117 Works

Artist-Teachers Emotions: Fear of School

Ruth Gabriele Mateus-Berr, Simona Bergmann & Violeta Hinojosa

\"Principles Text\" in Action in Outstanding and Ordinary Landscapes

Nora Mitchell, Steve Brown, Lionella Scazzosi, Jane Lennon & Brenda Barrett

How Shall We Eat Tomorrow?: the Practices of Aspirational Food Projects

Caitlin Morgan

Habitat use as an indicator of adaptive capacity to climate change

Claire Teitelbaum, Alexej Siren, Ethan Coffel, Jane Foster, Jacqueline Frair, Joseph Hinton, Radley Horton, David Kramer, Corey Lesk, Colin Raymond, David Wattles, Katherine Zeller & Toni Lyn Morelli
Aim: Populations of cold-adapted species at the trailing edges of geographic ranges are particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of climate change from the combination of exposure to warm temperatures and high sensitivity to heat. Many of these species are predicted to decline under future climate scenarios, but they could persist if they can adapt to warming climates either physiologically or behaviorally. We aim to understand local variation in contemporary habitat use and use this...

Data from: Decreased brain connectivity in smoking contrasts with increased connectivity in drinking

Wei Cheng, Edmund T. Rolls, Trevor W. Robbins, Weikang Gong, Zhaowen Liu, Wujun Lv, Jingnan Du, Hongkai Wen, Liang Ma, Erin Burke Quinlan, Hugh Garavan, Eric Artiges, Dimitri Papadopoulos Orfanos, Michael N. Smolka, Gunter Schumann, Keith Kendrick & Jianfeng Feng
In a group of 831 participants from the general population in the Human Connectome Project, smokers exhibited low overall functional connectivity, and more specifically of the lateral orbitofrontal cortex which is associated with non-reward mechanisms, the adjacent inferior frontal gyrus, and the precuneus. Participants who drank a high amount had overall increases in resting state functional connectivity, and specific increases in reward-related systems including the medial orbitofrontal cortex and the cingulate cortex. Increased impulsivity was...

Data from: Temporal dynamics of the genetic clines of invasive European green crab (Carcinus maenas) in eastern North America

Sarah J. Lehnert, Claudio DiBacco, Nicholas W. Jeffery, April M.H. Blakeslee, Jonatan Isaksson, Joe Roman, Brendan F. Wringe, Ryan R.E. Stanley, Kyle Matheson, Cynthia H. McKenzie, Lorraine C. Hamilton, Ian R. Bradbury, Ryan R. E. Stanley & April M. H. Blakeslee
Two genetically distinct lineages of European green crabs (Carcinus maenas) were independently introduced to eastern North America, the first in the early 19th century and the second in the late 20th century. These lineages first came into secondary contact in southeastern Nova Scotia, Canada (NS), where they hybridized, producing latitudinal genetic clines. Previous studies have documented a persistent southward shift in the clines of different marker types, consistent with existing dispersal and recruitment pathways. We...

Data from: Genetic variation and evolution of secondary compounds in native and introduced populations of the invasive plant Melaleuca quinquenervia

Steven J. Franks, Gregory S. Wheeler & Charles J. Goodnight
We examined multivariate evolution of 20 leaf terpenoids in the invasive plant Melaleuca quinquenervia in a common garden experiment. While most compounds, including 1,8-Cineole and Viridiflorol, were reduced in home compared with invaded range genotypes, consistent with an evolutionary decrease in defense, one compound (E-Nerolidol) was greater in invaded than home range genotypes. Nerolidol was negatively genetically correlated with Cineole and Viridiflorol, and the increase in this compound in the new range may have been...

Data from: Maternal loading of a small heat shock protein increases embryo thermal tolerance in Drosophila melanogaster

Brent L. Lockwood, Cole R. Julick & Kristi L. Montooth
Maternal investment is likely to have direct effects on offspring survival. In oviparous animals whose embryos are exposed to the external environment, maternal provisioning of molecular factors like mRNAs and proteins may help embryos cope with sudden changes in the environment. Here we sought to modify the maternal mRNA contribution to offspring embryos and test for maternal effects on acute thermal tolerance in early embryos of Drosophila melanogaster. We drove in vivo overexpression of a...

