2,804 Works

Deployed to Congress: How Military Experience Influences Legislative Behavior

Joseph Amoroso
Motivated by a campaign narrative common among military veterans running for elective office, this thesis explores how particular values emphasized in the military map onto measurable legislative behavior in Congress. I theorize that veterans adopt a distinct approach to lawmaking, engaging in activities that prioritize productivity and building consensus. This theory speaks to a member’s overall legislative strategy thus, I test the narrative using a composite measure of “legislative style” (Bernhard and Sulkin 2018). In...

Disentangling Representations in Pre-Trained Language Models

Aniruddha Mahesh Dave
Pre-trained language models dominate modern natural language processing. They rely on self-supervision to learn general-purpose representations. Given the redundant information encoded in these representations, it is unclear what information encoded leads to superior performance on various tasks and whether it can be even better if it is encoded in an interpretable way. In this work, with stylistic datasets, we explore whether style and content can be disentangled from sentence representations learned by pre-trained language models....

Real-time Epidemic Surveillance Management for Supporting COVID-19 Response Workflows

Akhil Sai Peddireddy
The COVID-19 outbreak caused by SARS-CoV-2 has disrupted the lives of people globally. It has had a huge impact on health, economies, and society in general, undoubtedly making it the pandemic of the century. As of April 1, 2021, the cumulative number of confirmed COVID-19 cases exceeded 130 million worldwide, with almost 2.85 million deaths. Global Surveillance is one of the important tools of epidemiological response to allow the public to be informed of the...

\"Oh, say can you see the tender color of remembered flesh?\": Patterns of Desire in F. Scott Fitzgerald's Tender Is the Night

Catherine Walshak
Fitzgerald’s body of work—which includes four novels, an unfinished novel, and more than 150 short stories—reads as one lifelong meditation on human desire, and Tender Is the Night (1934), his final published novel, remains his most ambitious attempt to represent romantic desire in all of its anguish and bliss. For Scott Fitzgerald, lover of Keats, romantic desire is sexual desire aestheticized, so that Tender Is the Night—his most “romantic” book—is also his most sexual. With...

Improving Impact Evaluations with Low-Cost, Automated, and Scalable Tools for Implementation Research

Kylie Anglin
This dissertation develops low-cost, automated, and scalable solutions for a key challenge in educational evaluations: monitoring and assessing program implementation. In order for program evaluations to be of most use to policymakers and practitioners, they not only need to answer questions regarding effectiveness, but also implementation. How was the program implemented? Was it implemented as its designers intended? Or was it adapted to local needs and constraints? Unfortunately, evaluators often face intense logistical, budgetary, and...

Applications of Chromatic Fixed Point Theory

Christopher Lloyd
From its inception the primary concern of algebraic topology has been using algebraic techniques to construct invariants of topological spaces. This pursuit has led to the creation of many important cross-disciplinary tools. One such modern tool is the equivariant Balmer spectrum associated to a finite group G. This object, which lives in the intersection of algebraic geometry and algebraic topology, encodes information about the equivariant stable homotopy category in a systematic yet abstract way. This...

Compositional Cyber-Physical Systems Theory

Georgios Bakirtzis
A major impedance to engineering safe and secure cyber-physical systems is the lack of formal relationships between different types of models necessary for design. These various models are necessary because of the coupled physical and computational dynamics present in cyber-physical systems as well as the different properties system designers want to assure about a system. Each of the individual models has a set of rules describing what operations are allowed and which are not, including...

Narrative and Ethics in Tibet: The Ethical Cosmology of Female Revenants

Fnu Kamaoji
This dissertation investigates the biographies of the seventeenth-century Tibetan delok (revenant) Karma Wangzin as a case study in the analysis of delok genre literature, Buddhist cosmology and ethical beliefs, perceptions on death and the dying process, gender roles, rituals, practices, and the Buddhist societies embedded within these narratives. Building upon recent scholarship on Tibetan Buddhist narrative literature, this study explores these areas by examining the embedded cultural knowledge latent in primary source manuscripts, contemporary scholarly...

