3,008 Works

Data from: Convergent evolution of phenotypic integration and its alignment with morphological diversification in Carribean Anolis ecomorphs

Jason J. Kolbe, Liam J. Revell, Brian Szekely, & Jonathan B Losos
The adaptive landscape and the G-matrix are keys concepts for understanding how quantitative characters evolve during adaptive radiation. In particular, whether the adaptive landscape can drive convergence of phenotypic integration (i.e., the pattern of phenotypic variation and covariation summarized in the P-matrix) is not well studied. We estimated and compared P for 19 morphological traits in eight species of Caribbean Anolis lizards, finding that similarity in P among species was not correlated with phylogenetic distance....

Data from: Hunting to extinction: biology and regional economy influence extinction risk and the impact of hunting in artiodactyls

Samantha A. Price, John L. Gittleman, Samantha A Price & John L Gittleman
Half of all artiodactyls (even-toed hoofed mammals) are threatened with extinction, around double the mammalian average. Here, using a complete species-level phylogeny, we construct a multivariate model to assess for the first time which intrinsic (biological) and extrinsic (anthropogenic and environmental) factors influence variation in extinction risk in artiodactyls. Globally artiodactyls at greatest risk live in economically less developed areas, have older weaning ages and smaller geographical ranges. Our findings suggest that identifying predictors of...

Talking In: Maori English as Index for Maori identity in Film

Allura Warden
New Zealand cinema often represented Maori people as an exotic background to a paradisaical country while Pakeha were represented as heroic protagonists helping bring progress to a backwards nation. Until recently the national film industry was almost entirely Pakeha run. Consequently, there was a dearth of Maori presence in all industry positions. However, since the Maori cultural revolution there has been progress in Maori cinematic presence which has spurred the creation of Maori-produced media. Their...

Academic Preservation Trust Collection Development Policy, Version 1.0

Bradley Daigle & Robert German
The Academic Preservation Trust Collection Development Policy applies to all digital content and associated metadata deposited in the APTrust for long-term preservation. This policy does not address decisions on subject matter and content format chosen for deposit, which are solely determined by depositing members. This Policy establishes guidelines about the nature of digital content that may be placed in the APTrust repository.

Academic Preservation Trust Policy Management Version 1.0

Bradley Daigle
This policy outlines how policies are suggested, created, and vetted by the APTrust community.

Academic Preservation Trust Expectations of Participation Version 1.0

Bradley Daigle
Details the expectations of APTrust Members and their active participation in shared digital preservation.

Organizational Routines Adopted by District of Columbia Elementary Schools in Response to the Common Core State Standards

Jessica Swanson
District of Columbia Public Schools (DCPS) began implementation of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in 2011 and made significant investments over several years to support the effort. This study explored how street-level bureaucrats in DCPS affected implementation of the CCSS by examining the organizational routines elementary schools adopted to implement the standards. This mixed-methods study was conducted in two phases between November 2015 and May 2016. The study was grounded in the role of...

Lofty Dreams-Dark Necessities: Piedmont Planters and the Commodification of the Enslaved in EarlyNational Virginia

Matthew Grace
This article explores the circumstances surrounding Virginia Piedmont planters and their decisions to adopt various human commodification strategies in the early national period. Coming out of the American Revolution, Virginia’s Piedmont gentry, in general, expressed an exclusionary racist antislavery position. Men like Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, James Monroe, and John Hartwell Cocke believed slavery an evil harmful to Blacks, whites, and the overall Republic. They hoped the South might gradually emancipate its slaves and resettle...

Characterization of the Morphological and Synaptic Properties of Terminals in Koniocellular versus Magnocellular/Parvocellular Parallel Pathways in the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus of the Tree Shrew (Tupaia belangeri)

Francesca Sciaccotta
In addition to its main excitatory input coming from the retina, the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of the thalamus receives axons from the superior colliculus (SC). In tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri), these tectogeniculate (TG) projections terminate in the koniocellular laminae 3 and 6, but their precise role in this pathway is unknown. To address the circuitry that underlines the TG input regulation of geniculate relay, I studied the synaptic circuitry in koniocellular laminae and its...

