15 Works

Data from: The extent and genetic basis of phenotypic divergence in life history traits in Mimulus guttatus

Jannice Friedman, Alex D. Twyford, John H. Willis & Benjamin K. Blackman
Differential natural selection acting on populations in contrasting environments often results in adaptive divergence in multivariate phenotypes. Multivariate trait divergence across populations could be caused by selection on pleiotropic alleles or through many independent loci with trait-specific effects. Here, we assess patterns of association between a suite of traits contributing to life history divergence in the common monkeyflower, Mimulus guttatus, and examine the genetic architecture underlying these correlations. A common garden survey of 74 populations...

Data from: A generation time effect on the rate of molecular evolution in bacteria

Cory Andrew Weller, Martin Wu & Cory Weller
Molecular evolutionary rate varies significantly among species and a strict global molecular clock has been rejected across the tree of life. Generation time is one primary life-history trait that influences the molecular evolutionary rate. Theory predicts that organisms with shorter generation times evolve faster because of the accumulation of more DNA replication errors per unit time. While the generation-time effect has been demonstrated consistently in plants and animals, the evidence of its existence in bacteria...

Data from: Temperature-dependent resetting of the molecular circadian oscillator in Drosophila.

Tadahiro Goda, Brandi Sharp & Herman Wijnen
Circadian clocks responsible for daily time keeping in a wide range of organisms synchronize to daily temperature cycles via pathways that remain poorly understood. To address this problem from the perspective of the molecular oscillator, we monitored temperature-dependent resetting of four of its core components in the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster: the transcripts and proteins for the clock genes period (per) and timeless (tim). The molecular circadian cycle in adult heads exhibited parallel responses to temperature-mediated...

Data from: Comparative and population mitogenomic analyses of Madagascar’s extinct, giant ‘subfossil’ lemurs

Logan Kistler, Aakrosh Ratan, Laurie R. Godfrey, Brooke E. Crowley, Cris E. Hughes, Runhua Lei, Yinqui Cui, Mindy L. Wood, Kathleen M. Muldoon, Haingoson Andriamialison, John J. McGraw, Lynn P. Tomsho, Stephan C. Schuster, Webb Miller, Edward E. Louis, Anne D. Yoder, Ripan S. Malhi, George H. Perry & Yinqiu Cui
Humans first arrived on Madagascar only a few thousand years ago. Subsequent habitat destruction and hunting activities have had significant impacts on the island's biodiversity, including the extinction of megafauna. For example, we know of 17 recently extinct ‘subfossil’ lemur species, all of which were substantially larger (body mass ∼11–160 kg) than any living population of the ∼100 extant lemur species (largest body mass ∼6.8 kg). We used ancient DNA and genomic methods to study...

Data from: The jack-of-all-trades is master of none: a pathogen's ability to infect a greater number of host genotypes comes at a cost of delayed reproduction.

Emily L. Bruns, Martin L. Carson, Georgiana May & Emily Bruns
A trade-off between a pathogen's ability to infect many hosts and its reproductive capacity on each host genotype is predicted to limit the evolution of an expanded host range, yet few empirical results provide evidence for the magnitude of such trade-offs. Here, we test the hypothesis for a trade-off between the number of host genotypes that a fungal pathogen can infect (host genotype range) and its reproductive capacity on susceptible plant hosts. We utilized strains...

Data from: Female anoles retain responsiveness to testosterone despite the evolution of androgen-mediated sexual dimorphism

Christian L. Cox, Amanda F. Hanninen, Aaron M. Reedy & Robert M. Cox
1. The evolution of sexual dimorphism presents a challenge because males and females must express two phenotypes from the same underlying genome. In vertebrates, one solution to this challenge is to link the expression of shared traits to sex steroids. However, even ‘male-biased’ steroids such as testosterone (T) circulate at biologically significant levels in females, raising the question of whether sexual dimorphism evolves not only through the coupling of trait expression to T in males,...

Data from: Rate of resistance evolution and polymorphism in long- and short-lived hosts

Emily L. Bruns, Michael E. Hood, Janis Antonovics & Emily Bruns
Recent theoretical work has shown that long-lived hosts are expected to evolve higher equilibrium levels of disease resistance than shorter-lived hosts, but questions of how longevity affects the rate of resistance evolution and the maintenance of polymorphism remain unanswered. Conventional wisdom suggests that adaptive evolution should occur more slowly in long-lived organisms than in short-lived organisms. However, the opposite may be true for the evolution of disease-resistance traits where exposure to disease, and therefore the...

Data from: Survival of the fattest? Indices of body condition do not predict viability in the brown anole (Anolis sagrei)

Robert M. Cox & Ryan Calsbeek
1. Measures of body mass and length are commonly used to derive indices of condition, which are often assumed to reflect the energetic state of an animal and, by extension, to predict its fitness. However, the relationship between condition and fitness is rarely quantified, and the appropriate method(s) for deriving indices of condition are frequently debated. 2. Data from a decade of mark-recapture studies involving over 4,600 individual lizards (Anolis sagrei) and 41 replicates of...