Environmental Sonic Translation

Christopher Luna
Environmental Sonic Translation offers a collection of compositional techniques drawing on detailed analyses of environment-derived soundscapes, which can be found in geological, biological, and anthropogenic sources. It relies on audio technology to collect sounds, analyze their spectra and reassign their features to musical instruments. This research is situated within the fields of Ecoacoustics/Acoustic Ecology, Spectralism, and musique concrète, building a framework that responds to the aesthetic, conceptual and technical principles of environmental sonic translation. The...

Towards Improving Adversarial Robustness of NLP Models

Jin Yong Yoo
Adversarial training has been extensively studied as a way to improve model's adversarial robustness in computer vision. On the other hand, little attention has been paid in NLP as to how adversarial training affects model's robustness. Within NLP, there exists a significant disconnect between recent works on adversarial training and recent works on adversarial attacks as most recent works on adversarial training have studied it as a means of improving the model's generalization capability instead...

Societal and Media Closeting of Mental Illness

Aaria Malhotra
This translation is an excerpt from Chapter 23: Societal and Media Closeting of Mental Illness, presented at The International Congress of Communication Ethics in Seville, Spain, in 2011. The excerpt discusses mental health, mental illness, and social taboos.

Enacting Accountability in Innovative Schools: The Sensemaking Strategies of Public Montessori Principals

Corey Borgman
Montessori is the largest alternative pedagogy represented in the public educational system (Debs & Brown, 2017), with over 500 such programs currently operating in the US. The number of publicly funded Montessori schools has doubled over the past two decades, in part due to market-based reforms promoting educational innovation and school choice. Our nation’s simultaneous pursuit of comprehensive, accountability-based reforms presents another promising opportunity for the Montessori movement, as Montessori is one approach that is...

Effects of Complex Material-Environment Interactions on Hot Corrosion Mechanisms

Kevin Meisner
Low temperature hot corrosion (LTHC) is the degradation of gas turbine components by reaction with a molten salt at approximately 700 °C. LTHC is typically attributed to eutectic melts of a mixture of Na2SO4 and sulfates of alloying elements, particularly NiSO4 and CoSO4. However, characterization of NiCoCrAlY-coated field hardware shows corrosive deposits are rich in MgO and/or MgSO4 (referred to here as Mg2+) as well as Na2SO4. The literature on the effects of Mg2+ additions...

From \"Green Light\" to Flashing Red: Humanitarian Interventionism in the Balkans and the Clinton Administration's Iran-Bosnia Affair

Bo Qu
This essay examines United States policy towards the Bosnian War of 1992-1995. It focuses on a case study of the Clinton administration’s decision to tacitly permit the shipment of Iranian weapons to Bosnia through Croatia in the spring of 1994. Understanding this decision complicates the conventional narrative of Bosnia policy, which is usually one of gradually building up the will to take forceful action. It also complicates narratives about post-Cold War humanitarian interventions, which are...

\"Al-Shaheed Park as Public Space: An ethnographic exploration of everyday landscapes and politics in Kuwait\"

Weaam Alabdullah
Kuwait’s City’s Al-Shaheed Park is an example of public space beyond democracy, which disrupts the public/non-public binary. Scholars widely depict public spaces as directly tied to democracy, and emphasize their active production through protests and informal and insurgent practices. Drawing from thirteen months of ethnographic fieldwork in Al-Shaheed Park, this dissertation investigates publicness through the lens of everyday life. Each chapter identifies a seemingly banal practice that highlights the park’s heterotopic (real and unreal) nature....

Sphingolipids and Prostate Cancer: complex molecules for a complex disease

Pedro Filipe Da Costa Pinheiro
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most incident cancer in men worldwide, and despite vast amounts of research it remains one of the major epidemiological burdens in oncology. The prostate gland is regulated by male androgens that activate the Androgen Receptor (AR), a transcription factor and a master regulator of several different signaling pathways, contributing towards normal development of the organ. In PCa, these hormones exert an important role in the onset and progression of...

A Radio Measurement of the Star Formation History of the Universe

Allison Matthews
Most of the stars in the universe were formed by disk galaxies like our own Milky Way during an era poetically called “cosmic noon.” This era, occurring approximately 3 billion years after the Big Bang, marked the peak of not only star formation, but also black hole growth and dust attenuation. The dust that permeates all galaxies absorbs and scatters the ultraviolet and optical light primarily generated by massive stars, whose lives are so short...

