19 Works

Catastrophes, connectivity and Allee effects in the design of marine reserve networks

Easton White, Marissa Baskett & Alan Hastings
Catastrophic events, like oil spills and hurricanes, occur in many marine systems. One potential role of marine reserves is buffering populations against disturbances, including the potential for disturbance-driven population collapses under Allee effects. This buffering capacity depends on reserves in a network providing rescue effects, setting up a trade-off where reserves need to be connected to facilitate rescue, but also distributed in space to prevent simultaneous extinction. We use a set of population models to...

Habitat use as an indicator of adaptive capacity to climate change

Claire Teitelbaum, Alexej Siren, Ethan Coffel, Jane Foster, Jacqueline Frair, Joseph Hinton, Radley Horton, David Kramer, Corey Lesk, Colin Raymond, David Wattles, Katherine Zeller & Toni Lyn Morelli
Aim: Populations of cold-adapted species at the trailing edges of geographic ranges are particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of climate change from the combination of exposure to warm temperatures and high sensitivity to heat. Many of these species are predicted to decline under future climate scenarios, but they could persist if they can adapt to warming climates either physiologically or behaviorally. We aim to understand local variation in contemporary habitat use and use this...

How Shall We Eat Tomorrow?: the Practices of Aspirational Food Projects

Caitlin Morgan

Climate Adaptation Training Needs and Opportunities Survey Dataset

Jonathan Dowds & Glenn McRae
Climate adaptation is now a well-documented need in the transportation sector and there are strong conceptual frameworks for the adaptation process. Since climate adaptation is an emerging field, the pathways for developing the skills and competencies for adaptation careers are not well-established. This white paper assesses the workforce development needs and current training opportunities related to transportation-sector climate adaptation. To do so, training needs were examined and opportunities identified by state and regional transportation agencies;...

Data from: Long-term persistence of wildlife populations in a pastoral area

Christian Kiffner, John Kioko, Jack Baylis, Camille Beckwith, Craig Brunner, Christine Burns, Vasco Chavez-Molina, Sara Cotton, Laura Glazik, Ellen Loftis, Megan Moran, Caitlin O’Neill, Ole Theisinger & Bernard Kissui
Facilitating coexistence between people and wildlife is a major conservation challenge in East Africa. Some conservation models aim to balance the needs of people and wildlife, but the effectiveness of these models is rarely assessed. Using a case-study approach, we assessed the ecological performance of a pastoral area in northern Tanzania (Manyara Ranch) and established a long-term wildlife population monitoring programme (carried out intermittently from 2003-2008 and regularly from 2011-2019) embedded in a distance sampling...

From Gondwana to GAARlandia: Evolutionary history and biogeography of ogre‐faced spiders (Deinopis)

Lisa Chamberland, Anne McHugh, Sarah Kechejian, Greta Binford, Jason Bond, Jonathan Coddington, Gaynor Dolman, Chris Hamilton, Mark Harvey, Matjaz Kuntner & Ingi Agnarsson
Aim We explore the evolutionary history of the ogre‐faced spiders (Deinopis) from their Early Cretaceous origins to present day. Specifically, we investigate how vicariance and dispersal have shaped distribution patterns of this lineage. Within the Caribbean, we test the role of GAARlandia, a hypothesized land bridge that connected South America to the Greater Antilles during the Eocene–Oligocene transition (~35–33 Ma), in the biogeography of Deinopis. Taxon Araneae: Deinopidae: Deinopis. Location Caribbean islands, with additional global...

Patterns of plant naturalization show that facultative mycorrhizal plants are more likely to succeed outside their native Eurasian ranges

Jaime Moyano, Ian Dickie, Mariano Rodriguez Cabal & Martin Nuñez
The naturalization of an introduced species is a key stage during the invasion process. Therefore, identifying the traits that favor the naturalization of non-native species can help understand why some species are more successful when introduced to new regions. The ability and the requirement of a plant species to form a mutualism with mycorrhizal fungi, together with the types of associations formed may play a central role in the naturalization success of different plant species....

