118 Works

Clockwise and counterclockwise hysteresis in the S. purpurea micro ecosystem

Amanda Northrop, Vanessa Avalone, Aaron Ellison, Bryan Ballif & Nicholas Gotelli
Incremental increases in a driver variable, such as nutrients or detritus, can trigger abrupt shifts in aquatic ecosystems that may exhibit hysteretic dynamics and a slow return to the initial state. A model system for understanding these dynamics is the microbial assemblage that inhabits the cup-shaped leaves of the pitcher plant Sarracenia purpurea. With enrichment of organic matter, this system flips within three days from an oxygen-rich state to an oxygen-poor state. In a replicated...

Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) Island Sampling Day: Moorea Reef to Ridges Genomic Transect

Erin Robinson
Here we describe a project that supports the mission of the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) and contributes to the “Ocean Biomolecular Observations Network” (OBON) and the “Ocean Best Practice System” (OBPS - Omics Task Team), flagship programs of the UN Ocean Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development. The project serves as a test case for two related infrastructure projects that aim to improve standards, policies, and best practices in sample collection: Sampling Nature (SN)...

Patterns of plant naturalization show that facultative mycorrhizal plants are more likely to succeed outside their native Eurasian ranges

Jaime Moyano, Ian Dickie, Mariano Rodriguez Cabal & Martin Nuñez
The naturalization of an introduced species is a key stage during the invasion process. Therefore, identifying the traits that favor the naturalization of non-native species can help understand why some species are more successful when introduced to new regions. The ability and the requirement of a plant species to form a mutualism with mycorrhizal fungi, together with the types of associations formed may play a central role in the naturalization success of different plant species....

Climate associated genetic variation in Fagus sylvatica and potential responses to climate change in the French Alps

Thibaut Capblancq, Xavier Morin, Maya Gueguen, Julien Renaud, Stéphane Lobreaux & Eric Bazin
Local adaptation patterns have been found in many plants and animals, highlighting the genetic heterogeneity of species along their range of distribution. In the next decades, global warming is predicted to induce a change in the selective pressures that drive this adaptive variation, forcing a reshuffling of the underlying adaptive allele distributions. For species with low dispersion capacity and long generation time such as trees, the rapidity of the change could imped the migration of...

Winter malt barley growth, yield, and quality following leguminous cover crops in the Northeast United States

Arthur Siller, Heather Darby, Alexandra Smychkovich & Masoud Hashemi

Date of planting and nitrogen management for malt barley production in the Northeast USA

Arthur Siller, Masoud Hashemi, Alexandra Smychkovich, Caroline Wise & Heather Darby

Data from: Herbarium specimens reveal increasing herbivory over the past century

Emily K. Meineke, Aimee T. Classen, Nathan J. Sanders & T. Jonathan Davies
Predicting how ecological interactions will respond to global change is a major challenge. Plants and their associated insect herbivores compose much of macroscopic diversity, yet how their interactions have been altered by recent environmental change remains underexplored. To address this gap, we quantified herbivory on herbarium specimens of four plant species with records extending back 112 years. Our study focused on the northeastern US, where temperatures have increased rapidly over the last few decades. This...

Data from: Ecological genetics of Juglans nigra: differences in early growth patterns of natural populations

Laura Leites, Lauren Onofrio & Gary Hawley
Many boreal and temperate forest tree species distributed across large geographic ranges are composed of populations adapted to the climate they inhabit. Forestry provenance studies and common gardens provide evidence of local adaptation to climate when associations between fitness traits and the populations’ home climates are observed. Most studies that evaluate tree height as a fitness trait do so at a specific point in time. In this study, we elucidate differences in early growth patterns...

Decreased coevolutionary potential and increased symbiont fecundity during the biological invasion of a legume-rhizobium mutualism

Camille Wendlandt, Emily Helliwell, Miles Roberts, Kyle Nguyen, Maren Friesen, Eric Von Wettberg, Paul Price, Joel Griffitts & Stephanie Porter
Although most invasive species engage in mutualism, we know little about how mutualism evolves as partners colonize novel environments. Selection on cooperation and standing genetic variation for mutualism traits may differ between a mutualism's invaded and native ranges, which could alter cooperation and coevolutionary dynamics. To test for such differences, we compare mutualism traits between invaded- and native-range host-symbiont genotype combinations of the weedy legume, Medicago polymorpha, and its nitrogen-fixing rhizobium symbiont, Ensifer medicae, which...

Data from: Seeing the Forest for the trees: Assessing genetic offset predictions from Gradient Forest

Áki Jarl Láruson, Matthew Fitzpatrick, Stephen Keller, Benjamin Haller & Katie Lotterhos
Gradient Forest (GF) is a machine learning algorithm designed to analyze spatial patterns of biodiversity as a function of environmental gradients. An offset measure between the GF predicted environmental association of adapted alleles and a new environment (GF Offset), is increasingly being used to predict the loss of environmentally adapted alleles under rapid environmental change, but remains mostly untested for this purpose. Here we explore the robustness of GF Offset to assumption violations, and its...

