63 Works

Unique genetic signatures of local adaptation over space and time for diapause, an ecologically relevant complex trait, in Drosophila melanogaster

Priscilla A Erickson, Cory A Weller, Daniel Y Song, Paul Schmidt, Alan O Bergland & Alyssa Bangerter
Organisms living in seasonally variable environments utilize cues such as light and temperature to induce plastic responses, enabling them to exploit favorable seasons and avoid unfavorable ones. Local adapation can result in variation in seasonal responses, but the genetic basis and evolutionary history of this variation remains elusive. Many insects, including Drosophila melanogaster, are able to undergo an arrest of reproductive development (diapause) in response to unfavorable conditions. In D. melanogaster, the ability to diapause...

Sex linkage of the skeletal muscle sodium channel gene (SCN4A) explains apparent deviations from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium of tetrodotoxin-resistance alleles in garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis)

Kerry Gendreau, Michael Hague, Chris Feldman, , & Joel McGlothlin
The arms race between tetrodotoxin-bearing Pacific newts (Taricha) and their garter snake predators (Thamnophis) in western North America has become a classic example of coevolution, shedding light on predator-prey dynamics, the molecular basis of adaptation, and patterns of convergent evolution. Newts are defended by tetrodotoxin (TTX), a neurotoxin that binds to voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav proteins), arresting electrical activity in nerves and muscles and paralyzing would-be predators. However, populations of the common garter snake (T....

The effects of age on the demography of a perennial plant depend on interactions with size and environment

Heide Maria Baden, Johan P. Dahlgren, Deborah Ann Roach, Fritz Hans Schweingruber, Kasper Reitzel & Kim Lundgreen
Age-dependence of the demographic rates survival, fecundity and individual growth is a fundamental aspect of population biological theory. Knowledge about plant ageing can also be important for conservation and agriculture as it will improve the accuracy of population viability assessments and long-term performance assessments in perennial crops. Recent studies show age effects on demographic rates for several plant species, yet much remains to be learned about the patterns and mechanisms of plant ageing, particularly about...

Kingsley's Muscular Poetics

Herbert Tucker
Although Kingsley acknowledged his own deficiency in the visionary gifts of the greatest poets, not only he but numerous contemporaries held poetry to be his true literary calling. This judgment has not been confirmed by posterity, which receives Kingsley as a writer of fictional and controversial prose. Yet a poetics of strenuous compensation informs much of his output, at both thematic and prosodic levels. His grapple with the sensed but inarticulate meaningfulness of worldly phenomena...

Walking Dissonance in Delhi: Intersections Among Daily Mobility, Environmental Exposures, and Wellbeing

Andrew Mondschein
Despite the rapid pace of change and investment, most Delhi residents continue to struggle to get where they need to go, often depending on simply walking to get where they need to go. During travel, residents are directly exposed to the urban environment, with its air pollution, noise, and natural and built features that vary significantly in their quality and maintenance. How these exposures affect residents, both in how its shapes their travel and its...

Cohabitation Register of Louisa County, Virginia

Jean Cooper
This is a transcription of a Freedmen's Bureau Cohabitation List from Louisa County, Virginia. It served as a legal marriage record for newly freed men and women who wished to register their marriages under the auspices of the United States government.

Architecture Review for Advancing Hyku Project

Rathin Sundar
This report is a deliverable of the Advancing Hyku: Open Source Institutional Repository Platform Development” project, funded by Arcadia—a charitable fund of philanthropists Lisbet Rausing and Peter Baldwin The purpose of this document is to review the architecture and design of the Hyku implementation of British library, with reference to the capabilities of the platform and requirements of the Library. The current implementation of Hyku for the British Library’s (BL) shared research repository project would...

Setting a Standard for a “Silent” Disease: Defining Osteoporosis in the 1980s and 1990s

Caitlin Wylie
Osteoporosis, a disease of bone loss associated with aging and estrogen loss, can be crippling but is “silent” or symptomless prior to bone fracture. Despite its disastrous health effects, high prevalence, and enormous associated healthcare costs, osteoporosis lacked a universally accepted definition until 1992. In the 1980s, the development of more accurate medical imaging technologies to measure bone density spurred the medical community’s need and demand for a common definition. The medical community tried, and...

Overcoming the underdetermination of specimens

Caitlin Wylie
Philosophers of science are well aware that theories are underdetermined by data. But what about the data? Scientific data are selected and processed representations or pieces of nature. What is useless context and what is valuable specimen, as well as how specimens are processed for study, are not obvious or predetermined givens. Instead, they are decisions made by scientists and other research workers, such as technicians, that produce different outcomes for the data. Vertebrate fossils...