Pious Voices Unheard: Religion, Peacebuilding, and the Conflict in Mali

Holden Lipscomb
This paper seeks to explain the absence of religion in peacebuilding and peacekeeping operations through an in-depth examination of the contemporary Islamist crisis in Mali. Beginning by analyzing and explicating contemporary peacekeeping doctrines, the paper then explores the contemporary religious landscape in Mali, as well as the historical record. This paper contends that the absence of religion in non-Western contexts is best attributed to : Western fascination with militant jihad, biases in Western models of...

Moral Words, Immoral Deeds: The Ethical Aspect of American Decision Making in Vietnam

Daniel Jachim
The American decision to go to war in Vietnam was tied deeply to the moral views of key decision makers at the time. Influenced by both theories of global development and scarred by the memory of Appeasement before the Second World War, key actors in the Department of Defense, Department of State, and National Security Council informed their decisions in part based on an understanding of American responsibility to both a global interest in general...

Discovery and Morphology of Complex Molecules toward Interstellar Molecular Clouds

Ci Xue
Up to now, more than 250 individual molecular species have been detected toward both interstellar and circumstellar mediums with astronomical facilities. This dissertation presented two cases of investigations focusing on the chemical composition as well as the molecular spatial distributions of complex astronomical molecules in interstellar clouds, the chemistry in which sets the initial conditions of the chemical processes in the late stages of star formation. We leveraged the GOTHAM high-sensitivity and high-spectral-resolution survey as...

Connect to Protect: The Moderating Role of Connectedness on Gendered Racial Microaggressions and Vigilance Among Black Women

Lamont Bryant
Black women’s experiences of gendered racial microaggressions can contribute to adverse health outcomes via maladaptive behavioral reactions, such as vigilant stress responses. Yet, fewer scholars have examined how Black women’s ability to create community with others offline and on social media may offer them the opportunity to unpack their experiences of gendered racial microaggressions and reduce the frequency of vigilant stress responses. The following study addressed this gap by examining how interpersonal connections, as a...

Investigation of Bacterial Cell Surface Accessibility and Peptidoglycan Interactions

Noel Ferraro
Antibiotic resistance is a threat to public health that demands to be met with either new and innovative antibiotics or alternative therapies. The occurrence of antibiotic resistant bacteria is a multifactorial process but often involves improper use of antibiotics or sharing of genetic components that allow bacteria to survive when challenged with antimicrobial agents. Specific resistance mechanisms usually fall under one of the following categories: inactivation of drug, target modification, active efflux, and limiting uptake....

Essays on Firms' Foreign Direct Investment Decisions

Haruka Takayama
Multinationals are a key part of the global economy, and many governments have made tremendous efforts to attract FDI. When a firm invests overseas, it faces two choices---a firm can either establish a new facility in its host country or purchase a local firm. These two types of foreign direct investment (FDI) are greenfield investment and cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&A). The first chapter investigates the question: how do firms choose between the two FDI...

Finding & Evaluating OER - Faculty Presentation - Fall 2021

Bethany Mickel & Judith Thomas
Slide deck of a workshop discussing the landscape of open educational resources (OER) with an emphasis on strategies for finding and evaluating materials for specific disciplines and needs.

\"It's Okay If You Flap Your Hands\": Non-Autistic Children Do Not Object to Autistic-Like Behavior and Peers

Zoe Sargent
Young children’s disapproval of unconventional behavior could influence their attitudes towards autistic peers, whose behavior is often described as unconventional. Non-autistic children and adults do stigmatize autistic people on the basis of their atypical behaviors, but they do so to a lesser degree when they are aware of the autistic person’s diagnosis. Here, we investigated how young children evaluate behaviors characteristic of autism, and whether labeling would influence their evaluations. Over Zoom, 112 4- to...