Climate associated genetic variation in Fagus sylvatica and potential responses to climate change in the French Alps

Thibaut Capblancq, Xavier Morin, Maya Gueguen, Julien Renaud, Stéphane Lobreaux & Eric Bazin
Local adaptation patterns have been found in many plants and animals, highlighting the genetic heterogeneity of species along their range of distribution. In the next decades, global warming is predicted to induce a change in the selective pressures that drive this adaptive variation, forcing a reshuffling of the underlying adaptive allele distributions. For species with low dispersion capacity and long generation time such as trees, the rapidity of the change could imped the migration of...

Clockwise and counterclockwise hysteresis in the S. purpurea micro ecosystem

Amanda Northrop, Vanessa Avalone, Aaron Ellison, Bryan Ballif & Nicholas Gotelli
Incremental increases in a driver variable, such as nutrients or detritus, can trigger abrupt shifts in aquatic ecosystems that may exhibit hysteretic dynamics and a slow return to the initial state. A model system for understanding these dynamics is the microbial assemblage that inhabits the cup-shaped leaves of the pitcher plant Sarracenia purpurea. With enrichment of organic matter, this system flips within three days from an oxygen-rich state to an oxygen-poor state. In a replicated...

Decreased coevolutionary potential and increased symbiont fecundity during the biological invasion of a legume-rhizobium mutualism

Camille Wendlandt, Emily Helliwell, Miles Roberts, Kyle Nguyen, Maren Friesen, Eric Von Wettberg, Paul Price, Joel Griffitts & Stephanie Porter
Although most invasive species engage in mutualism, we know little about how mutualism evolves as partners colonize novel environments. Selection on cooperation and standing genetic variation for mutualism traits may differ between a mutualism's invaded and native ranges, which could alter cooperation and coevolutionary dynamics. To test for such differences, we compare mutualism traits between invaded- and native-range host-symbiont genotype combinations of the weedy legume, Medicago polymorpha, and its nitrogen-fixing rhizobium symbiont, Ensifer medicae, which...

Data from: Retention forestry influences understory diversity and functional identity

Miranda Curzon, Christel Kern, Susan Baker, Brian Palik & Anthony D'Amato
In recent decades, a paradigm shift in forest management and associated policies has led to greater emphasis on harvest practices that retain mature, overstory trees in forest stands that would otherwise be clearcut. While it is often assumed that the maintenance of compositional and structural complexity, such as that achieved through retention forestry approaches, will also mitigate negative impacts to functional diversity, empirical evidence of this relationship is sparse. We examined the effects of an...

Bottom-up when it is not top-down: Predators and plants control biomass of grassland arthropods

Ellen Welti, Rebecca Prather, Nate Sanders, Kirsten De Beurs & Michael Kaspari
1) We investigate where bottom-up and top-down control regulates ecological communities as a mechanism linking ecological gradients to the geography of consumer abundance and biomass. We use standardized surveys of 54 North American grasslands to test alternate hypotheses predicting 100-fold shifts in the biomass of four common grassland arthropod taxa—Auchenorrhyncha, sucking herbivores, Acrididae, chewing herbivores, Tettigoniidae, omnivores, and Araneae, predators. 2) Bottom-up models predict that consumer biomass tracks plant quantity (e.g. productivity and standing biomass)...

Response of lion demography and dynamics to the loss of preferred larger prey

Milan Vinks, Scott Creel, Paul Schuette, Matthew Becker, Elias Rosenblatt, Carolyn Sanguinetti, Kambwiri Banda, Ben Goodheart, Kim Young-Overton, Xia Stevens, Clive Chifunte, Neil Midlane & Chuma Simukonda
Large carnivores are experiencing range contraction and population declines globally. Prey depletion due to illegal offtake is considered a major contributor, but the effects of prey depletion on large carnivore demography are rarely tested. We measured African lion density and tested the factors that affect survival using mark-recapture models fit to six years of data from known individuals in Kafue National Park (KNP), Zambia. KNP is affected by prey depletion, particularly for large herbivores that...

