118 Works

Data from: Golden orbweavers ignore biological rules: phylogenomic and comparative analyses unravel a complex evolution of sexual size dimorphism

Matjaz Kuntner, Chris Hamilton, Ren-Chung Cheng, Matjaz Gregoric, Nik Lupse, Tjasa Lokovsek, Emily Moriarty Lemmon, Alan R. Lemmon, Ingi Agnarsson, Jonathan A. Coddington, Jason Bond, Chris A Hamilton & Jason E Bond
Instances of sexual size dimorphism (SSD) provide the context for rigorous tests of biological rules of size evolution, such as Cope’s Rule (phyletic size increase), Rensch’s Rule (allometric patterns of male and female size), as well as male and female body size optima. In certain spider groups, such as the golden orbweavers (Nephilidae), extreme female-biased SSD (eSSD, female:male body length ≥ 2) is the norm. Nephilid genera construct webs of exaggerated proportions, which can be...

Data from: Ultrasound evaluation of the combined effects of thoracolumbar fascia injury and movement restriction in a porcine model

James H. Bishop, James R. Fox, Rhonda Maple, Caitlin Loretan, Gary J. Badger, Sharon M. Henry, Margaret A. Vizzard & Helene M. Langevin
The persistence of back pain following acute back “sprains” is a serious public health problem with poorly understood pathophysiology. The recent finding that human subjects with chronic low back pain (LBP) have increased thickness and decreased mobility of the thoracolumbar fascia measured with ultrasound suggest that the fasciae of the back may be involved in LBP pathophysiology. This study used a porcine model to test the hypothesis that similar ultrasound findings can be produced experimentally...

Data from: Long-term impacts of variable retention harvesting on ground-layer plant communities in Pinus resinosa forests

Margaret W. Roberts, Anthony W. D'Amato, Christel C. Kern & Brian J. Palik
Concerns about loss of biodiversity and structural complexity in managed forests have recently increased and led to the development of new management strategies focused on restoring or maintaining ecosystem functions while also providing wood outputs. Variable Retention Harvest (VRH) systems, in which mature overstorey trees are retained in various spatial arrangements across harvested areas, represent one potential approach to this problem. However, long-term evaluations of the effectiveness of this strategy at sustaining plant community composition...

Data from: Habitat disturbance selects against both small and large species across varying climates

Heloise Gibb, Nathan J. Sanders, Robert R. Dunn, Xavier Arnan, Heraldo L. Vasconcellos, David A. Donoso, Alan N. Andersen, Rogerio R. Silva, Tom R. Bishop, Crisanto Gomez, Blair F. Grossman, Kalsum M. Yusah, Sarah H. Luke, Renata Pacheco, Jessica Pearce-Duvet, Javier Retana, Melanie Tista, Catherine L. Parr & H. L. Vasconcelos
Global extinction drivers, including habitat disturbance and climate change, are thought to affect larger species more than smaller species. However, it is unclear if such drivers interact to affect assemblage body size distributions. We asked how these two key global change drivers differentially affect the interspecific size distributions of ants, one of the most abundant and ubiquitous animal groups on earth. We also asked whether there is evidence of synergistic interactions and whether effects are...

Data from: Changes in African large carnivore diets over the past half-century reveal the loss of large prey

Scott Creel, Wigganson Matandiko, Paul Schuette, Elias Rosenblatt, Carolyn Sanguinetti, Kambwiri Banda, Milan Vinks & Matthew Becker
1. Globally, large carnivores are declining due to direct persecution, habitat loss and prey depletion. The effects of prey depletion could be amplified by changes in the composition of the herbivore (prey) community that provoke changes in carnivore diets, but this possibility has received little attention. 2. Here, we tested for changes over the past half century in prey selection by the large carnivore guild in Zambia’s Kafue National Park. 3. Across 52 predator-prey dyads,...

Data from: Temporal constraints on the potential role of fry odors as cues of past reproductive success for spawning lake trout

Tyler J. Buchinger, J. Ellen Marsden, Thomas R. Binder, Mar Huertas, Ugo Bussy, Ke Li, James A. Hanson, Charles C. Krueger, Weiming Li, Nicholas S. Johnson & James E. Hanson
Deciding where to reproduce is a major challenge for most animals. Many select habitats based upon cues of successful reproduction by conspecifics, such as the presence of offspring from past reproductive events. For example, some fishes select spawning habitat following odors released by juveniles whose rearing habitat overlaps with spawning habitat. However, juveniles may emigrate before adults begin to search for spawning habitat; hence, the efficacy of juvenile cues could be constrained by degradation or...

