natural ecosystems. We investigated variation in the frequency of serotiny in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta), a widespread species in which postfire seedling density and ecosystem structure are largely determined by serotiny. Serotiny, the retention of mature seeds in cones in a canopy seed bank, is thought to be an...

Data from: Plasticity of animal genome architecture unmasked by rapid evolution of a pelagic tunicate

France Denoeud, Simon Henriet, Sutada Mungpakdee, Jean-Marc Aury, Corinne Da Silva, Henner Brinkmann, Jana Mikhaleva, Lisbeth C. Olsen, Claire Jubin, Cristian Cañestro, Jean-Marie Bouquet, Gemma Danks, Julie Poulain, Coen Campsteijn, Marcin Adamski, Ismael Cross, Fekadu Yadetie, Matthieu Muffato, Alexandra Louis, Stephen Butcher, Georgia Tsagkogeorga, Anke Konrad, Sarabdeep Singh, Marit F. Jensen, Evelyne Huynh Cong … & Daniel Chourrout
Genomes of animals as different as sponges and humans show conservation of global architecture. Here we show that multiple genomic features including transposon diversity, developmental gene repertoire, physical gene order, and intron-exon organization are shattered in the tunicate Oikopleura, belonging to the sister group of vertebrates and retaining chordate morphology. Ancestral architecture of animal genomes can be deeply modified and may therefore be largely nonadaptive. This rapidly evolving animal lineage thus offers unique perspectives on...

Data from: Cross-species transferability of SSR loci developed from transcriptome sequencing in lodgepole pine

Mark R. Lesser, Thomas L. Parchman & C. Alex Buerkle
With the advent of next generation sequencing technologies, transcriptome level sequence collections are arising as prominent resources for the discovery of gene-based molecular markers. In a previous study more than 15 000 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences resulting from 454 pyrosequencing of Pinus contorta cDNA were identified. From these we developed PCR primers for approximately 4000 candidate SSRs. Here, we tested 184 of these SSRs for successful amplification across P....

Data from: The greenscape shapes surfing of resource waves in a large migratory herbivore

Ellen O. Aikens, Matthew J. Kauffman, Jerod A. Merkle, Samantha P.H. Dwinnel, Gary L. Fralick, Kevin L. Monteith & Samantha P. H. Dwinnell
The Green Wave Hypothesis posits that herbivore migration manifests in response to waves of spring green-up (i.e. green-wave surfing). Nonetheless, empirical support for the Green Wave Hypothesis is mixed, and a framework for understanding variation in surfing is lacking. In a population of migratory mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), 31% surfed plant phenology in spring as well as a theoretically perfect surfer, and 98% surfed better than random. Green-wave surfing varied among individuals and was unrelated...

Data from: Distance, elevation, and environment as drivers of diversity and divergence in bumble bees across latitude and altitude

Jason M. Jackson, Meaghan L. Pimsler, Kennan Jeannet Oyen, Jonathan B. Koch-Uhuad, James D. Herndon, James P. Strange, Michael E. Dillon & Jeffrey D. Lozier
Identifying drivers of dispersal limitation and genetic differentiation is a key goal in biogeography. We examine patterns of population connectivity and genetic diversity using Restriction-site Associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) in two bumble bee species, Bombus vosnesenskii and Bombus bifarius across latitude and altitude in mountain ranges from California, Oregon, and Washington, U.S.A. Bombus vosnesenskii, which occurs across a broader elevational range at most latitudes, exhibits little population structure while B. bifarius, which occupies a relatively...

Data from: The interaction of exposure and warming tolerance determines fish species vulnerability to warming stream temperatures

Annika W. Walters, Caitlin P. Mandeville & Frank J. Rahel
Species vulnerability to climate change involves an interaction between the magnitude of change (exposure) and a species’ tolerance to change. We evaluated fish species vulnerability to predicted stream temperature increases by examining warming tolerances across the Wyoming fish assemblage. Warming tolerance combines stream temperature with a thermal tolerance metric to estimate how much warming beyond current conditions a species can withstand. Brown trout, rainbow trout, and burbot had the lowest warming tolerances and highest proportion...