Local thermal environment and warming influence supercooling and drive widespread shifts in the metabolome of diapausing Pieris rapae butterflies

Emily Mikucki & Brent Lockwood
Global climate change has the potential to negatively impact biological systems as organisms are exposed to novel temperature regimes. Increases in annual mean temperature have been accompanied by disproportionate rates of change in temperature across seasons, and winter is the season warming most rapidly. Yet, we know relatively little about how warming will alter the physiology of overwintering organisms. Here, we simulated future warming conditions by comparing diapausing Pieris rapae butterfly pupae collected from disparate...

Naturecultures guidance: steps in our journey

Kristal Buckley, Leticia Leitao, Nora J. Mitchell, Maya Ishizawa, Jessica L. Brown, Nicole Franceschini & Steve H. Brown
The emergence of cultural landscapes concepts heralded important mindset shifts in heritage practices. These have underpinned development of landscape approaches that recognise larger-scale interactions and the relationships between natural and cultural elements and processes. However, it has become apparent that an enduring nature-culture binary in heritage practices can result in adverse outcomes ‘on the ground’. The ISCCL has provided a forum and a source of global leadership for these issues, including the exploration of the...

Data from: A tradeoff between precopulatory and postcopulatory trait investment in male cetaceans

James P. Dines, Sarah L. Mesnick, Katherine Ralls, Laura J. May Collado, Ingi Agnarsson, Matthew D. Dean & Laura May-Collado
Mating with multiple partners is common across species, and understanding how individual males secure fertilization in the face of competition remains a fundamental goal of evolutionary biology. Game theory stipulates that males have a fixed budget for reproduction that can lead to a trade-off between investment in precopulatory traits like body size, armaments, and ornaments, and postcopulatory traits such as testis size and spermatogenic efficiency. Recent theoretical and empirical studies have shown that if males...

Data from: Spatial and temporal dynamics and value of nature-based recreation, estimated via social media

Laura J. Sonter, Keri B. Watson, Spencer A. Wood & Taylor H. Ricketts
Conserved lands provide multiple ecosystem services, including opportunities for nature-based recreation. Managing this service requires understanding the landscape attributes underpinning its provision, and how changes in land management affect its contribution to human wellbeing over time. However, evidence from both spatially explicit and temporally dynamic analyses is scarce, often due to data limitations. In this study, we investigated nature-based recreation within conserved lands in Vermont, USA. We used geotagged photographs uploaded to the photo-sharing website...

Data from: Rarefaction and extrapolation with Hill numbers: a framework for sampling and estimation in species diversity studies

Anne Chao, Nicholas J. Gotelli, T. C. Hsieh, Elizabeth L. Sander, K. H. Ma, Robert K. Colwell & Aaron M. Ellison
Quantifying and assessing changes in biological diversity are central aspects of many ecological studies, yet accurate methods of estimating biological diversity from sampling data have been elusive. Hill numbers, or the effective number of species, are increasingly used to characterize the taxonomic, phylogenetic, or functional diversity of an assemblage. However, empirical estimates of Hill numbers, including species richness, tend to be an increasing function of sampling effort and, thus, tend to increase with sample completeness....

Data from: Subordinate plants sustain the complexity and stability of soil micro-food webs in natural bamboo forest ecosystems

Yuanhu Shao, Xiaoli Wang, Jie Zhao, Jianping Wu, Weixin Zhang, Deborah A. Neher, Yanxia Li, Yiping Lou & Shenglei Fu
Subordinate plants have a significant impact on soil organisms in primary successional floodplains and grassland ecosystems, but their role in subtropical forest ecosystems remains unclear. An experiment was conducted in a subtropical forest to test the hypothesis that removal of shrubs or subordinate arbour tree species would reduce the complexity and stability of the soil micro-food web. Principal response curves (PRCs) were performed to assess the responses of soil microbial and nematode communities to plant...

Assessing the Ecological Impacts of Biomass Harvesting along a Disturbance Severity Gradient

Valerie Kurth, Anthony D'Amato, John Bradford, Brian Palik & Christopher Looney
Disturbance is a central driver of forest development and ecosystem processes with variable effects within and across ecosystems. Despite the high levels of variation in disturbance severity often observed in forests following natural and anthropogenic disturbance, studies quantifying disturbance impacts often rely on categorical classifications, thus limiting opportunities to examine potential gradients in ecosystem response to a given disturbance or management regime. Given the potential increases in disturbance severity associated with global change, as well...

Survey data from: Can community laboratory facilities increase access and inclusivity in geoscience?

Lee Corbett, Paul Bierman, Steven Semken & Joseph Whittaker
Geochronology and geochemistry are critical tools in geoscience research and research training, but students and faculty at many institutions have little or no access to the specialized and expensive facilities needed for sample preparation and analysis. Here, we assess whether community laboratories, dedicated to hosting visitors, can help address these inequities by increasing access to cutting-edge methods and the resulting data. We report the first three years of outcomes from such a community laboratory, the...

