209 Works

Ecological consequences of large herbivore exclusion in an African savanna: 12 years of data from the UHURU experiment

Jesse Alston, Courtney Reed, Leo Khasoha, Bianca Brown, Gilbert Busienei, Nathaniel Carlson, Tyler Coverdale, Megan Dudenhoeffer, Marissa Dyck, John Ekeno, Abdikadir Hassan, Rhianna Hohbein, Rhiannon Jakopak, Buas Kimiti, Samson Kurukura, Peter Lokeny, Allison Louthan, Simon Musila, Paul Musili, Tosca Tindall, Sarah Weiner, Tyler Kartzinel, Todd Palmer, Robert Pringle & Jacob Goheen
Diverse communities of large mammalian herbivores (LMH), once widespread, are now rare. LMH exert strong direct and indirect effects on community structure and ecosystem functions, and measuring these effects is important for testing ecological theory and for understanding past, current, and future environmental change. This in turn requires long-term experimental manipulations, owing to the slow and often nonlinear responses of populations and assemblages to LMH removal. Moreover, the effects of particular species or body-size classes...

Water availability dictates how plant traits predict demographic rates

Alice Stears, Peter Adler, Dana Blumenthal, Julie Kray, Kevin Mueller, Troy Ocheltree, Kevin Wilcox & Daniel Laughlin
A major goal in ecology is to make generalizable predictions of organism responses to environmental variation based on their traits. However, straightforward relationships between traits and fitness are rare and likely vary with environmental context. Characterizing how traits mediate demographic responses to the environment may enhance predictions of organism responses to global change. We synthesized 15 years of demographic data and species-level traits in a shortgrass steppe to determine whether the effects of leaf and...

Predicting potential distributions of large carnivores in Kenya: An occupancy study to guide conservation

Femke Broekhuis, Shadrack Ngene, Arjun Gopalaswamy, Anastacia Mwaura, Stephanie Dloniak, Dedan Ngatia, Peter Tyrrell, Yumi Yamane & Nicholas Elliot
Aim: Species distribution maps are frequently the foundation upon which species-specific conservation strategies are developed, however, mapping species distribution is challenging, especially across large spatial extents. Our aim was to use a novel empirical approach to predict the national distribution for all six large carnivore species found in Kenya to guide conservation and management decisions by identifying knowledge and conservation gaps. Location: Kenya Methods: Data on carnivore presence and absence were collected through questionnaires and...

The role of multiple Pleistocene refugia in promoting diversification in the Pacific Northwest

Megan Smith, Jessica Wallace, David Tank, Jack Sullivan & Bryan Carstens
Pleistocene glacial cycles drastically changed the distributions of taxa endemic to temperate rainforests in the Pacific Northwest, with many experiencing reduced habitat suitability during glacial periods. In this study, we investigate whether glacial cycles promoted intraspecific divergence and whether subsequent range changes led to secondary contact and gene flow. For seven invertebrate species endemic to the PNW, we estimated Species Distribution Models (SDMs) and projected them onto current and historical climate conditions to assess how...

Data from: Rocky Mountain forests are poised to recover following bark beetle outbreaks, but with altered composition

Kyle Rodman, Robert Andrus, Amanda Carlson, Trevor Carter, Teresa Chapman, Jonathan Coop, Paula Fornwalt, Nathan Gill, Brian Harvey, Ashley Hoffman, Katharine Kelsey, Dominik Kulakowski, Daniel Laughlin, Jenna Morris, José Negrón, Katherine Nigro, Gregory Pappas, Miranda Redmond, Charles Rhoades, Monique Rocca, Zoe Schapira, Jason Sibold, Camille Stevens-Rumann, Thomas Veblen, Jianmin Wang … & Sarah Hart
Amplified by warming temperatures and drought, recent outbreaks of native bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) have caused extensive tree mortality throughout Europe and North America. Despite their ubiquitous nature and important effects on ecosystems, forest recovery following such disturbances is poorly understood, particularly across regions with varying abiotic conditions and outbreak effects. To better understand post-outbreak recovery across a topographically complex region, we synthesized data from 16 field studies spanning subalpine forests in the Southern Rocky...

Data from: Plasticity of animal genome architecture unmasked by rapid evolution of a pelagic tunicate

France Denoeud, Simon Henriet, Sutada Mungpakdee, Jean-Marc Aury, Corinne Da Silva, Henner Brinkmann, Jana Mikhaleva, Lisbeth C. Olsen, Claire Jubin, Cristian Cañestro, Jean-Marie Bouquet, Gemma Danks, Julie Poulain, Coen Campsteijn, Marcin Adamski, Ismael Cross, Fekadu Yadetie, Matthieu Muffato, Alexandra Louis, Stephen Butcher, Georgia Tsagkogeorga, Anke Konrad, Sarabdeep Singh, Marit F. Jensen, Evelyne Huynh Cong … & Daniel Chourrout
Genomes of animals as different as sponges and humans show conservation of global architecture. Here we show that multiple genomic features including transposon diversity, developmental gene repertoire, physical gene order, and intron-exon organization are shattered in the tunicate Oikopleura, belonging to the sister group of vertebrates and retaining chordate morphology. Ancestral architecture of animal genomes can be deeply modified and may therefore be largely nonadaptive. This rapidly evolving animal lineage thus offers unique perspectives on...

Data from: Cross-species transferability of SSR loci developed from transcriptome sequencing in lodgepole pine

Mark R. Lesser, Thomas L. Parchman & C. Alex Buerkle
With the advent of next generation sequencing technologies, transcriptome level sequence collections are arising as prominent resources for the discovery of gene-based molecular markers. In a previous study more than 15 000 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences resulting from 454 pyrosequencing of Pinus contorta cDNA were identified. From these we developed PCR primers for approximately 4000 candidate SSRs. Here, we tested 184 of these SSRs for successful amplification across P....

Data from: Bayesian estimation of genomic clines

Zachariah Gompert & C. Alex Buerkle
We developed a Bayesian genomic cline model to study the genetic architecture of adaptive divergence and reproductive isolation between hybridizing lineages. This model quantifies locus-specific patterns of introgression with two cline parameters that describe the probability of locus-specific ancestry as a function of genome-wide admixture. "Outlier" loci with extreme patterns of introgression relative to most of the genome can be identified. These loci are potentially associated with adaptive divergence or reproductive isolation. We simulated genetic...

Data from: Reliability of macrofossils in woodrat (Neotoma) middens for detecting low-density tree populations

Mark R Lesser, Stephen T Jackson & Stephen T. Jackson
Macrofossils from woodrat (Neotoma) middens serve as an important proxy for reconstructing past vegetation in arid and semiarid regions of North America. The presence/absence of plant macrofossils in middens can provide valuable information on temporal and spatial patterns of plant migration and range boundaries. The primary aim of this study was to determine how local plant abundance, distance of plant populations from midden sites, and species population density on the landscape affect the probability of...

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