Data from: Interaction rewiring and the rapid turnover of plant-pollinator networks

Paul J. CaraDonna, William K. Petry, Ross M. Brennan, James L. Cunningham, Judith L. Bronstein, Nickolas M. Waser & Nathan J. Sanders
Whether species interactions are static or change over time has wide-reaching ecological and evolutionary consequences. However, species interaction networks are typically constructed from temporally aggregated interaction data, thereby implicitly assuming that interactions are fixed. This approach has advanced our understanding of communities, but it obscures the timescale at which interactions form (or dissolve) and the drivers and consequences of such dynamics. We address this knowledge gap by quantifying the within-season turnover of plant–pollinator interactions from...

Data from: Testing sex ratio theory with the malaria parasite Plasmodium mexicanum in natural and experimental infections

Allison T. Neal & Jos. J. Schall
The malaria parasite (Plasmodium) life history accords well with the assumptions of Local Mate Competition (LMC) of sex ratio theory. Within a single meal of the blood-feeding vector, sexually dimorphic gametocyte cells produce gametes (females produce 1, males several) that mate and undergo sexual recombination. The theory posits several factors drive the Plasmodium sex ratio: male fecundity (gametes/ male gametocyte), number and relative abundance of parasite clones, and gametocyte density. We measured these traits for...

Data from: On the widespread capacity for and functional significance of extreme inbreeding in ferns

Emily B. Sessa, Weston L. Testo, & James E. Watkins
Homosporous vascular plants utilize three different mating systems, one of which, gametophytic selfing, is an extreme form of inbreeding only possible in homosporous groups. This mating system results in complete homozygosity in all progeny and has important evolutionary and ecological implications. Ferns are the largest group of homosporous land plants, and the significance of extreme inbreeding for fern evolution has been the subject of debate for decades. We cultured gametophytes in the laboratory and quantified...

Data from: Influence of range position on locally adaptive gene-environment associations in Populus flowering time genes

Stephen R. Keller, Vikram E. Chhatre & Matthew C. Fitzpatrick
Local adaptation is pervasive in forest trees, which are characterized by large effective population sizes spanning broad climatic gradients. In addition to having relatively contiguous populations, many species also form isolated populations along the rear edge of their range. These rear-edge populations may contain unique adaptive diversity reflecting a history of selection in marginal environments. Thus, discovering genomic regions conferring local adaptation in rear edge populations is a key priority for landscape genomics to ensure...

Data from: Environmental enrichment normalizes hippocampal timing coding in a malformed hippocampus

Amanda E. Hernan, J. Matthew Mahoney, Willie Curry, Greg Richard, Marcella M. Lucas, Andrew Massey, Gregory L. Holmes, Rodney C. Scott & Rod C. Scott
Neurodevelopmental insults leading to malformations of cortical development (MCD) are a common cause of psychiatric disorders, learning impairments and epilepsy. In the methylazoxymethanol (MAM) model of MCDs, animals have impairments in spatial cognition that, remarkably, are improved by post-weaning environmental enrichment (EE). To establish how EE impacts network-level mechanisms of spatial cognition, hippocampal in vivo single unit recordings were performed in freely moving animals in an open arena. We took a generalized linear modeling approach...

Data from: Global mtDNA genetic structure and hypothesized invasion history of a major pest of citrus, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae)

Yufa Luo & Ingi Agnarsson
The Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is a key pest of citrus as the vector of the bacterium causing the ‘huanglongbing’ disease (HLB). To assess the global mtDNA population genetic structure, and possible dispersal history of the pest, we investigated genetic variation at the COI gene collating newly collected samples with all previously published data. Our dataset consists of 356 colonies from 106 geographic sites worldwide. High haplotype diversity (H-mean = 0.702 ± 0.017),...