Data from: Does hugging provide stress-buffering social support? A study of susceptibility to upper respiratory infection and illness

Sheldon Cohen, Denise Janicki-Deverts, Ronald B. Turner & William J. Doyle
Perceived social support has been hypothesized to protect against the pathogenic effects of stress. How such protection might be conferred, however, is not well understood. Using a sample of 404 healthy adults, we examined the roles of perceived social support and received hugs in buffering against interpersonal stress-induced susceptibility to infectious disease. Perceived support was assessed by questionnaire, and daily interpersonal conflict and receipt of hugs were assessed by telephone interviews on 14 consecutive evenings....

Data from: How topography induces reproductive asynchrony and alters gypsy moth invasion dynamics

Jonathan A. Walter, Marcia S. Meixler, Thomas Mueller, William F. Fagan, Patrick C. Tobin & Kyle J. Haynes
1. Reproductive asynchrony, a temporal mismatch in reproductive maturation between an individual and potential mates, may contribute to mate-finding failure and Allee effects that influence the establishment and spread of invasive species. Variation in elevation is likely to promote variability in maturation times for species with temperature-dependent development, but it is not known how strongly this influences reproductive asynchrony or the population growth of invasive species. 2. We examined whether spatial variation in reproductive asynchrony,...

Data from: Recent admixture generates heterozygosity-fitness correlations during the range expansion of an invading species

Stephen R. Keller, Peter D. Fields, Andrea E. Berardi & Doug R. Taylor
Admixture, the mixing of historically isolated gene pools, can have immediate consequences for the genetic architecture of fitness traits. Admixture may be especially important for newly colonized populations, such as during range expansion and species invasions, by generating heterozygosity that can boost fitness through heterosis. Despite widespread evidence for admixture during species invasions, few studies have examined the demographic history leading to admixture, how admixture affects the heterozygosity and fitness of invasive genotypes, and whether...

Data from: The timing of molecular and morphological changes underlying reproductive transitions in wild tomatoes (Solanum sect. Lycopersicon)

Stacey L. Vosters, Cathleen P. Jewell, Natasha A. Sherman, Frances Einterz, Benjamin K. Blackman & Leonie C. Moyle
Molecular mechanisms underlying the transition from genetic self-incompatibility to self-compatibility are well documented, but the evolution of other reproductive trait changes that accompany shifts in reproductive strategy (mating system) remain comparatively poorly understood. A notable exception is the transition from exserted styles to styles with recessed positions relative to the anthers in wild tomatoes (Solanum Section Lycopersicon). This phenotypic change has been previously attributed to specific mutation in the promoter of a gene that influences...

Data from: Correlation between sequence divergence and polymorphism reveals similar evolutionary mechanisms acting across multiple timescales in a rapidly evolving plastid genome

Karen B. Barnard-Kubow, Daniel B. Sloan & Laura F. Galloway
Background: Although the plastid genome is highly conserved across most angiosperms, multiple lineages have increased rates of structural rearrangement and nucleotide substitution. These lineages exhibit an excess of nonsynonymous substitutions (i.e., elevated dN/dS ratios) in similar subsets of plastid genes, suggesting that similar mechanisms may be leading to relaxed and/or positive selection on these genes. However, little is known regarding whether these mechanisms continue to shape sequence diversity at the intraspecific level. Results: We examined...

Data from: Determinants of genetic structure in a nonequilibrium metapopulation of the plant Silene latifolia

Peter D. Fields & Douglas R. Taylor
Population genetic differentiation will be influenced by the demographic history of populations, opportunities for migration among neighboring demes and founder effects associated with repeated extinction and recolonization. In natural populations, these factors are expected to interact with each other and their magnitudes will vary depending on the spatial distribution and age structure of local demes. Although each of these effects has been individually identified as important in structuring genetic variance, their relative magnitude is seldom...

Data from: Experimentally decoupling reproductive investment from energy storage to test the functional basis of a life-history tradeoff

Robert M. Cox, Matthew B. Lovern & Ryan Calsbeek
The ubiquitous life-history trade-off between reproduction and survival has long been hypothesized to reflect underlying energy-allocation trade-offs between reproductive investment and processes related to self-maintenance. Although recent work has questioned whether energy-allocation models provide sufficient explanations for the survival cost of reproduction, direct tests of this hypothesis are rare, especially in wild populations. This hypothesis was tested in a wild population of brown anole lizards (Anolis sagrei) using a two-step experiment. First, stepwise variation in...

Registration Year

  • 2014

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  • University of Virginia
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  • University of Minnesota
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  • Oklahoma State University