Development, Testing, and Evaluation of Shape Memory Alloy-Based Structural Control Devices for Seismic Resilience

Amedebrhan Asfaw
Improving community resilience to natural hazards such as earthquakes is one of the central challenges in the 21st century. Among others, the performance of individual buildings is a critical factor that dictates how soon societies impacted by seismic hazards could recover. Recent earthquakes have demonstrated that many buildings designed based on modern code requirements were not occupiable due to substantial structural damages, taking months or years to repair or reconstruct. Mitigating the devastating socio-economic impacts...

Recommended Place Naming Methods for the Democracy Initiative and UVA Equity Center

Jessica Rothfleisch, William Milone & Emily Mortimer
This report describes research conducted in partnership with student consultants Will Milone, Emily Mortimer, and Jessie Rothfleisch and the University of Virginia Equity Center’s Democratization of Data initiative as part of the students’ final project for the UVA course, PLAN 3813/6813: Community Engaged Methods: Tools for Equitable Research & Practice. The purpose of this research was to evaluate existing methods of participatory place naming practices and provide a set of recommendations for executing participatory place...

A Proposed Curriculum for the Wildrock High School Leadership Program

Keren Shi, Alexa Angelo, Willow Davies, Sabiya Davis & Neeka Samimi
The following report describes a community-based partnership facilitated through Barbara Brown Wilson’s course, Community-Engaged Methods, with a student team at the University of Virginia assisting Wildrock to create a design thinking process curriculum for Charlottesville High School Students to design pop-up parks. Here, we detail a partnership between Carolyn Schuyler and Wildrock (community partner) and five University of Virginia students (student partners), Keren Shi, Willow Davies, Alexa Angelo, Neeka Samimi, and Sabiya Davis. The research...

Analyzing Biases in Visual Recognition Models

Jaspreet Ranjit
With the rise of deep learning models which require exceedingly large amounts of data, there exists a need to examine the biases that are reflected in the applications of these models. For example, a visual recognition model can learn image representations of cooking that are closer to the representations of women than men, thus reinforcing a negative gender stereotype of women being homemakers. This thesis explores and analyzes these biases across state of the art...

Open Source Software Practices in CS2; Ethics Education for Responsible Computer Scientists

Emma Choi
Computer science (CS) is a versatile discipline with the potential to revolutionize every other domain of knowledge. However, while computer scientists have the power to bring visionary technology from science fiction closer to reality, they may also spawn dystopian nightmares where privacy is relinquished for security or malicious artificial intelligence programs wreak havoc. Therefore, to ensure a more optimistic future, higher education institutions must empower engineers to solve challenging problems while reflecting on the ethical...

MDP-Based Adaptive Motion Planning for Autonomous Robot Operations Under DegradedConditions

Phillip Seaton
Autonomous mobile robots (AMR) like ground and aerial vehicles may encounter internal failures and external disturbances when deployed in real-world scenarios compromising the success of a mission. This thesis proposes an online learning method to adapt the motion planner to recover and continue an operation after a change in a robot's dynamics. Our proposed framework builds on the Markov Decision Process (MDP) and leverages the residual - defined in this work as the difference between...

Non-invasive single cell imaging in bacterial biofilms under controlled physicochemical environments

Ji Zhang
Bacteria commonly live in dense and diverse communities, known as biofilms. As the major mode of microbial life, biofilms have been widely recognized for their impact on global biogeochemical cycling and the health of higher living organisms. Commonly used assays to study biofilm probe biofilm formation and behavior using ensemble averaged data. However, to better understand how the individual behaviors of biofilm dwelling cells contribute to the emergent macroscopic properties of biofilms, cellular level information...

Stress in the Age of Technology: Evaluating the Validity and Accessibility of Cardiac Data from Industry-Leading Smartwatches

Aaron Moore
Objective: To test the validity and data accessibility of the health detection features on two leading smartwatches in the industry, the Apple Watch Series 6 and Fitbit Sense, and to determine if these devices can be used to accurately measure stress responses in the body. Background: Stress causes the release of hormones in the human body that increase heart rate, blood pressure, and energy supplies. Over time, the constant release of stress hormones can lead...

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