Data from: Variable effects of climate on forest growth in relation to climate extremes, disturbance, and forest dynamics

Malcolm S. Itter, Andrew O. Finley, Anthony W. D'Amato, Jane R. Foster & John B. Bradford
Changes in the frequency, duration, and severity of climate extremes are forecast to occur under global climate change. The impacts of climate extremes on forest productivity and health remain difficult to predict due to potential interactions with disturbance events and forest dynamics—changes in forest stand composition, density, size and age structure over time. Such interactions may lead to non-linear forest growth responses to climate involving thresholds and lag effects. Understanding how forest dynamics influence growth...

Data from: Time-integrated habitat availability is a resource attribute that informs patterns of use in intertidal areas

Leonardo Calle, Lauri Green, Allan Strong & Dale E. Gawlik
In dynamic environments, resource availability may change by several orders of magnitude, over hours to months, but the duration of resource availability is not often included as a characteristic attribute of resources even though temporal resource dynamics might limit patterns of use. In our study of wading birds foraging in intertidal areas, tides cause large changes in the areal extent of shallow-water foraging habitat (i.e., the resource), but tides also constrain the duration of availability,...

Data from: Site-specific group selection drives locally adapted group compositions

Jonathan N. Pruitt & Charles J. Goodnight
Group selection may be defined as selection caused by the differential extinction or proliferation of groups. The socially polymorphic spider Anelosimus studiosus exhibits a behavioral polymorphism where females exhibit either a “docile” or “aggressive” behavioral phenotype. Natural colonies are composed of a mixture of related docile and aggressive individuals, and populations differ in colonies’ characteristic docile:aggressive ratios. Using experimentally-constructed colonies of known composition, we demonstrate that population-level divergence in docile:aggressive ratios is driven by site-specific...

Catastrophes, connectivity and Allee effects in the design of marine reserve networks

Easton White, Marissa Baskett & Alan Hastings
Catastrophic events, like oil spills and hurricanes, occur in many marine systems. One potential role of marine reserves is buffering populations against disturbances, including the potential for disturbance-driven population collapses under Allee effects. This buffering capacity depends on reserves in a network providing rescue effects, setting up a trade-off where reserves need to be connected to facilitate rescue, but also distributed in space to prevent simultaneous extinction. We use a set of population models to...

A target enrichment probe set for resolving the flagellate land plant tree of life

Jesse W. Breinholt, Sarah B. Carey, George P. Tiley, E. Christine Davis, Lorena Endara, Stuart F. McDaniel, Leandro Neves, Emily B. Sessa, Matt Von Konrat, Susan Fawcett, Stefanie M. Ickert-Bond, Paulo H. Labiak, Juan Larraín, Marcus Lehnert, Lily R. Lewis, Nathalie S. Nagalingum, Nikisha Patel, Stefan A. Rensing, Weston Testo, Alejandra Vasco, Juan Carlos Villarreal, Evelyn Webb Williams, J. Gordon Burleigh, Sahut Chantanaorrapint, Leandro G. Neves … & Stefanie M. Ickert‐Bond
Premise of the Study: New sequencing technologies enable the possibility of generating large-scale molecular datasets for constructing the plant tree of life. We describe a new probe set for target enrichment sequencing to generate nuclear sequence data to build phylogenetic trees with any flagellate land plants, including hornworts, liverworts, mosses, lycophytes, ferns, and all gymnosperms. Methods and Results: We leveraged existing transcriptome and genome sequence data to design a set of 56,989 probes for target...

Sustainability and Rural Landscapes: CultureNature-based solutions

Steve H. Brown, Nora Mitchell, Ege A. Yildirim, Kristal Buckley & George Ortsin
Rural landscapes with interconnected CultureNature heritage value have much to contribute to the resiliency and sustainability of food production, use of renewable natural resources and overall well-being of communities. Their contributions have had limited recognition within the global framework for the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and some reference in the UN-Habitat New Urban Agenda. Rural landscapes are addressed in SDG 11 as a type of ‘human settlement’ and Target 11.4 calls for 'strengthening efforts...

