53 Works

Academic Preservation Trust Core Preservation Service Policy, Version 1.0

Bradley Daigle & Robert German
Academic Preservation Trust Core Preservation Service Policy policy sets out the current preservation-service components offered by the Academic Preservation Trust [APTrust] in its core, high-assurance preservation service. The policy applies to all content that members deposit into the APTrust environment via the tools and ingest policies set down in our basic operating principles. This policy is guided by the APTrust ​Mission Statement​. This policy outlines the core preservation activities that each depositor can expect to...

Data from: Morphology of the core fibrous layer of the cetacean tail fluke

William T. Gough, Frank E. Fish, Dylan K. Wainwright & Hilary Bart-Smith
The cetacean tail fluke blades are not supported by any vertebral elements. Instead, the majority of the blades are composed of a densely packed collagenous fiber matrix known as the core layer. Fluke blades from six species of odontocete cetaceans were examined to compare the morphology and orientation of fibers at different locations along the spanwise and chordwise fluke blade axes. The general fiber morphology was consistent with a three‐dimensional structure comprised of two‐dimensional sheets...

Data from: Populations with greater flexibility in floral traits modify mating system in response to the pollinator environment

Lia Leibman, Anne Rowe, Matthew H. Koski & Laura F. Galloway
1. Mixed mating and variation in outcrossing rate among populations of the same species are common. Outcrossing can be affected by pollinator activity and floral traits that facilitate or impede autonomous self-fertilization. However, the relative contribution of pollen limitation and evolved differences in the ability to self fertilize to variation in the mating system is poorly understood and can only be disentangled using an experimental approach. 2. We placed arrays of plants from eight Campanula...

Data from: Relative effects of LDL-C on ischaemic stroke & coronary disease: a Mendelian randomization study

Elsa Valdes-Marquez, Sarah Parish, Robert Clarke, Traiani Stari, Bradford B. Worrall & Jemma C. Hopewell
Objective: To examine the causal relevance of lifelong differences in LDL-C for ischaemic stroke (IS) relative to that for coronary heart disease (CHD) using a Mendelian randomization approach. Methods: We undertook a two-sample Mendelian randomization, based on summary data, to estimate the causal relevance of LDL-C for risk of IS and CHD. Information from 62 independent genetic variants with genome-wide significant effects on LDL-C levels was used to estimate the causal effects of LDL-C for...

Data from: Spatiotemporal dynamics and genome-wide association analysis of desiccation tolerance in Drosophila melanogaster

Subhash Rajpurohit, Eran Gefen, Alan O. Bergland, Dmitri A. Petrov, Allen G. Gibbs & Paul S. Schmidt
Water availability is a major environmental challenge to a variety of terrestrial organisms. In insects, desiccation tolerance varies predictably over spatial and temporal scales and is an important physiological determinant of fitness in natural populations. Here, we examine the dynamics of desiccation tolerance in North American populations of Drosophila melanogaster using: 1) natural populations sampled across latitudes and seasons; 2) experimental evolution in field mesocosms over seasonal time; 3) genome-wide associations to identify SNPs/genes associated...

Data from: A key floral scent component (β-trans-bergamotene) drives pollinator preferences independently of pollen rewards in seep monkeyflower

Ariela I. Haber, James W. Sims, Mark C. Mescher, Consuelo M. De Moraes & David E. Carr
1) Floral odors play an important role in attracting insect pollinators. Because pollinators visit flowers to obtain pollen and nectar rewards, they should prefer floral odor profiles associated with the highest-rewarding flowers (honest signals). In previous work, bumble bees exhibited a preference for flowers from outbred over inbred Mimulus guttatus plants. Pollen is the only floral reward in M. guttatus, and pollen viability (a reliable indicator of protein content) is reduced in inbred plants. Yet,...

Data from: Co-occurrence among three divergent plant-castrating fungi in the same silene host species

Jessica L. Abbate, Pierre Gladieux, Michael E. Hood, Damien M. De Vienne, Janis Antonovics, Alodie Snirc & Tatiana Giraud
The competitive exclusion principle postulates that different species can only coexist in sympatry if they occupy distinct ecological niches. The goal of this study was to understand the geographical distribution of three species of Microbotryum anther-smut fungi that are distantly related but infect the same host plants, the sister species Silene vulgaris and S. uniflora, in western Europe. We used microsatellite markers to investigate pathogen distribution in relation to host specialization and ecological factors. Microbotryum...