Data from: Disentangling biotic interactions, environmental filters, and dispersal limitation as drivers of species co-occurrence

Manuela D'Amen, Heidi K. Mod, Nicholas J. Gotelli & Antoine Guisan
A key focus in ecology is to search for community assembly rules. Here we compare two community modelling frameworks that integrate a combination of environmental and spatial data to identify positive and negative species associations from presence-absence matrices, and incorporate an additional comparison using joint species distribution models (JSDM). The frameworks use a dichotomous logic tree that distinguishes dispersal limitation, environmental requirements, and interspecific interactions as causes of segregated or aggregated species pairs. The first...

Data from: Beyond thermal limits: comprehensive metrics of performance identify key axes of thermal adaptation in ants

Clint A. Penick, Sarah E. Diamond, Nathan J. Sanders & Robert R. Dunn
How species respond to temperature change depends in large part on their physiology. Physiological traits, such as critical thermal limits (CTmax and CTmin), provide estimates of thermal performance but may not capture the full impacts of temperature on fitness. Rather, thermal performance likely depends on a combination of traits—including thermal limits—that vary among species. Here we examine how thermal limits correlate with the main components that influence fitness in ants. First, we compare how temperature...

Data from: How do seasonality, substrate, and management history influence macrofungal fruiting assemblages in a central Amazonian Forest?

Dirce Leimi Komura, Jean-Marc Moncalvo, Cristian S. Dambros, Larissa S. Bento, Maria A. Neves & Charles E. Zartman
Worldwide, fungal richness peaks in tropical forest biomes where they are the primary drivers of decomposition. Understanding how environmental and anthropogenic factors influence tropical macrofungal fruiting patterns should provide insight as to how, for example, climate change and deforestation may impact their long-term demographic stability and evolutionary potential. However, in Amazonia no studies have yet to disentangle the effects of substrate, seasonality and forest history on phenology. Here, we quantitate spatial and temporal variation in...

Data from: Sub-lethal effects on fish provide insight into a biologically-relevant threshold of hypoxia

Allison R. Hrycik, L. Zoe Almeida & Tomas O. Hӧӧk
Hypoxia (low dissolved oxygen) is a mounting concern for aquatic ecosystems as its prevalence increases with rising anthropogenic nutrient inputs. Hypoxia is most commonly defined as 2.0 mg l–1 of dissolved oxygen, although this level varies widely across studies and agency regulations. Such definitions may be too conservative, as ecologically-relevant non-lethal effects (e.g. consumption and growth) of hypoxia on important aquatic species, such as fish, often occur at oxygen levels much higher than 2.0 mg...

Data from: Pyrogenic fuels produced by savanna trees can engineer humid savannas

William J. Platt, Darin P. Ellair, Jean M. Huffman, Stephen E. Potts & Brian Beckage
Natural fires ignited by lightning strikes following droughts frequently are posited as the ecological mechanism maintaining discontinuous tree cover and grass-dominated ground layers in savannas. Such fires, however, may not reliably maintain humid savannas. Pyrogenic shed leaves of savanna trees, however, might engineer fire characteristics in ways that maintain humid savannas through effects on ground layer plants. We explored our hypothesis in a high-rainfall, frequently-burned pine savanna in which the dominant tree, longleaf pine (Pinus...

Data from: Geographic origins and population genetics of bats killed at wind-energy facilities

Cortney L. Pylant, David M. Nelson, Matthew C. Fitzpatrick, J. Edward Gates & Stephen R. Keller
An unanticipated impact of wind-energy development has been large-scale mortality of insectivorous bats. In eastern North America, where mortality rates are among the highest in the world, the hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus) and the eastern red bat (L. borealis) comprise the majority of turbine-associated bat mortality. Both species are migratory tree bats with widespread distributions; however, little is known regarding the geographic origins of bats killed at wind-energy facilities or the diversity and population structure...

Data from: Increase in crop losses to insect pests in a warming climate

Curtis A. Deutsch, Joshua J. Tewksbury, Michelle Tigchelaar, David S. Battisti, Scott C. Merrill, Raymond B. Huey & Rosamond L. Naylor
Insect pests substantially reduce yields of three staple grains—rice, maize, and wheat—but models assessing the agricultural impacts of global warming rarely consider crop losses to insects. We use established relationships between temperature and the population growth and metabolic rates of insects to estimate how and where climate warming will augment losses of rice, maize, and wheat to insects. Global yield losses of these grains are projected to increase by 10 to 25% per degree of...