Data from: Migratory plasticity is not ubiquitous among large herbivores

Hall Sawyer, Jerod A. Merkle, Arthur D. Middleton, Samantha P.H. Dwinnell, Kevin L. Monteith & Samantha P. H. Dwinnell
1. The migratory movements of wild animals can promote abundance and support ecosystem functioning. For large herbivores, mounting evidence suggests that migratory behavior is an individually variable trait, where individuals can easily switch between migrant and resident tactics. The degree of migratory plasticity, including whether and where to migrate, has important implications for the ecology and conservation of large herbivores in a changing world. 2. Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) are an iconic species of western...

Gross primary production responses to warming, elevated CO2 , and irrigation: quantifying the drivers of ecosystem physiology in a semiarid grassland

Elise Pendall, Edmund M. Ryan, Kiona Ogle, Drew Peltier, David G. Williams, Anthony P. Walker, Martin G. De Kauwe, Belinda E. Medlyn, William Parton, Shinichi Asao, Bertrand Guenet, Anna B. Harper, Xingjie Lu, Kristina A. Luus, Sönke Zaehle, Shijie Shu, Christian Werner & Jianyang Xia
Determining whether the terrestrial biosphere will be a source or sink of carbon (C) under a future climate of elevated CO2 (eCO2) and warming requires accurate quantification of gross primary production (GPP), the largest flux of C in the global C cycle. We evaluated 6 years (2007–2012) of flux‐derived GPP data from the Prairie Heating and CO2 Enrichment (PHACE) experiment, situated in a grassland in Wyoming, USA. The GPP data were used to calibrate a...

Data for degrees earned by faculty teaching in soil science preparatory programs at universities in the USA

Eric Brevik & Karen Vaughan
In the early 2000s some were concerned that few soil science graduate students were receiving their bachelor’s degrees in soil science. However, no studies were conducted to investigate this or how it may have changed over time. Information available on university webpages for faculty in the USA was used to determine the faculty’s bachelor’s, master’s, and doctoral degree disciplines. Faculty rank was used to determine if a change had occurred in the percent of faculty...

Data from: Population genomic diversity and structure at the discontinuous southern range of the Great Gray Owl in North America

Beth Mendelsohn & Holly Ernest
Species' distributions are often discontinuous near the edge of the range where the environment may be more variable than the core of the range. Range discontinuity can reduce or cut off gene flow to small peripheral populations and lead to genetic drift and subsequent loss of genetic diversity. The southern extent of the Great Gray Owl ( Strixnebulosa) range in North America is discontinuous, unlike their northern core range across the boreal forests. We sampled...

A new method to reconstruct quantitative food webs and nutrient flows from isotope tracer addition experiments

Andres Lopez-Sepulcre, Matthieu Bruneaux, Sarah Michelle Collins, Rana El-Sabaawi, Alexander S Flecker & Steven A Thomas
Understanding how nutrients flow through food webs is central in ecosystem ecology. Tracer addition experiments are powerful tools to reconstruct nutrient flows by adding an isotopically enriched element into an ecosystem, and tracking its fate through time. Historically, the design and analysis of tracer studies have varied widely, ranging from descriptive studies to modeling approaches of varying complexity. Increasingly, isotope tracer data is being used being used to compare ecosystems and analyze experimental manipulations. Currently,...

Data from: Seasonality of soil moisture mediates responses of ecosystem phenology to elevated CO2 and warming in a semi-arid grassland

Tamara J. Zelikova, David G. Williams, Rhonda Hoenigman, Dana M. Blumenthal, Jack A. Morgan & Elise Pendall
Vegetation greenness, detected using digital photography, is useful for monitoring phenology of plant growth, carbon uptake, and water loss at the ecosystem level. Assessing ecosystem phenology by greenness is especially useful in spatially extensive, water-limited ecosystems such as the grasslands of the western United States, where productivity is moisture dependent and may become increasingly vulnerable to future climate change. We used repeat photography and a novel means of quantifying greenness in digital photographs to assess...

