1,206 Works

Floral spectral reflectance data for: Floral color properties of serpentine seep assemblages depend on community size and species richness

Kathryn LeCroy, Gerardo Arceo-Gómez, Matthew Koski, Nathan Morehouse & Tia-Lynn Ashman
Functional traits, particularly those that impact fitness, can shape the ecological and evolutionary relationships among coexisting species of the same trophic level. Thus, examining these traits and properties of their distributions (underdispersion, overdispersion) within communities can provide insights into key ecological interactions (e.g., competition, facilitation) involved in community assembly. For instance, the distribution of floral colors in a community may reflect pollinator-mediated interactions between sympatric plant species, and the phylogenetic distribution of color can inform...

Consumption of Added Sugars by Rural Residents of Southwest Virginia

Maryam Yuhas, Valisa Hedrick & Jamie Zoellner
Introduction: Nationally, rural residents have high consumption of added sugars, yet the top sources have not been explored. Characterizing added-sugar intake in high sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumers in rural areas is an important step to help inform interventions and policies. Purpose: The objective of this study was to explore the top food and beverage sources of added sugar and to examine variations by sociodemographic characteristics. Methods: This cross-sectional study analyzed data from a randomized-controlled trial...

Examining Cervical Cancer Control for Refugee Women Living in the United States

Catherine Elmore
Despite advances in cervical cancer prevention, foreign-born women living in the United States are more than twice as likely to have never been screened for cervical cancer compared to U.S.-born women (18.5% vs. 6.8%, respectively). Refugees are a specific type of foreign-born group in the United States; an estimated 1.6 million female refugees have resettled in the United States since 1975; however, little research has examined factors that may predict cervical cancer screening adherence specifically...

Deep Representation Learning of High-Resolution Whole Slide Histopathology Images

Rasoul Sali
Whole slide tissue histopathology images (WSIs) play a crucial role in tissue specimen assessment and diagnosis of associated diseases. Recent technological progress in image acquisition systems has led to an increasing accumulation of high-resolution histopathology images. Nevertheless, employing these images to develop clinical decision support systems has been hampered by the need for manual examination of WSIs, a subjective, labor-intensive, time-consuming, and error-prone process. This creates a burgeoning demand for new analytic approaches to analyze/pre-process...

Efficient Water Oxidation: Nanostructured Titanium Oxides vs. Iron-Group Metal Electrodeposited GaAs

Yin Xu
Photoelectrochemical water splitting consists in the conversion of solar energy into chemical energy in the form of the hydrogen bond and simultaneously overcomes the intrinsic limitation of the intermittent property of the sunlight, allowing to provide energy in form of electricity reliably and continuously. Titanium oxide-based materials (such as TiO2) and single crystal semiconductors (such as Si or GaAs) are among the most attractive photoanode candidates for efficient water oxidation. TiO2 materials unfortunately suffer from...

Steam Reforming Kinetics of Olefins and Aromatics over Spinel Oxide Catalysts

Lu Yang
Ethane steam cracking is the predominant method for industrial production of ethylene in the United States. However, the economy of this process is significantly impeded by the periodic shutdown due to coke deposition. Although catalytic coking facilitated by the metallic alloy surface can be effectively suppressed by the barrier oxide layers formed upon oxidative pretreatment, radical coking still occurs at the high temperatures applied for steam cracking. To develop catalytic barrier oxide layers that further...

Chromatographic and Adsorptive Behavior of Bivalent Bispecific Antibodies

Lucas Kimerer
Bivalent bispecific antibodies are structurally comprised of an entire framework immunoglobulin G (IgG) genetically fused to two single chain variable fragments (scFv) via flexible peptide linkers. The flexibility of the linkers allows three extreme configurations where each scFv can be collapsed and interact with the framework IgG, or extended and able to interact with a surface or binding epitope with greater affinity. Slow interconversion between these configurations is found to cause multiple peak elution and...

When Copyright Ends (or Never Was): Understanding the Public Domain

Brandon Butler & Greg Cram
Presentation given as part of Lyrasis copyright education series for cultural heritage institutions. Learning objectives—Students will be able to: • Identify relevant facts and law to asses when copyright protection begins • Identify whether a given work is or is not encumbered by copyright • Apply basic rules and standards for copyright eligibility to examples based on real-world situations • Apply basic rules to measure the duration of copyright, including the important threshold question of...

Sidewall Electrodes in Microchannels for Dielectrophoretic Cell Separation and Electrochemical Detection

XuHai Huang
Microfluidics in biological and medical research has gained much attention in the past decade for the purposes of separation and analysis of components within a complex sample. However, electrically functional microfluidic devices for biological sensing and cell manipulation require the ability to modulate electric field profiles over the channel width and depth, which is especially challenging to fabricate with minimum lithography steps. Metal deposition is the most ubiquitous method for integrating electrodes in microchannels, but...