Socialization through stories of disaster in engineering laboratories

Caitlin Wylie
The initiation of novices into research communities relies on the communication of tacit knowledge, behavioral norms and moral values. Much of this instruction happens informally, as messages subtly embedded in everyday interactions. This study uses participant-observation and interviews to investigate how engineers socialize future engineers by studying how undergraduate students who work in an engineering laboratory learn their research community’s social and technical norms. I found that a key method of conveying knowledge about social...

Gravitational Wave Spin Memory Effect and Detectability with LISA

Yara Yousef
The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is a space-based gravitational wave observatory currently projected to launch in the 2030s. Its frequency range will be lower and broader than LIGO’s, allowing it the capability to observe mergers and events we have still been unable to detect. Its increased sensitivity also allows for the potential to observe other effects of gravitational waves, such as gravitational wave memory. The memory effect we are focused on in this project...

What is Libra: 2020 Open Access Week

Sherry Lake
Recorded talk on "What is Libra? UVa's Scholarly Institutional Repository" created for 2020 Open Access Week. Slides with notes are included Libra is a set of repositories that provides open access to publicly available content such as journal articles, monographs, conference proceedings, presentations, posters, reports, pre-prints. It also contains data and other products of research. AND Libra is the online source for UVA's Theses and dissertations. Libra, as the institutional repository for UVa, is the...

Albemarle County's Equity Roadshow: A Report on Findings and Recommendations

Carolyn Heaps, Tyler Hinkle, Kevin Kask, Mikayla Woodley & Nicholas Wittkofski
Albemarle County is located in central Virginia. Its partly suburban, partly rural composition serves a variety of land uses: from residential, to recreational, to commercial. In 2019, Albemarle County’s Office of Equity and Inclusion (OEI) launched an Equity Roadshow to determine the level of access its diverse residents had to various resources and services in the community. The Equity Roadshow consisted of a short survey for residents to complete in person with representatives from the...

The Matter with Verse: What Victorian Poetry Wasn’t, and Was

Herbert Tucker
The status of verse as a minor partner in poetry’s nobler enterprise is as generally untheorized in principle as it is as widely acknowledged in practice – and for reasons stemming from a certain ambivalence, which we still share with the Victorians, about the formal poetic medium itself. Poetry nowhere exposes this ambivalence more clearly than when flaunting its dependency on verse’s material mediation. Victorian poems written for, or as, inscription (W. Morris, R. Browning,...

Living Shorelines and the Efficacy of Oyster Reefs in Mitigating Wave Action and Erosive Processes

Cece Hopkinson
Global climate change poses a significant threat to coastal communities worldwide, with sea level rise, flooding, intense and frequent storms, accelerated erosion, and storm surge, resulting in billions of dollars of damage. A critical part in addressing these threats lies in coastal adaptation strategies, which will grow in importance as climate change and sea level rise continue. Living shorelines are a nature-based approach to coastal adaptation that utilize native species to increase resilience against erosion...

Balladry in Motion

Herbert Tucker
The mythic fancy that minstrels wandered, and the bibliographic fact that versions of their oral ballads migrated to print in strikingly different variants, run proxy for each other as analogous expressions of a modern ambivalence over the ballad form. This analogy is also played out prosodically, in the great freedom with which ballads permute, even as they observe, metrical conventions that identify them. Analysis of examples from Percy’s Reliques and Chatterton’s Rowley forgeries sets the...

An Investigation of a Tax on Second Homes and Its Ability to Foster Affordable Housing

Nick Gomer
This project was created during a capstone seminar for the Global Environments and Sustainability undergraduate major. This project explores the role of second homes in communities; how they both contribute to local economies and inflate local housing prices. It then explores vacancy taxes and how such a tax could be placed upon second homes to promote affordable housing for full-time citizens.

Survey of Indigenous Materials in The Archives

Hanni Nabahe
Following the 2018 federal recognition of six Virginia tribes, this Survey of Indigenous Materials sought to identify holdings within the Albert and Shirley Small Special Collections Library relevant to local indigenous groups; our goal was to ensure the ethical stewardship of these objects while supporting outreach efforts as well as emerging research and teaching needs. The project team assessed a total of 185 manuscript collections and 52 theses and dissertations (TDs). Of the archival collections...