Data from: Landscape variation in tree regeneration and snag fall drive fuel loads in 25-yr old post-fire lodgepole pine forests

Kellen N. Nelson, Monica G. Turner, William H. Romme & Daniel B. Tinker
Escalating wildfire in subalpine forests with stand-replacing fire regimes is increasing the extent of early-seral forests throughout the western US. Post-fire succession generates the fuel for future fires, but little is known about fuel loads and their variability in young post-fire stands. We sampled fuel profiles in 24-year-old post-fire lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) stands (n=82) that regenerated from the 1988 Yellowstone Fires to answer three questions. (1) How do canopy and surface fuel...

Data from: Evaluating distributional shifts in home range estimates

Justin G. Clapp & Jeffrey L. Beck
A variety of methods are commonly used to quantify animal home ranges using location data acquired with telemetry. High-volume location data from global positioning system (GPS) technology provide researchers the opportunity to identify various intensities of use within home ranges, typically quantified through utilization distributions (UDs). However, the wide range of variability evident within UDs constructed with modern home range estimators is often overlooked or ignored during home range comparisons, and challenges may arise when...

Data from: Moving in the Anthropocene: global reductions in terrestrial mammalian movements

Marlee A. Tucker, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, William F. Fagan, John M. Fryxell, Bram Van Moorter, Susan C. Alberts, Abdullahi H. Ali, Andrew M. Allen, Nina Attias, Tal Avgar, Hattie Bartlam-Brooks, Buuveibaatar Bayarbaatar, Jerrold L. Belant, Alessandra Bertassoni, Dean Beyer, Laura Bidner, Floris M. Van Beest, Stephen Blake, Niels Blaum, Chloe Bracis, Danielle Brown, P. J. Nico De Bruyn, Francesca Cagnacci, Justin M. Calabrese, Constança Camilo-Alves … & Thomas Mueller
Animal movement is fundamental for ecosystem functioning and species survival, yet the effects of the anthropogenic footprint on animal movements have not been estimated across species. Using a unique GPS-tracking database of 803 individuals across 57 species, we found that movements of mammals in areas with a comparatively high human footprint were on average one-half to one-third the extent of their movements in areas with a low human footprint. We attribute this reduction to behavioral...

Data from: Causes of variation in biotic interaction strength and phenotypic selection along an altitudinal gradient

Eduardo T. Mezquida & Craig W. Benkman
Understanding the causes of variation in biotic interaction strength and phenotypic selection remains one of the outstanding goals of evolutionary ecology. Here we examine the variation in strength of interactions between two seed predators, common crossbills (Loxia curvirostra) and European red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris), and mountain pine (Pinus uncinata) at and below tree limit in the Pyrenees, and how this translates into phenotypic selection. Seed predation by crossbills increased whereas seed predation by squirrels decreased...

Data from: Stick insect genomes reveal natural selection's role in parallel speciation

Victor Soria-Carrasco, Zachariah Gompert, Aaron A. Comeault, Timothy E. Farkas, Thomas L. Parchman, J. Spencer Johnston, C. Alex Buerkle, Jeffrey L. Feder, Jens Bast, Tanja Schwander, Scott P. Egan, Bernard J. Crespi & Patrik Nosil
Natural selection can drive the repeated evolution of reproductive isolation, but the genomic basis of parallel speciation remains poorly understood. We analyzed whole-genome divergence between replicate pairs of stick insect populations that are adapted to different host plants and undergoing parallel speciation. We found thousands of modest-sized genomic regions of accentuated divergence between populations, most of which are unique to individual population pairs. We also detected parallel genomic divergence across population pairs involving an excess...

Data from: Behavior and nutritional condition buffer a large-bodied endotherm against direct and indirect effects of climate

Ryan A. Long, R. Terry Bowyer, Warren P. Porter, Paul Mathewson, Kevin Lee Monteith & John G. Kie
Temporal changes in net energy balance of animals strongly influence fitness; consequently, natural selection should favor behaviors that increase net energy balance by buffering individuals against negative effects of environmental variation. The relative importance of behavioral responses to climate-induced variation in costs versus supplies of energy, however, is uncertain, as is the degree to which such responses are mediated by current stores of energy. We evaluated relationships among behavior, nutritional condition (i.e., energetic state), and...