Rat Gait Biomechanics: Using Kinematics and Kinetics to Evaluate the Effect of Injury and Treatment Efficacy for Volumetric Muscle Loss and Muscle/Nerve Polytrauma

Jack Dienes
Research to develop improved methods for regeneration of functional muscle tissue following volumetric muscle loss (VML) injuries remains an active area of preclinical investigation. Defined as a traumatic or surgical loss of skeletal muscle resulting in permanent cosmetic and functional impairments, VML is a common feature of battlefield injuries to service members as well as civilians who experience high-impact trauma. The critical importance of the unmet medical need, and the lack of availability of therapeutics...

Autonomous Vehicle Tracking and Collision Avoidance Using Adaptive Control Algorithms

Qianhong Zhao
With the rapid economic growth, global car ownership increasing leads more researchers to focus their work on making cars more intelligent and safer. Autonomous vehicle control (AVC) problems have drawn increasing research in the last decades because of their potential to reduce vehicle accidents and commuting time. Vehicle traffic control at street intersections is one of the most important problems for its special and complex situations in AVC. Adaptive control, which is known for its...

\"Selected Writings of Saint Rafael Arnáiz Barón: A Translation\"

Catherine Addington
This dissertation presents a portion of the first complete English translation of the writings of Saint Rafael Arnáiz Barón, the first canonized saint of the Trappist order. Prepared in collaboration with Cistercian Publications and Our Lady of the Angels Monastery in Crozet, Virginia, the translation seeks to facilitate further study of Saint Rafael’s life and writings, which speak to the spiritual dimensions of war, disease, isolation, and grief. Translated with an eye toward the Trappist...

Trend Detection in fashion via Text Analytics

Tianxiao Xiao
Fashion trend prediction is a complex problem due to a vast number of latent drivers and fashion products' highly temporal and dynamic characteristics. It requires a reliable and time-sensitive means to detect fashion trend. Analyzing social media data is well-suited for the task of trend detection from the consumer perspective. In this project, I leverage text analytics on time-series social media data. I first collected data across multiple categories of fashion over a span of...

How Do Pre-Service Teachers Learn? Using Rigorous Research Methods to Inform Teacher Preparation Policy

Anandita Krishnamachari
Teacher quality is the most important educational factor predicting student achievement (Darling-Hammond, 2000), and a large proportion of training effective teachers occurs during the preparation phase (Goldhaber, 2019). It is widely acknowledged that teacher preparation programs are tasked with providing pre-service teacher candidates with the skills and knowledge they need to effectively teach in future classroom contexts, although the extent to which this happens is debated (Greenberg & Jacobs, 2009). The literature suggests that novice...

Data from: \"Development of the draft genome sequence of the marbled flounder Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae as a reference of population genomic analysis\" in Genomic Resources Notes accepted 1 February 2015 – 31 March 2015

Yuki Minegishi, Minoru Ikeda, Lynda F. Delph, Laura A. Weingartner, Peter D. Fields, Laura Bertini, Carla Caruso, Silvia Proietti, Wolfgang Arthofer, Francesco Cicconardi, Heike Ritthammer, Birgit C. Schlick-Steiner, Florian M. Steiner, Gregor A. Wachter & Herbert C. Wagner
This article documents the public availability of the draft genome sequence data (raw reads, assembled contigs and unassembled reads) and RAD-tag read data of the marbled flounder Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae (Pleuronectiformes; Pleuronectidae).

Data from: Crop-associated virus infection in a native perennial grass: reduction in plant fitness and dynamic patterns of virus detection

Helen M. Alexander, Emily Bruns, Hayley Schebor & Carolyn M. Malmstrom
To understand the eco-evolutionary significance of plant viruses in nature, we must (i) quantify the effects of infection on plant fitness and (ii) recognize that native plants are increasingly exposed to crop-associated viruses. Studies of perennials are particularly needed: most of our knowledge of plant-virus interactions is from annuals, yet long-lived species dominate landscapes. Here we used aster models for life-history analysis and longitudinal measures of plant virus status to evaluate multi-year consequences of crop...

Data from: Performance of TaqMan Array Card to detect TB drug resistance on direct specimens

Sayera Banu, Suporn Pholwat, Suporn Foongladda, Rattapha Chinli, Duangjai Boonlert, Sara Sabrina Ferdous, S.M. Mazidur Rahman, Arfatur Rahman, Shahriar Ahmed & Eric R. Houpt
Culture based phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST) for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) is time consuming therefore rapid genotypic methods are increasingly being utilized. We previously developed and evaluated on TB isolates a rapid genotypic TaqMan array card (TAC) that detects mutations in several resistance-associated genes using dozens of primer pairs, probes, and high resolution melt analysis, with >96% accuracy versus Sanger sequencing. In this study we examined the performance of TAC on sputum, comparing results between...

