119 Works

Natural disturbance impacts on trade-offs and co-benefits of forest biodiversity and carbon

Martin Mikoláš, Marek Svitok, Radek Bače, Garrett Meigs, William Keeton, Heather Keith, Arne Buechling, Volodymyr Trotsiuk, Kurt Bollmann, Krešimir Begovič, Vojtěch Čada, Oleh Chaskovskyy, Dheeraj Ralhan, Martin Dušátko, Matej Ferenčík, Michal Frankovič, Rhiannon Gloor, Jeňýk Hofmeister, Pavel Janda, Ondrej Kameniar, Daniel Kozák, Jana Lábusová, Linda Majdanová, Thomas Nagel, Jakob Pavlin … & Miroslav Svoboda
With accelerating environmental change, understanding the influence of forest disturbances and trade-offs between biodiversity and carbon dynamics is of high socio-economic importance. Most studies, however, have assessed immediate or short-term effects of disturbance, while long-term impacts remain poorly understood. Here, using a tree-ring-based approach, we modelled the effect of 250 years of disturbances on present-day biodiversity indicators and carbon dynamics in well-preserved European temperate primary forests. Our results indicated that disturbance legacies spanning centuries shaped...

Data for Manuscript: A desert songbird with no confamilials in the Western Hemisphere (Verdin, Auriparus flaviceps) investigates divergent conspecific songs

Emma Greig, Eva Kinnebrew, Max Witynski & Eric Larsen
This is the dataset that accompanies the manuscript: A desert songbird with no confamilials in the Western Hemisphere (Verdin, Auriparus flaviceps) investigates divergent conspecific songs, published in the journal Ornithology (2021). One spreadsheet is a dataset for analysis of Verdin song acoustic structure (“Supplementary Material Acoustic Data.xls”), one spreadsheet is a dataset for analysis of Verdin response to playbacks (“Supplementary Material Playback Data.xls”), and one spreadsheet is metadata about all the recordings used in the...

A reassessment of the little-known Amazonian fern Diplazium praestans based on molecular and morphological evidence

Weston Testo, Lindsey Riibe, Michael Sundue & Emily Sessa
Family- and genus-level circumscription of ferns in the suborder Aspleniineae (eupolypods II) has long been controversial, due in part to confusion about the relationship among the families Aspleniaceae and Athyriaceae. Recent studies have demonstrated that character states traditionally used to infer a close relationship between these two families are either symplesiomorphic or homoplastic, and re-examination of numerous taxa has led to the recircumscription of several clades, and the description of several new families and genera....

Hybrid-electric passenger car energy utilization and emissions: Relationships for real-world driving conditions that account for road grade

Britt Holmén & Mitchell K. Robinson
Past research showed on-road emissions patterns unique to hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), indicating the need to account for them in emissions models as projected HEV sales increase over the coming decades. This work defines and characterizes a variable that quantifies HEV operating behavior to inform future development of new HEV emissions models based on current knowledge of conventional vehicle (CV) emissions patterns. Instantaneous hybridization factor (IHF), was quantified using on-road data collected from a 2010...

A global phylogenomic study of the Thelypteridaceae

Susan Fawcett, Alan Smith, Michael Sundue, Gordon Burleigh, Emily Sessa, Li-Yaung Kuo, Cheng-Wei Chen, Weston Testo, Michael Kessler & David Barrington
The generic classification of the Thelypteridaceae has been the subject of much controversy. Proposed taxonomic systems have varied from recognizing more than 1000 species in the family within the single genus Thelypteris, to systems favoring upwards of 30 genera. Insights on intrafamilial relationships have been gained from recent phylogenetic studies, especially for the Neotropics; however, in the most recent classification, 10 of 30 recognized genera are either non-monophyletic or untested. In the present study, we...

Modeling Electric Vehicle Charging Scenarios for New York and New England

Jonathan Dowds

Data from: Testing trade-offs and the dominance-impoverishment rule among ant communities

Julie K. Sheard, Annika S. Nelson, Jeppe Berggreen, Raphael Boulay, Robert R. Dunn & Nathan J. Sanders
Aim: Ant communities are believed to be structured by competition, with dominant species competitively excluding subordinates (the dominance-impoverishment rule). However, a high number of seemingly similar species coexist, possibly due to interspecific trade-offs. Here, we examine the evidence for the dominance-impoverishment rule across a broad latitudinal gradient and explore whether trade-offs explain coexistence within and among ant communities. Location: 40 sites in 19 countries across Europe, western North America and northern South America. Taxon: Formicidae....