Importance of invasion mechanisms varies with abiotic context and plant invader growth form

Mariana C. Chiuffo, Jaime Moyano, Nahuel Policelli, Agostina Torres, Agustin Vitali, Martin Nuñez & Mariano Rodriguez-Cabal
1. Many invasion hypotheses propose biotic interactions as the main mechanism to explain non-native species' success. Despite the evidence that the strength of biotic interactions varies with abiotic context, it remains unclear whether the importance of the different mechanisms proposed to explain invasion predictably varies with abiotic context and whether this variation is consistent across different growth forms. 2. We reviewed studies at a global scale to evaluate whether evapotranspiration, latitude, precipitation, and temperature influence...

Whole exome sequencing reveals a long-term decline in effective population size of red spruce (Picea rubens)

Thibaut Capblancq & Stephen Keller
Understanding the factors influencing the current distribution of genetic diversity across a species range is one of the main questions of evolutionary biology, especially given the increasing threat to biodiversity posed by climate change. Historical demographic processes such as population expansion or bottlenecks and decline are known to exert a predominant influence on past and current levels of genetic diversity, and revealing this demo-genetic history can have immediate conservation implications. We used a whole-exome capture...

Multi-scale landscape genetics of American marten at their southern range periphery

Cody Aylward, James Murdoch & C. William Kilpatrick
American marten (Martes americana) are a conservation priority in many forested regions of North America. Populations are fragmented at the southern edge of their distribution due to suboptimal habitat conditions. Facilitating gene flow may improve population resilience through genetic and demographic rescue. We used a multi-scale approach to estimate the relationship between genetic connectivity and landscape characteristics among individuals at three scales in the northeastern United States: regional, subregional, and local. We integrated multiple modeling...

Long-term monitoring reveals forest tree community change driven by atmospheric sulfate pollution and contemporary climate change

Brittany Verrico, Jeremy Weiland, Timothy Perkins, Brian Beckage & Stephen Keller
Aim: Montane environments are sentinels of global change, providing unique opportunities to assess impacts on species diversity. Multiple anthropogenic stressors such as climate change and atmospheric pollution may act concurrently or synergistically in restructuring communities. Thus, a major challenge for conservation is untangling the relative importance of different stressors. Here, we combine long-term monitoring with multivariate community modeling to estimate the anthropogenic drivers shaping forest tree diversity along an elevational gradient. Location: Camels Hump Mountain,...

Data from: Mediterranean marine protected areas have higher biodiversity via increased evenness, not abundance

Shane Blowes, Jonathan Chase, Antonio Di Franco, Ori Frid, Nicholas Gotelli, Paolo Guidetti, Tiffany Knight, Felix May, Daniel McGlinn, Fiorenza Micheli, Enric Sala & Jonathan Belmaker
1. Protected areas are central to biodiversity conservation. For marine fish, marine protected areas (MPAs) often harbour more individuals, especially of species targeted by fisheries. But precise pathways of biodiversity change remain unclear. For example, how local-scale responses combine to affect regional biodiversity, important for managing spatial networks of MPAs, is not well known. Protection potentially influences three components of fish assemblages that determine how species accumulate with sampling effort and spatial scale: the total...

Effect of data source on estimates of regional bird richness in northeastern United States

Roi Ankori-Karlinsky, Ronen Kadmon, Michael Kalyuzhny, Katherine F. Barnes, Andrew M. Wilson, Curtis Flather, Rosalind Renfrew, Joan Walsh & Edna Guk
Standardized data on large-scale and long-term patterns of species richness are critical for understanding the consequences of natural and anthropogenic changes in the environment. The North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) is one of the largest and most widely used sources of such data, but so far, little is known about the degree to which BBS data provide accurate estimates of regional richness. Here we test this question by comparing estimates of regional richness based...

Natural disturbance impacts on trade-offs and co-benefits of forest biodiversity and carbon

Martin Mikoláš, Marek Svitok, Radek Bače, Garrett Meigs, William Keeton, Heather Keith, Arne Buechling, Volodymyr Trotsiuk, Kurt Bollmann, Krešimir Begovič, Vojtěch Čada, Oleh Chaskovskyy, Dheeraj Ralhan, Martin Dušátko, Matej Ferenčík, Michal Frankovič, Rhiannon Gloor, Jeňýk Hofmeister, Pavel Janda, Ondrej Kameniar, Daniel Kozák, Jana Lábusová, Linda Majdanová, Thomas Nagel, Jakob Pavlin … & Miroslav Svoboda
With accelerating environmental change, understanding the influence of forest disturbances and trade-offs between biodiversity and carbon dynamics is of high socio-economic importance. Most studies, however, have assessed immediate or short-term effects of disturbance, while long-term impacts remain poorly understood. Here, using a tree-ring-based approach, we modelled the effect of 250 years of disturbances on present-day biodiversity indicators and carbon dynamics in well-preserved European temperate primary forests. Our results indicated that disturbance legacies spanning centuries shaped...

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