Exploring the Transformative Potential of Racial-Ethnic Diversity in Schools and Classrooms: The Role of Social Interactions

Haley Johnson
As the US education system becomes more racially and ethnically diverse, there is a need understand the pathways in which racial-ethnic diversity may or may not be beneficial in order to optimize benefits and minimize harm. This manuscript style dissertation, Exploring the Transformative Potential of Racial-Ethnic Diversity in Schools and Classrooms: The Role of Social Interactions, utilizes different analytic techniques to explore the pathways in which classroom diversity is and is not beneficial for adolescents....

The Relationship of School Leader Values and Practices to Participation of Black and Latinx Students in Advanced Placement Courses

Beverly Rudolph
Black and Latinx students in the United States are significantly underrepresented in Advanced Placement (AP) courses (Aud et al., 2010; College Board, 2008, 2018b). Historically, each group has experienced racial disproportionality between its participation in AP courses in comparison to its overall 9th – 12th grade U.S. population. The long-term negative effects for Black and Latinx students, their families, and their communities are significant, including limited post-secondary opportunities and a reduction of long-term earning potential....

Using Crowdsourced Datasets to Assess and Mitigate Impacts of Recurrent Flooding on Roadway Networks

Shraddha Praharaj
Recurrent flooding is becoming an increasingly common phenomenon in coastal cities all over the world. In the US, many cities on the east coast are facing the problem of recurrent flooding. This is a phenomenon caused by climate change and sea-level rise, yielding higher high tide events, rise in river water levels, and more severe rainfall events. In recent decades, recurrent flooding events are becoming more intense and frequent. These events typically last for a...

Teacher and Administrator Perceptions of Teacher Evaluations' Impact on Teacher Growth

David Stratuik
“The paradox of teacher evaluation is that it holds the potential to help nearly every teacher improve, yet in actual practice it helps almost no one” (Stiggins & Duke, 1988, p. 1). While the above quote was written more than three decades ago, some would suggest that while the process looks different, the outcome has changed very little. Significant resources of both time and money have been poured into improving the teacher evaluation process. At...

Mining Domain Knowledge from Unstructured Multi-Modal Data for Smart Bridge Infrastructure Management

Tianshu Li
The management of the bridge system encloses a pipeline of condition data collection (i.e. inspections), condition assessment, and deterioration prediction. Visual inspections are performed periodically, submitting ratings of bridge conditions to the National Bridge Inventory (NBI) and the element-level rating data to support deterioration prediction. While the current experience-driven inspection and assessment have been practiced for decades, today’s bridge infrastructure system in the U.S. faces critical preservation challenges in its sheer volume of aging and...

The Role of Interferons in Regulating the Subnuclear Positioning of Latent Herpes Simplex Virus Genomes and Reactivation

Jon Suzich
Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) is a ubiquitous pathogen that establishes lifelong latent infections in post-mitotic neurons, most commonly in the peripheral ganglia. Latent HSV-1 infection is asymptomatic, but the virus periodically reactivates, which can lead to significant disease, including a life-threatening encephalitis or recurrent HSV-1 ocular infection, a leading cause of infectious blindness worldwide. Recent evidence suggests that recurrent HSV-1 infection may also impact the progression of Alzheimer’s disease. Therefore, there is a need to...

Posttranscriptional gene regulation in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7

Amber Sauder
Bacteria must sense and respond to environmental cues to survive and replicate in diverse environments. Tight regulation of metabolic and virulence gene expression is required for pathogens to compete with the host microbiota, replicate, and subvert the immune system. The foodborne pathogen enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC) has a very low infectious dose, indicating successful adaptation to the various environments in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Whereas the role of transcriptional regulators in EHEC niche adaptation...

A User Interface Informing Medical Staff on Continuous Indoor Environmental Quality to Support Patient Care and Airborne Disease Mitigation; Researcher Communication Strategies Via Twitter to Bridge the Knowledge Barrier Between Scientists and Citizens Amidst the COVID-19 Infodemic

James Sterchi
Scientific researchers produce a wealth of knowledge and discovery untapped by society at large. While this information exists, the problem becomes communicating these findings in an easily interpretable, accessible manner on a broad scale. The works included below aim to breakdown this knowledge barrier as the technical project provides insights on readily-available data to assist medical staff in patient care, and the sociotechnical synthesis produces a framework for sharing knowledge via Twitter, one of the...

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