Influence of the evolution of cultural landscapes as heritage on 20th century international heritage preservation doctrine

Cari Goetcheus & Nora J. Mitchell
The Athens and Venice charters are generally considered the philosophical foundation of modern heritage preservation. Throughout the 20th century, preservation practitioners have continually debated these early doctrines, especially as they’ve been applied to increasingly diverse places in ever-changing social contexts. As important shifts in heritage preservation theory have evolved, a broad range of values have extended the definition of cultural heritage from monument-specific sites to larger landscapes, from local to regional and national scales, from...

Policy recommendations for 8th ITPGRFA Governing Body Meeting

Garrett Graddy-Lovelace, Maywa Montenegro, Alder Keleman Saxena, Andrew Jones, Margarita Fernandez, Marina Padrao Temudo, Alark Saxena, Diana V. Luna González, Hannah Wittman, Devon Sampson, Veronica Limeberry, Alejandro Argumedo, Marcela Cely-Santos, Rachel Bezner Kerr, Claire Kremen & Béla Teeken

Data from: Target Sequence Capture of Nuclear-Encoded Genes for Phylogenetic Analysis in Ferns

Paul G. Wolf, Tanner A. Robison, Matthew G. Johnson, Michael A. Sundue, Weston L. Testo & Carl J. Rothfels
Premise of the study: Until recently, most phylogenetic studies of ferns were based on chloroplast genes. Evolutionary inferences based on these data can be incomplete because the characters are from a single linkage group and are uniparentally inherited. These limitations are particularly acute in studies of hybridization, which is prevalent in ferns; fern hybrids are common and ferns are able to hybridize across highly diverged lineages, up to 60 million years since divergence in one...

Data from: Large mammal declines and the incipient loss of mammal-bird mutualisms in an African savanna ecosystem

Nathan Diplock, Kate Johnston, Antoine Mellon, Laura Mitchell, Madison Moore, Daniel Schneider, Alyssa Taylor, Jess Whitney, Kera Zegar, John Kioko & Christian Kiffner
Over the past half-century, large mammal populations have declined substantially throughout East Africa, mainly due to habitat loss and unsustainable direct exploitation. While it has been acknowledged that the loss of large mammals can have direct and cascading effects on community composition and ecosystem characteristics, limited quantitative work has been done on how declines of large herbivore populations impacts the abundance of mutualistic symbionts. Using a space-for-time observational approach, we quantified the large mammal community...

Data from: Ecosystem context illuminates conflicting roles of plant diversity in carbon storage

E. Carol Adair, David U. Hooper, Alain Paquette & Bruce A. Hungate
Plant diversity can increase biomass production in plot‐scale studies, but applying these results to ecosystem carbon (C) storage at larger spatial and temporal scales remains problematic. Other ecosystem controls interact with diversity and plant production, and may influence soil pools differently from plant pools. We integrated diversity with the state‐factor framework, which identifies key controls, or ‘state factors’, over ecosystem properties and services such as C storage. We used this framework to assess the effects...

Data from: New records of very high nitrous oxide fluxes from rice cannot be generalized for water management and climate impacts

Reiner Wassmann, Bjoern Ole Sander, Sudhir Yadav, Bas Bouman, Grant Singleton, Alexander Stuart, Jonathan Hellin, David Johnson, Jacqueline Hughes, Klaus Butterbach-Bahl, Ralf Kiese, David Kraus, Baldur Janz, Bruce Linquist, Yam Kanta Gaihre, Ngonidzashe Chirinda & Eva Wollenberg
This supplement aims to substantiate and expand our comments made in the Letter to the Editor. This format as a separate document was necessary due to the complexity of the issues raised in our comments vis-à-vis the word limit of PNAS Letters (500 words). The text elaborates on individual concerns raised in the letter and also adds new aspects on the research quality that have not yet been discussed in the letter. Moreover, the supplement...