Data from: Constraints on trait combinations explain climatic drivers of biodiversity: the importance of trait covariance in community assembly

John M. Dwyer & Daniel C. Laughlin
Trade-offs maintain diversity and structure communities along environmental gradients. Theory indicates that if covariance among functional traits sets a limit on the number of viable trait combinations in a given environment, then communities with strong multidimensional trait constraints should exhibit low species diversity. We tested this prediction in winter annual plant assemblages along an aridity gradient using multilevel structural equation modelling. Univariate and multivariate functional diversity measures were poorly explained by aridity, and were surprisingly...

Data from: Genetic evidence for species cohesion, substructure, and hybrids in spruce

Monia S.H Haselhorst, Thomas L Parchman & C. Alex Buerkle
The origin and history of species are shaped by various evolutionary dynamics, including their persistence in the face of potential gene flow from related taxa. In this study we use broad geographic and taxonomic sampling (2,219 individuals) to establish the distribution of species, hybrids, and cryptic genetic variation within the conifer genus Picea (spruce) across western North America. We demonstrate that the six species of spruce in this region are distinguishable based on their genetic...

Data from: Rarity does not limit genetic variation or preclude subpopulation structure in the geographically restricted desert forb Astragalus lentiginosus var. piscinensis

Joshua G. Harrison, Matthew L. Forister, Stephanie R. Mcknight, Erin Nordin & Thomas L. Parchman
Premise of the study: Characteristics of rare taxa include small population sizes and limited geographical ranges. The genetic consequences of rarity are poorly understood for most taxa. A small geographical range could result in reduced opportunity for isolation by distance or environment, thereby limiting genetic structure and variation, but few studies explore genetic structure at small spatial scales with sufficient resolution to test this hypothesis. Moreover, few comparative genetic studies exist among infrataxa differing in...

Data from: Rapid buildup of sympatric species diversity in Alpine whitefish

Carmela J. Doenz, David Bittner, Pascal Vonlanthen, Catherine E. Wagner & Ole Seehausen
Adaptive radiations in postglacial fish offer excellent settings to study the evolutionary mechanisms involved in the rapid buildup of sympatric species diversity from a single lineage. Here, we address this by exploring the genetic and ecological structure of the largest Alpine whitefish radiation known, that of Lakes Brienz and Thun, using microsatellite data of more than 2000 whitefish caught during extensive species‐targeted and habitat‐randomized fishing campaigns. We find six strongly genetically and ecologically differentiated species,...

Data from: Is ungulate migration culturally transmitted? Evidence of social learning from translocated animals

Brett R. Jesmer, Jerod A. Merkle, Jacob R. Goheen, Ellen O. Aikens, Jeffrey L. Beck, Alyson B. Courtemanch, Mark A. Hurley, Douglas E. McWhirter, Hollie M. Miyasaki, Kevin L. Monteith & Matthew J. Kauffman
Ungulate migrations are assumed to stem from learning and cultural transmission of information regarding seasonal distribution of forage, but this hypothesis has not been tested empirically. We compared the migratory propensities of bighorn sheep and moose translocated into novel habitats with those of historical populations that had persisted for hundreds of years. Whereas individuals from historical populations were largely migratory, translocated individuals initially were not. After multiple decades, however, translocated populations gained knowledge about surfing...

Data from: The network motif architecture of dominance hierarchies

Daizaburo Shizuka & David B. McDonald
The widespread existence of dominance hierarchies has been a central puzzle in social evolution, yet we lack a framework for synthesizing the vast empirical data on hierarchy structure in animal groups. We applied network motif analysis to compare the structures of dominance networks from data published over the past 80 years. Overall patterns of dominance relations, including some aspects of non-interactions, were strikingly similar across disparate group types. For example, nearly all groups exhibited high...

Data from: State-dependent behavior alters endocrine-energy relationship: implications for conservation and management

Brett R. Jesmer, Jacob R. Goheen, Kevin L. Monteith & Matthew J. Kauffman
Glucocorticoids (GC) and triiodothyronine (T3) are two endocrine markers commonly used to quantify resource limitation, yet the relationships between these markers and the energetic state of animals has been studied primarily in small-bodied species in captivity. Free-ranging animals, however, adjust energy intake in accordance with their energy reserves, a behavior known as state-dependent foraging. Further, links between life-history strategies and metabolic allometries cause energy intake and energy reserves to be more strongly coupled in small...

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