Data from: Phylogenetic tests reject Emery’s rule in the evolution of social parasitism in yellowjackets and hornets (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Vespinae)

Federico Lopez-Osorio, Adrien Perrard, Kurt M. Pickett, James M. Carpenter & Ingi Agnarsson
Social parasites exploit the brood-care behaviour and social structure of one or more host species. Within the social Hymenoptera there are different types of social parasitism. In its extreme form, species of obligate social parasites, or inquilines, do not have the worker caste and depend entirely on the workers of a host species to raise their reproductive offspring. The strict form of Emery's rule states that social parasites share immediate common ancestry with their hosts....

Data from: The evolution of heat shock protein sequences, cis-regulatory elements, and expression profiles in the eusocial Hymenoptera

Andrew D. Nguyen, Nicholas J. Gotelli & Sara Helms Cahan
Background: The eusocial Hymenoptera have radiated across a wide range of thermal environments, exposing them to significant physiological stressors. We reconstructed the evolutionary history of three families of Heat Shock Proteins (Hsp90, Hsp70, Hsp40), the primary molecular chaperones protecting against thermal damage, across 12 Hymenopteran species and four other insect orders. We also predicted and tested for thermal inducibility of eight Hsps from the presence of cis-regulatory heat shock elements (HSEs). We tested whether Hsp...

Data from: Rapid establishment of a flowering cline in Medicago polymorpha after invasion of North America

Emily Helliwell, Joshua Faber-Hammond, Zoie Lopez, Aaron Garouette, Eric Von Wettberg, Maren Friesen & Stephanie Porter
To establish and spread in a new location, an invasive species must be able to carry out its life cycle in novel environmental conditions. A key trait underlying fitness is the shift from vegetative to reproductive growth through floral development. In this study, we used a common garden experiment and genotyping-by-sequencing to test whether the latitudinal flowering cline of the North American invasive plant Medicago polymorpha was translocated from its European native range through multiple...

Data from: Flightin maintains myofilament lattice organization required for optimal flight power and courtship song quality in Drosophila

Samya Chakravorty, Bertrand C. W. Tanner, Veronica Lee Foelber, Hien Vu, Matthew Rosenthal, Teresa Ruiz & Jim O. Vigoreaux
The indirect flight muscles (IFMs) of Drosophila and other insects with asynchronous flight muscles are characterized by a crystalline myofilament lattice structure. The high-order lattice regularity is considered an adaptation for enhanced power output, but supporting evidence for this claim is lacking. We show that IFMs from transgenic flies expressing flightin with a deletion of its poorly conserved N-terminal domain (flnΔN62) have reduced inter-thick filament spacing and a less regular lattice. This resulted in a...

Data from: Evaluation of acoustic telemetry grids for determining aquatic animal movement and survival

Richard T. Kraus, Christopher M. Holbrook, Christopher S. Vandergoot, Taylor R. Stewart, Matthew D. Faust, Douglas A. Watkinson, Colin Charles, Mark Pegg, Eva C. Enders & Charles C. Krueger
1. Acoustic telemetry studies have frequently prioritized linear configurations of hydrophone receivers, such as perpendicular from shorelines or across rivers, to detect the presence of tagged aquatic animals. This approach introduces unknown bias when receivers are stationed for convenience at geographic bottlenecks (e.g., at the mouth of an embayment or between islands) as opposed to deployments following a statistical sampling design. 2. We evaluated two-dimensional acoustic receiver arrays (grids: receivers spread uniformly across space) as...

Data from: The polyphyly of Plasmodium: comprehensive phylogenetic analyses of the malaria parasites (order Haemosporida) reveal widespread taxonomic conflict

Spencer C. Galen, Janus Borner, Ellen S. Martinsen, Juliane Schaer, Christopher C. Austin, Christopher J. West & Susan L. Perkins
The evolutionary relationships among the apicomplexan blood pathogens known as the malaria parasites (order Haemosporida), some of which infect nearly 200 million humans each year, has remained a vexing phylogenetic problem due to limitations in taxon sampling, character sampling, and the extreme nucleotide base composition biases that are characteristic of this clade. Previous phylogenetic work on the malaria parasites has often lacked sufficient representation of the broad taxonomic diversity within the Haemosporida or the multi-locus...

Data from: Release from natural enemies mitigates inbreeding depression in native and invasive Silene latifolia populations

Karin Schrieber, Sabrina Wolf, Catherina Wypior, Diana Höhlig, Stephen R. Keller, Isabell Hensen & Susanne Lachmuth
Inbreeding and enemy infestation are common in plants and can synergistically reduce their performance. This inbreeding × environment (I×E) interaction may be of particular importance for the success of plant invasions if introduced populations experience a release from attack by natural enemies relative to their native conspecifics. Here, we investigate whether inbreeding affects plant infestation damage, whether inbreeding depression in growth and reproduction is mitigated by enemy release and whether this effect is more pronounced...