Data from: Ecosystem carbon density and allocation across a chronosequence of longleaf pine forests

Lisa J. Samuelson, Thomas A. Stokes, John R. Butnor, Kurt H. Johnsen, Carlos A. Gonzalez-Benecke, Timothy A. Martin, , Pete H. Anderson, Michael R. Ramirez, John C. Lewis & Wendell P. Cropper
Forests can partially offset greenhouse gas emissions and contribute to climate change mitigation, mainly through increases in live biomass. We quantified carbon (C) density in 20 managed longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forests ranging in age from five to 118 years located across the southeastern USA and estimated above and belowground C trajectories. Ecosystem C stock (all pools including soil C) and aboveground live tree C increased nonlinearly with stand age and the modeled asymptotic...

Data from: Landscape genomics of Colorado potato beetle provides evidence of polygenic adaptation to insecticides

Michael S. Crossley, Yolanda H. Chen, Russell L. Groves & Sean D. Schoville
The ability of insect pests to rapidly and repeatedly adapt to insecticides has long challenged entomologists and evolutionary biologists. Since Crow's seminal paper on insecticide resistance in 1957, new data and insights continue to emerge that are relevant to the old questions about how insecticide resistance evolves: such as whether it is predominantly mono- or polygenic, and evolving from standing vs. de novo genetic variation. Many studies support the monogenic hypothesis, and current management recommendations...

Data from: Spider phylogenomics: untangling the spider tree of life

Jason Bond, Nicole L. Garrison, Juanita Rodriguez, Ingi Agnarsson, Jonathan A. Coddington, Charles E. Griswold, Christopher A. Hamilton, Marshal Hedin, Kevin Kocot, Joel M. Ledford & Jason E. Bond
Spiders (Order Araneae) are massively abundant generalist arthropod predators that are found in nearly every ecosystem on the planet and have persisted for over 380 million years. Spiders have long served as evolutionary models for studying complex mating and web spinning behaviors, key innovation and adaptive radiation hypotheses, and have been inspiration for important theories like sexual selection by female choice. Unfortunately, past major attempts to reconstruct spider phylogeny typically employing the “usual suspect” genes...

Data from: Range-wide multilocus phylogeography of the red fox reveals ancient continental divergence, minimal genomic exchange, and distinct demographic histories

Mark J. Statham, Zhenghuan Wang, Carl D. Soulsbury, Jan Janecka, Benjamin N. Sacks, Keith B. Aubry, Oliver Berry, Ceiridwen J. Edwards & James Murdoch
Widely distributed taxa provide an opportunity to compare biogeographic responses to climatic fluctuations on multiple continents and to investigate speciation. We conducted the most geographically and genomically comprehensive study to date of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), the world's most widely distributed wild terrestrial carnivore. Analyses of 697 bp of mitochondrial sequence in ~1000 individuals suggested an ancient Middle Eastern origin for all extant red foxes and a 400 kya (SD = 139 kya) origin...

Data from: Climate change impacts on bumblebees converge across continents

Jeremy T. Kerr, Alana Pindar, Paul Galpern, Laurence Packer, Stuart M. Roberts, Pierre Rasmont, Oliver Schweiger, Sheila R. Colla, Leif L. Richardson, David L. Wagner, Lawrence F. Gall, Derek S. Sikes & Alberto Pantoja
For many species, geographical ranges are expanding toward the poles in response to climate change, while remaining stable along range edges nearest the equator. Using long-term observations across Europe and North America over 110 years, we tested for climate change–related range shifts in bumblebee species across the full extents of their latitudinal and thermal limits and movements along elevation gradients. We found cross-continentally consistent trends in failures to track warming through time at species’ northern...

Data from: Functional form and interactions of the drivers of understory non-native plant invasions in northern US forests

Marina Golivets, Christopher W. Woodall & Kimberly F. Wallin
1. The number and rate of non-native plant invasions in forests have been steadily increasing over the last century with profound consequences for the composition, structure and functioning of these ecosystems. While multiple regional, landscape and local environmental factors are known to drive the spread of non-native invasive plant species (NNIPS) into forests, such factors have rarely been analysed within a unified analytical framework allowing for the assessment of their relative importance, possible nonlinear behaviour,...

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