Data from: Density-dependent vulnerability of forest ecosystems to drought

Alessandra Bottero, Anthony W. D'Amato, Brian J. Palik, John B. Bradford, Shawn Fraver, Michael A. Battaglia, Lance A. Asherin & Mike A. Battaglia
Climate models predict increasing drought intensity and frequency for many regions, which may have negative consequences for tree recruitment, growth, and mortality, as well as forest ecosystem services. Furthermore, practical strategies for minimizing vulnerability to drought are limited. Tree population density, a metric of tree abundance in a given area, is a primary driver of competitive intensity among trees, which influences tree growth and mortality. Manipulating tree population density may be a mechanism for moderating...

Data from: Long-term population dynamics of dreissenid mussels (Dreissena polymorpha and D. rostriformis): a cross-system analysis

David L. Strayer, Boris V. Adamovich, Rita Adrian, David C. Aldridge, Csilla Balogh, Lyubov E. Burlakova, Hannah B. Fried-Petersen, László G.‐Tóth, Amy L. Hetherington, Thomas S. Jones, Alexander Y. Karatayev, Jacqueline B. Madill, Oleg A. Makarevich, J. Ellen Marsden, Andre L. Martel, Dan Minchin, Thomas F. Nalepa, Ruurd Noordhuis, Timothy J. Robinson, Lars G. Rudstam, Astrid N. Schwalb, David R. Smith, Alan D. Steinman & Jonathan M. Jeschke
Dreissenid mussels (including the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha and the quagga mussel D. rostriformis) are among the world's most notorious invasive species, with large and widespread ecological and economic effects. However, their long‐term population dynamics are poorly known, even though these dynamics are critical to determining impacts and effective management. We gathered and analyzed 67 long‐term (>10 yr) data sets on dreissenid populations from lakes and rivers across Europe and North America. We addressed five...

Data from: A test of the hierarchical model of litter decomposition

Mark A. Bradford, G. F. Veen, Anne Bonis, Ella M. Bradford, Aimee T. Classen, J. Hans C. Cornelissen, Thomas W. Crowther, Jonathan R. De Long, Gregoire T. Freschet, Paul Kardol, Marta Manrubia-Freixa, Daniel S. Maynard, Gregory S. Newman, Richard S. P. Van Logtestijn, Maria Viketoft, David A. Wardle, William R. Wieder, Stephen A. Wood & Wim H. Van Der Putten
Our basic understanding of plant litter decomposition informs the assumptions underlying widely applied soil biogeochemical models, including those embedded in Earth system models. Confidence in projected carbon cycle-climate feedbacks therefore depends on accurate knowledge about the controls regulating the rate at which plant biomass is decomposed into products such as CO2. Here, we test underlying assumptions of the dominant conceptual model of litter decomposition. The model posits that a primary control on the rate of...

Data from: Salty, mild, and low plant biomass grasslands increase top-heaviness of invertebrate trophic pyramids

Ellen Welti, Lucie Kuczynski, Katharine Markse, Nathan Sanders, Kirsten De Beurs & Michael Kaspari
Aim Multiple hypotheses predict how gradients of nutrient availability, plant biomass, and temperature shape trophic pyramids. We aim to disentangle the simultaneous influence of those different factors and their indirect effects on trophic structure and individual trophic levels. Location United States Time period 2017 Major taxa studied Invertebrates Methods To examine differences in trophic pyramid shape and abundance within trophic levels across ecological gradients, we used a structural equation modeling approach to analyze 54 standardized...

The initiation and growth of transpressional shear zones through continental arc lithosphere, southwest New Zealand

Keith Klepeis, Joshua Schwartz, Elena Miranda, Peter Lindquist, Richard Jongens, Rose Turnbull & Harold Stowell
Structural analyses combined with new U-Pb zircon and titanite geochronology show how two Early Cretaceous transpressional shear zones initiated and grew through a nearly complete section of continental arc crust during oblique convergence. Both shear zones reactivated Carboniferous faults that penetrated the upper mantle below Zealandia’s Median Batholith but show opposite growth patterns and dissimilar relationships with respect to arc magmatism. The Grebe-Indecision Creek shear zone was magma-starved and first reactivated at ~136 Ma as...

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