Data from: Aging in an herbaceous plant: increases in mortality and decreases in physiology and seed mass

Brandie M. Quarles & Deborah Ann Roach
1. Little is known about plant age-dependent trait expression and how environmental conditions might affect aging in the wild. This study evaluates age variation in multiple traits of a short-lived perennial herb using a manipulative field experimental design. 2. Two different-aged cohorts were followed in a field plot for over a year to evaluate trait expression in response to a competition treatment and seasonal stress. Traits measured included size, mortality, reproduction, and physiology, including photosynthetic...

Data from: Range‐wide population genetic structure of the Caribbean marine angiosperm Thalassia testudinum

Kor-Jent Van Dijk, Eric Bricker, Brigitta Ine Van Tussenbroek & Michelle Waycott
Many marine species have widespread geographic ranges derived from their evolutionary and ecological history particularly their modes of dispersal. Seagrass (marine angiosperm) species have ranges that are unusually widespread, which is not unexpected following recent reviews of reproductive strategies demonstrating the potential for long distance dispersal combined with longevity through clonality. An exemplar of these dual biological features is turtlegrass (Thalassia testudinum) which is an ecologically important species throughout the tropical Atlantic region. Turtlegrass has...

Data from: Characterization of transcriptomes from sexual and asexual lineages of a New Zealand snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum)

Peter R. Wilton, Daniel B. Sloan, John M. Logsdon, Harshavardhan Doddapaneni, Maurine Neiman &
Understanding the evolution and maintenance of sexual reproduction is one of the central challenges of evolutionary biology, yet we know very little about how sex influences molecular evolution. The New Zealand freshwater snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum is ideally suited to address this knowledge gap because obligately sexual individuals often coexist with multiple independently derived obligately asexual lineages. This unusual situation allows direct comparisons both between sexual and asexual P. antipodarum and across populations that differ in...

Data from: Patterns of cyto-nuclear linkage disequilibrium in Silene latifolia: genomic heterogeneity and temporal stability

Peter D. Fields, David E. McCauley, Edward V. McAssey & Douglas R. Taylor
Non-random association of alleles in the nucleus and cytoplasmic organelles, or cyto-nuclear linkage disequilibrium (LD), is both an important component of a number of evolutionary processes and a statistical indicator of others. The evolutionary significance of cyto-nuclear LD will depend on both its magnitude and how stable those associations are through time. Here, we use a longitudinal population genetic data set to explore the magnitude and temporal dynamics of cyto-nuclear disequilibria through time. We genotyped...

Data from: Convergent evolution of phenotypic integration and its alignment with morphological diversification in Carribean Anolis ecomorphs

Jason J. Kolbe, Liam J. Revell, Brian Szekely, & Jonathan B Losos
The adaptive landscape and the G-matrix are keys concepts for understanding how quantitative characters evolve during adaptive radiation. In particular, whether the adaptive landscape can drive convergence of phenotypic integration (i.e., the pattern of phenotypic variation and covariation summarized in the P-matrix) is not well studied. We estimated and compared P for 19 morphological traits in eight species of Caribbean Anolis lizards, finding that similarity in P among species was not correlated with phylogenetic distance....

Data from: Ret and Etv4 promote directed movements of progenitor cells during renal branching morphogenesis

Paul Riccio, Cristina Cebrian, Hui Zong, Simon Hippenmeyer & Frank Costantini
Branching morphogenesis of the epithelial ureteric bud forms the renal collecting duct system and is critical for normal nephron number, while low nephron number is implicated in hypertension and renal disease. Ureteric bud growth and branching requires GDNF signaling from the surrounding mesenchyme to cells at the ureteric bud tips, via the Ret receptor tyrosine kinase and coreceptor Gfrα1; Ret signaling up-regulates transcription factors Etv4 and Etv5, which are also critical for branching. Despite extensive...

Data from: Does adaptive radiation of a host lineage promote ecological diversity of its bacterial communities? A test using gut microbiota of Anolis lizards

Tiantian Ren, Ariel F. Kahrl, Martin Wu & Robert M. Cox
Adaptive radiations provide unique opportunities to test whether and how recent ecological and evolutionary diversification of host species structures the composition of entire bacterial communities. We used 16S rRNA gene sequencing of faecal samples to test for differences in the gut microbiota of six species of Puerto Rican Anolis lizards characterized by the evolution of distinct ‘ecomorphs’ related to differences in habitat use. We found substantial variation in the composition of the microbiota within each...

Data from: Rapid genetic and morphologic divergence between captive and wild populations of the endangered Leon Springs pupfish, Cyprinodon bovinus

Andrew Black, Heidi A. Seears, Christoper M. Hollenbeck, Paul B. Samollow, Andrew N. Black & Christopher M. Hollenbeck
The Leon Springs pupfish (Cyprinodon bovinus) is an endangered species currently restricted to a single desert spring and a separate captive habitat in southwestern North America. Following establishment of the captive population from wild stock in 1976, the wild population has undergone natural population size fluctuations, intentional culling to purge genetic contamination from an invasive congener (Cyprinodon variegatus) and augmentation/replacement of wild fish from the captive stock. A severe population decline following the most recent...

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