Chaos to Consensus: A Team-Based Approach to Developing Holistic Workflows

Jennifer Roper, Jeremy Bartczak, Jean Cooper, Christina Deane, Michael Durbin, Kara McClurken, Elizabeth Wilkinson & Lauren Work
Using Kotter's Eight-Stage Process of Leading Change as a framework, this chapter describes the motivations for, process of, and outcomes from an effort at the University of Virginia Library to analyze and update the multifaceted digital production workflow.

Ambulatory physicians’ electronic health record self-efficacy

Martha Hellems
Objective: To assess ambulatory providers’ confidence in learning about and using the electronic health record (EHR). Materials and Methods: Providers were administered an EHR skills self-assessment survey. Results: 71 providers participated. Only 35% of respondents felt that they had strong EHR skills, 92% felt confident that they could learn new skills, and 90% felt they could improve with practice. 45% of faculty physicians felt confident that they could use the EHR in a time-efficient manner...

Data from: A threat to loyalty: Fear of missing out (FOMO) leads to reluctance to repeat current experiences

Ceren Hayran, Lalin Anik & Zeynep Gürhan-Canli
We investigate a popular but underresearched concept, the fear of missing out (FOMO), on desirable experiences of which an individual is aware, but in which they do not partake. Through laboratory and field studies, we establish FOMO’s pervasiveness as a psychological phenomenon, present real-life contexts wherein FOMO may be experienced, and explore its behavioral consequences. Specifically, we show that FOMO poses a threat to loyalty by decreasing one’s intentions to repeat a current experience and...

Data from: Validation of serum neurofilaments as prognostic & potential pharmacodynamic biomarkers for ALS

Michael Benatar, Lanyu Zhang, Lily Wang, Volkan Granit, Jeffrey Statland, Richard Barohn, Andrea Swenson, John Ravitz, Carlayne Jackson, Ted Burns, Jaya Trivedi, Erik Pioro, James Caress, Jonathan Katz, Jacob McCauley, Rosa Rademakers, Andrea Malaspina, Lyle Ostrow & Joanne Wuu
Objective. Identify preferred neurofilament assays, and clinically validate serum NfL and pNfH as prognostic and potential pharmacodynamic biomarkers relevant to ALS therapy development. Methods. Prospective, multi-center, longitudinal observational study of patients with ALS (n=229), primary lateral sclerosis (PLS, n=20) and progressive muscular atrophy (PMA, n=11). Biological specimens were collected, processed and stored according to strict standard operating procedures (SOPs) 1. Neurofilament assays were performed in a blinded manner by independent contract research organizations (CROs). Results....

Data from: The evolution of parasite host range in heterogeneous host populations

Amanda Gibson, Helena Baffoe-Bonnie, McKenna Penley, Julie Lin, Raythe Owens, Arooj Khalid & Levi Morran
Theory on the evolution of niche width argues that resource heterogeneity selects for niche breadth. For parasites, this theory predicts that parasite populations will evolve, or maintain, broader host ranges when selected in genetically diverse host populations relative to homogeneous host populations. To test this prediction, we selected the bacterial parasite Serratia marcescens to kill Caenorhabditis elegans in populations that were genetically heterogeneous (50% mix of two experimental genotypes) or homogeneous (100% of either genotype)....

Strength in numbers? Cytotype frequency mediates effect of reproductive barriers in mixed-ploidy arrays.

Brittany Sutherland, Tomas Miranda-Katz & Laura Galloway
When differentiated lineages come into contact, their fates depend on demographic and reproductive factors. These factors have been well-studied in taxa of the same ploidy, but less is known about sympatric lineages that differ in ploidy, particularly with respect to demographic factors. We assessed prezygotic, postzygotic, and total reproductive isolation in naturally-pollinated arrays of diploid-tetraploid and tetraploid-hexaploid population mixes of Campanula rotundifolia by measuring pollinator transitions, seed yield, germination rate, and proportion of hybrid offspring....

Data from: The geographic mosaic of arms race coevolution is closely matched to prey population structure

Michael Hague, Amber Stokes, Chris Feldman, Edmund Brodie &
Reciprocal adaptation is the hallmark of arms race coevolution. Local coadaptation between natural enemies should generate a geographic mosaic pattern where both species have roughly matched abilities across their shared range. However, mosaic variation in ecologically relevant traits can also arise from processes unrelated to reciprocal selection, such as population structure or local environmental conditions. We tested whether these alternative processes can account for trait variation in the geographic mosaic of arms race coevolution between...

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