Data from: Adaptive radiation along a deeply conserved genetic line of least resistance in Anolis lizards

Joel W. McGlothlin, Megan E. Kobiela, Helen V. Wright, D. Luke Mahler, Jason J. Kolbe, Jonathan B. Losos, & Edmund D. Brodie
On microevolutionary timescales, adaptive evolution depends upon both natural selection and the underlying genetic architecture of traits under selection, which may constrain evolutionary outcomes. Whether such genetic constraints shape phenotypic diversity over macroevolutionary timescales is more controversial, however. One key prediction is that genetic constraints should bias the early stages of species divergence along “genetic lines of least resistance” defined by the genetic (co)variance matrix, G. This bias is expected to erode over time as...

Data from: Archaeogenomic evidence from the southwestern US points to a pre-Hispanic scarlet macaw breeding colony

Richard J. George, Stephen Plof, Adam S. Watson, Kari L. Schmidt, Brandon J. Culleton, Thomas K. Harper, Patricia A. Gilman, Steven A. LeBlanc, George Amato, Peter Whiteley, Logan Kistler & Douglas J. Kennett
Hundreds of scarlet macaw (Ara macao cyanoptera) skeletons have been recovered from archaeological contexts in the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico (SW/NW). The location of these skeletons, >1,000 km outside their Neotropical endemic range, has suggested a far-reaching pre-Hispanic acquisition network. Clear evidence for scarlet macaw breeding within this network is only known from the settlement of Paquimé in NW dating between 1250 and 1450 CE. Although some scholars have speculated on the probable...

Data from: Response to joint selection on germination and flowering phenology depends on the direction of selection

Laura F. Galloway, Ray H.B. Watson, Holly R. Prendeville & Ray H. B. Watson
Background and Aims. Flowering and germination time are components of phenology, a complex phenotype that incorporates a number of traits. In natural populations, selection is likely to occur on multiple components of phenology at once. However, we have little knowledge of how joint selection on several phenological traits influences evolutionary response. Methods. We conducted one generation of artificial selection for all combinations of early and late germination and flowering on replicated lines within two independent...

Data from: Effect of the anther-smut fungus Microbotryum on the juvenile growth of its host Silene latifolia

Janis Antonovics, Jessica L. Abbate, Emily L. Bruns, Peter D. Fields, Nicole J. Forrester, Kimberley Gilbert, Michael E. Hood, Timothy Park & Douglas R. Taylor
Premise of the Study: Plant pathogens that form persistent systemic infections within plants have the potential to affect multiple plant life history traits, yet we tend to focus only on visible symptoms. Anther-smut disease of Silene latifolia caused by the fungus Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae induces the anthers of its host to produce fungal spores in place of pollen, and the pathogen is primarily transmitted among flowering plants by pollinators. Nevertheless, most of its life cycle is...

A computer program for producing synthetic non-LTE molecular spectra from astrochemical models

Joseph Epstein
Context: Molecular transitions can be observed and used to probe the physical and chemical conditions of molecular clouds, which are the building blocks for astrophysical structures. Aims: To provide a tool for analyzing the variation in molecular transition lines throughout a time-dependent chemical model, and for making comparisons between theoretical and observed molecular transitions in non-LTE astrochemical environments. Methods: Data from a time-dependent astrochemical model and its subsequent species abundances, calculated with the NAUTILUS code,...

On Measuring the Radial Velocity of Stars with Earth-Sized Planets

Colleen Casey
This project aimed to examine how Earth-sized exoplanets are found around stars using the radial velocity method. Calculations made using the method laid out in Fundamental Photon Noise Limit to Radial Velocity Measurements (Bouchy) attempted to find the quality factor for a synthetic spectrum, but had an error on the magnitude of 10^4, likely due to an error within the code. Using an interpolation function within Python, I recovered a radial velocity from an artificially...

A Fourier Domain “Jerk” Search for Binary Pulsars

Bridget Andersen
While binary pulsar systems are fantastic laboratories for a wide array of astrophysics, they are particularly difficult to detect. The orbital motion of the pulsar changes its apparent spin frequency over the course of an observation, essentially “smearing” the response of the time series in the Fourier domain. We review the Fourier domain acceleration search (FDAS), which uses a matched filtering algorithm to correct for this smearing by assuming constant acceleration for a small enough...

Using a Monte Carlo Simulation to Resolve Through Confusion the Radio Source Background of Weak Radio Sources Out to Z = 2.9

Melanie Grierson
This thesis details how to create a simulated universe on a 1000'' x 1000'' sky with 1'' x 1'' pixels. The simulated sky was created to provide a realistic distribution of radio sources given a specific source count and includes instrumental observing effects associated with the Karl G. Janksy Very Large Array (VLA). 1.4 GHz counts from Condon et al. (2012), which underwent a spline interpolation, were used to create ≈ 37k radio sources ranging...

Non-Academic Careers for STS Graduate Students: A Workshop Report

Rider Foley, Thomas Woodson & Matthem Harsh
Science, Technology & Society (STS ) graduate programs primarily train graduate students to work in academic jobs. Unfortunately, like many STEM fields, there are not enough academic jobs to match the supply of STS graduate students, nor does every STS graduate student want to become an academic. While this situation is not entirely recent, graduate students still do not receive adequate training or mentorship for careers outside of academia. Studies have shown that from 1998...