Data from: Variant at serotonin transporter gene predicts increased imitation in toddlers: relevance to the human capacity for cumulative culture

Kari Britt Schroeder, Philip Asherson, Peter R. Blake, Susan K. Fenstermacher & Kimberly J. Saudino
Cumulative culture ostensibly arises from a set of sociocognitive processes which includes high-fidelity production imitation, prosociality and group identification. The latter processes are facilitated by unconscious imitation or social mimicry. The proximate mechanisms of individual variation in imitation may thus shed light on the evolutionary history of the human capacity for cumulative culture. In humans, a genetic component to variation in the propensity for imitation is likely. A functional length polymorphism in the serotonin transporter...

Data from: Crop pests and predators exhibit inconsistent responses to surrounding landscape composition

Daniel S. Karp, Rebecca Chaplin-Kramer, Timothy D. Meehan, Emily A. Martin, Fabrice DeClerck, Heather Grab, Claudio Gratton, Lauren Hunt, Ashley E. Larsen, Alejandra Martínez-Salinas, Megan E. O’Rourke, Adrien Rusch, Katja Poveda, Mattias Jonsson, Jay A. Rosenheim, Nancy A. Schellhorn, Teja Tscharntke, Stephen D. Wratten, Wei Zhang, Aaron L. Iverson, Lynn S. Adler, Matthias Albrecht, Audrey Alignier, Gina M. Angelella, Muhammad Zubair Anjum … & Yi Zou
The idea that noncrop habitat enhances pest control and represents a win–win opportunity to conserve biodiversity and bolster yields has emerged as an agroecological paradigm. However, while noncrop habitat in landscapes surrounding farms sometimes benefits pest predators, natural enemy responses remain heterogeneous across studies and effects on pests are inconclusive. The observed heterogeneity in species responses to noncrop habitat may be biological in origin or could result from variation in how habitat and biocontrol are...

Data from: Limited role of character displacement in the coexistence of congeneric Anelosimus spiders in a Madagascan montane forest

Ingi Agnarsson, Nicholas J. Gotelli, Diego Agostini & Matjaž Kuntner
Evolutionary and ecological theory predicts that closely related and similar species should coexist infrequently because speciation is more likely to occur allopatrically than sympatrically, and because co-occurring species with similar traits may compete for limited resources, leading to competitive exclusion or character displacement. Here we study the unusual coexistence of 10 similar congeneric species of Anelosimus spiders within a small forest fragment in Madagascar. We asked if these species radiated in sympatry or allopatry, and...

Data from: Worldwide patterns of ancestry, divergence, and admixture in domesticated cattle

Jared Egan Decker, Stephanie D. McKay, Megan M. Rolf, JaeWoo Kim, Antonio Molina Alcalá, Tad S. Sonstegard, Olivier Hanotte, Anders Götherström, Christopher M. Seabury, Lisa Praharani, Masroor Ellahi Babar, Luciana Correia De Almieda Regitano, Mehmet Ali Yildiz, Michael P. Heaton, Wan-Sheng Liu, Chu-Zhao Lei, James M. Reecy, Muhammad Saif-Ur-Rehman, Robert D. Schnabel & Jeremy F. Taylor
The domestication and development of cattle has considerably impacted human societies, but the histories of cattle breeds have been poorly understood especially for African, Asian, and American breeds. Using genotypes from 43,043 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 1,543 animals, we evaluate the population structure of 134 domesticated bovid breeds. Regardless of the analytical method or sample subset, the three major groups of Asian indicine, Eurasian taurine, and African taurine were consistently observed. Patterns...

Data from: Genetic variation and evolution of secondary compounds in native and introduced populations of the invasive plant Melaleuca quinquenervia

Steven J. Franks, Gregory S. Wheeler & Charles J. Goodnight
We examined multivariate evolution of 20 leaf terpenoids in the invasive plant Melaleuca quinquenervia in a common garden experiment. While most compounds, including 1,8-Cineole and Viridiflorol, were reduced in home compared with invaded range genotypes, consistent with an evolutionary decrease in defense, one compound (E-Nerolidol) was greater in invaded than home range genotypes. Nerolidol was negatively genetically correlated with Cineole and Viridiflorol, and the increase in this compound in the new range may have been...

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  • University of Vermont
  • University of California, Davis
  • University of Minnesota
  • University of Massachusetts Amherst
  • Stanford University
  • United States Department of Agriculture
  • Smithsonian Institution
  • Agricultural Research Service
  • North Carolina State University
  • Cornell University