Data from: Salty, mild, and low plant biomass grasslands increase top-heaviness of invertebrate trophic pyramids

Ellen Welti, Lucie Kuczynski, Katharine Markse, Nathan Sanders, Kirsten De Beurs & Michael Kaspari
Aim Multiple hypotheses predict how gradients of nutrient availability, plant biomass, and temperature shape trophic pyramids. We aim to disentangle the simultaneous influence of those different factors and their indirect effects on trophic structure and individual trophic levels. Location United States Time period 2017 Major taxa studied Invertebrates Methods To examine differences in trophic pyramid shape and abundance within trophic levels across ecological gradients, we used a structural equation modeling approach to analyze 54 standardized...

Global diversification of Anelosimus spiders driven by long distance overwater dispersal and Neogene climate oscillations

Ingi Agnarsson, Yufa Luo, Seok Ping Goh, Daiqin Li, Marcelo Gonzaga, Adalberto Santos, Aiko Tanikawa, Hajime Yoshida, Charles Haddad, Laura May-Collado, Eva Turk, Matjaz Gregoric & Matjaz Kuntner
Vicariance and dispersal events, combined with intricate global climatic history, have left an imprint on the spatiotemporal distribution and diversity of many organisms. Anelosimus cobweb spiders (Theridiidae), are solitary-social organisms with a cosmopolitan distribution in temperate- to-tropical areas. Their evolutionary history and the discontinuous distribution of species richness suggest that 1) long distance overwater dispersal, and 2) climate change during the Neogene (23–2.6 Ma), may be major factors in explaining their distribution and diversification. Here...

Phylogeography of the widespread Caribbean spiny orb weaver Gasteracantha cancriformis

Lisa Chamberland, Fabian C. Salgado-Roa, Alma Basco, Amanda Crastz-Flores, Greta Binford & Ingi Agnarsson
Background. Modern molecular analyses are often inconsistent with pre-cladistic taxonomic hypotheses, frequently indicating higher richness than morphological taxonomy estimates. Among Caribbean spiders, widespread species are relatively few compared to the prevalence of single island endemics. The taxonomic hypothesis Gasteracantha cancriformis circumscribes a species with profuse variation in size, color, and body form. Distributed throughout the Neotropics, G. cancriformis is the only morphological species of Gasteracantha in the New World in this globally distributed genus. Methods....

Whole exome sequencing reveals a long-term decline in effective population size of red spruce (Picea rubens)

Thibaut Capblancq & Stephen Keller
Understanding the factors influencing the current distribution of genetic diversity across a species range is one of the main questions of evolutionary biology, especially given the increasing threat to biodiversity posed by climate change. Historical demographic processes such as population expansion or bottlenecks and decline are known to exert a predominant influence on past and current levels of genetic diversity, and revealing this demo-genetic history can have immediate conservation implications. We used a whole-exome capture...

Data from: Testing trade-offs and the dominance-impoverishment rule among ant communities

Julie K. Sheard, Annika S. Nelson, Jeppe Berggreen, Raphael Boulay, Robert R. Dunn & Nathan J. Sanders
Aim: Ant communities are believed to be structured by competition, with dominant species competitively excluding subordinates (the dominance-impoverishment rule). However, a high number of seemingly similar species coexist, possibly due to interspecific trade-offs. Here, we examine the evidence for the dominance-impoverishment rule across a broad latitudinal gradient and explore whether trade-offs explain coexistence within and among ant communities. Location: 40 sites in 19 countries across Europe, western North America and northern South America. Taxon: Formicidae....

Hybrid-electric passenger car energy utilization and emissions: Relationships for real-world driving conditions that account for road grade

Britt Holmén & Mitchell K. Robinson
Past research showed on-road emissions patterns unique to hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), indicating the need to account for them in emissions models as projected HEV sales increase over the coming decades. This work defines and characterizes a variable that quantifies HEV operating behavior to inform future development of new HEV emissions models based on current knowledge of conventional vehicle (CV) emissions patterns. Instantaneous hybridization factor (IHF), was quantified using on-road data collected from a 2010...

Registration Year

  • 2020
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Resource Types

  • Dataset
    18
  • Text
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Affiliations

  • University of Vermont
    19
  • Lewis & Clark College
    2
  • University of Oklahoma
    2
  • University of California, Davis
    2
  • University of Massachusetts Amherst
    1
  • Washington State University Vancouver
    1
  • Columbia University
    1
  • Université Paul-Valéry Montpellier
    1
  • University of Georgia
    1
  • Del Rosario University
    1