Effects of bulk and interfacial anharmonicity on thermal conductance at solid/solid interfaces

Nam Q. Le, Carlos A. Polanco, Rouzbeh Rastgarkafshgarkolaei, Jinjie Zhang, Avik Ghosh & Pamela M. Norris
We present the results of classical molecular dynamics simulations to assess the relative contributions to interfacial thermal conductance from inelastic phonon processes at the interface and in the adjacent bulk materials. The simulated system is the prototypical interface between argon and “heavy argon” crystals, which enables comparison with many past computational studies. We run simulations interchanging the Lennard-Jones potential with its harmonic approximation to test the effect of anharmonicity on conductance. The results confirm that...

Epic Theory

Herbert Tucker
Among major literary kinds, epic offers the most long-standing and globally distributed evidence of the human habit of thinking by means of narrative. What it cherishes is the common good; what it ponders are the behaviors and values that forward or threaten collective welfare. What it reckons are the stakes of heroic risk that any living culture must hazard in order to prosper, by negotiating core identities with margins and adjusting settled customs to emergent...

The User Experience: Focus Group Insights

Melinda Baumann
The author discusses the results of three focus groups she facilitated about Maker spaces in April 2017 for the University of Virginia Library. All focus group participants valued inclusivity, expressing strong opinions that a Maker space should be "open to all" and should have an accessible layout.

Role of crystal structure and junction morphology on interface thermal conductance

Carlos A. Polanco, Rouzbeh Rastgarkafshgarkolaei, Jingjie Zhang, Nam Q. Le, Pamela Norris, Patrick Hopkins & Avik Ghosh
We argue that the relative thermal conductance between interfaces with different morphologies is controlled by crystal structure through Mmin/Mc > 1, the ratio between the minimum mode count on either side Mmin, and the conserving modes Mc that preserve phonon momentum transverse to the interface. Junctions with an added homogenous layer, “uniform,” and “abrupt” junctions are limited to Mc, while junctions with interfacial disorder, “mixed,” exploit the expansion of mode spectrum to Mmin. In our...

Description and Cost Benefit Analysis of Proposed Enhancements to ALMA

John Josephs
The Atacama Large Millimeter Array, or ALMA, is a conglomerate of 66 giant antennae located in the Atacama Desert of northern Chili. Through advanced computing, these antennae work together as a single telescope to pick up radio signals from stars, planets, or other galaxies. Since beginning operations in 2011, ALMA has played a major role in scientific discoveries propelling the field of astronomy. With ALMA’s extreme sensitivity and resolution, astronomers have been able to create...

A Full Polarization Analysis of NGC 3665

Evan Sheldahl
In this thesis, I analyzed Very Large Array (VLA) L-band observations of the Stokes cube coming from the active galactic nucleus (AGN) of the lenticular galaxy NGC 3665. Its data come from the ATLAS 3D Survey, a highly spatially resolved dataset of 260 early type galaxies (ETGs). I present intensity maps of its non-polarized and linearly polarized emission as well as optical R-band and interferometric CO(1-0) molecular gas data. The way in which the molecular...

Gravitational Wave Emission from Tight White Dwarf Binary Systems Formed Through Common Envelope Evolution

Juan Carlos Velasco Barboza
With the upcoming launch of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), the next natural candidates for merger observations are White Dwarf binaries. Current stellar mass candidates for gravitational wave sources suggest the existence of a mechanism which turns high period systems into low period ones. That is, if we hope to see mergers of such low-mass objects within the age of the Universe. In this paper we follow Iben.Jr,Tutukov.(1986)[1] to explore the different possible channels...

NASA Public Opinion and the Federal Budget

Layla Bryant
This paper will explore the implications of growing economy in GDP per capita and public opinion about NASA on the budget granted to the agency each year. These trends are interesting and relevant to the Astronomy and Astrophysics community through the funding aspect and the public association of NASA with Astronomy and space. Using data from the General Social Survey, U.S. Gross Domestic Product, Office of Management and Budget, this paper explores relationships between public...

Callisto's Dynamic Atmosphere

Marcus Smith
This paper presents an analysis of the atmosphere of Callisto and discusses how the Jovian system molded, and continues to mold Callisto's atmosphere over time. Before the analysis the general properties of Callisto and the atmosphere is reviewed and a literature review of pertinent information regarding the Callisto's atmosphere and previous scientific simulations of the atmosphere. These simulations and observation data for the atmosphere provide a basis for all the parameters used in all of...

Registration Year

  • 2018

Resource Types

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  • University of Virginia
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  • Columbia University